Chapter 2 of the book “Images of Organization” by Gareth Morgan focuses on today ‘s organisations which operate like machines. The operations in an organisation are predetermined and a high grade of preciseness is ever exhibited. Organizations today have to adhere to a set plan of activities where there are predetermined regulations like clip of reaching, interruption, going every bit good as the majority of work to be completed in a peculiar twenty-four hours. Operationss have therefore turned to be insistent and mechanical with operations running for 24 hours. The employees working in this organisation hence are required to work as parts of the whole machine ( organisation ) . They have to adhere to major and minor direction in their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours operations doing the processs predetermined and insistent. This manner of operation has both advantages and disadvantages. The strength of this attack can merely be experienced where ends are fixed and where there is a compliant and eager work force every bit good as a stable environment. Absence of such stipulations will ever take to dire effects in mechanising an organisation. In the former, it forms the footing for effectual operations ( Morgan, 1998 ) . However, the greatest challenge to utilizing this attack of running operations in an organisation is deficiency of flexibleness. This means that debut of new thoughts and ways of making things will ever be really hard and disputing.
The chapter besides provides a elaborate history of the beginning of mechanistic organisation usage of machines during the industrial revolution is highlighted. Notably, the writer traced the usage of mechanistic organisation in military during the times of Frederick the great of Prussia ( Morgan, 1998 ) . Subsequently, his thoughts were borrowed and applied in organisation and direction. This timeline saw the development of assorted theories seeking to integrate the thought including Weber ‘s bureaucratism theory. Development of this theory received a important encouragement from the parts from scientific direction and classical direction theories. The chapter so wraps up with a high spot of the strengths and restriction of a mechanistic organisation.
How does instruction and accomplishment degrees impact labour in a mechanised organisation?
In a mechanised organisation, there is a really high grade of specialisation. This means that every employee like an expert executed his responsibilities in his several country of work ( division of labour ) . In this respect, people will stand out in their countries of forte at least over clip. This renders instruction and accomplishment degrees rather inconsequential. This is because with clip, every employee in his country of operation will derive the experience needed to confront the challenges of that specific country. Again, the insistent nature the operations make the employee more familiar with what is expected of him at that place. Personally, I feel that instruction and accomplishments will merely be relevant during the entry phase. Afterwards, the degrees of the same will non impact on the quality of labour as the employee gets familiar with is expected of him. This underlies the functionality of machine which has a definite degree of production.
Is it inhumane to do people work an assembly line occupation?
Decidedly, it ‘s really inhumane to do people work in an assemble line. This is because besides the high force per unit area people are supposed to work under, they are frequently capable to physical penalty and maltreatment. This is because the supervisors expect one to work like a machine free of mistakes and really consistent. This is nevertheless a far call of the human nature where adult male is non perfect. Once in a piece defect may happen which will accordingly pull rebuttal. Again, people on the assembly line are denied a opportunity to populate while on responsibility. This is because they are reduced to mere machines expected to execute so many undertakings within a really short period of clip. Morgan states that ( 28 )
“Job rhythms are frequently really short, with workers sometimes being asked to finish work affecting seven or eight separate operations every 40 or 50 seconds, seven or eight hours a twenty-four hours, 50 hebdomads a year” .
In other cases, rigorous demands are put in topographic point like nothing defects which leaves workers striving to bask working. Workers emerge as the last precedence and can outdo be portrayed as machines holding human parts. Every employee along the assembly line can outdo be described as portion of a large machine which is expected to work at a changeless preset rate. This is negates the fact that these workers have a psyche. Personally, I find doing employees work in an assembly line really inhumane. Besides being overworked, they are denied a opportunity to bask what they do. Morgan asserts that bulk of the people finds the occupation estranging or drilling ( Morgan, 1998 ) . From another position, it ‘s utterly disregarding the fact that its work forces at work non machines.
Why are “sweat shops” bad? Do they non supply occupations in needy economic systems?
Despite supplying occupations in the destitute economic systems, “sweatshops” are bad because of the manner they provide these occupations. Supplying a occupation is one facet and supplying it in a humane mode is a different facet wholly. In this respect, “sweatshops” will ever be considered bad if they will non better some of the countries which attract unfavorable judgment. One of these countries is working hours where workers in these stores are forced to work for long hours sometimes even uninterrupted 12 hours in a twenty-four hours. Another major beginning of unfavorable judgment is pay degree. Despite working for long hours, workers in these stores are paid really low rewards. Their on the job conditions are a far call of what can be termed as ideal. They are besides known to seek inexpensive labour a craving which entices them to utilize kid labour which has ever tainted their image. Personally, I reckon that if the “sweatshops” can appreciate the dramatically altering status under neoliberal globalisation, their aim of supplying occupations in destitute economic systems will no longer be considered as ill-conceived. In this respect, aggressive steps should be taken to turn to the defective countries like working conditions, pay degree, working hours and child labour.
Discuss the pros and cons of “scientific management” .
Scientific direction was developed by Frederick Taylor and was a solid foundation on which work design was built in the first half of the twentieth century. Its rules still prevails today in assorted signifiers. This attack has its advantages and disadvantages in direction. One of its advantages is that dissensions and struggles are greatly reduces in the workplace. This is because the attack bestows a batch of control on the leaders. Employees have to make what they are instructed to make and if they feel that it ‘s non good to them, they are at autonomy to go forth. This facilitates a harmonious running of operations in the organisation. This attack besides ensures that there is choice production and minimum wastage due to the high degrees of monitoring. This finally reduced the production costs. Again, it increases productiveness every bit good as easing replacings of skilled workers with unskilled 1s. The other advantage is that every operation is pre-planned therefore extinguishing holds and clip wastage. This improves efficiency and effectivity which is a mark for all sort of organisations irrespective of their range. The effectivity will accordingly better an organisation ‘s profitableness. Scientific direction is besides really advantageous during enlisting because troughs will merely be traveling for the person who reflects the accomplishments needed to execute a specific undertaking.
However, some disadvantages besides accrue to this method of direction. One of them is that it dehumanizes employees by neglecting to acknowledge their societal life and their higher demands. They are reduced to mere slaves or machines. Again, their thoughts which at times may be really critical are ignored causing demotivation. It ‘s besides a major cause of a high turnover rate because it does non appreciate employee discrepancy. Employees are made to make the same thing repeatedly doing it deadening and estranging.
Give an illustration of a mechanised organisation that is non dehumanising.
I do non believe there is any mechanised organisation which is non dehumanising. This is because in any mechanised organisation there must be factors which contribute to dehumanisation. For illustration there must be repeat of same activities twenty-four hours in twenty-four hours out. There must besides be high grade of attachment to regulations every bit good as human rights issues. This can be good seen in the assortment of mechanised organisations like Ford, Mac Donald ‘s, Nike etc.
How have labour Torahs and brotherhoods responded to automation?
Labor brotherhoods are formed with the premier aim of heightening economic position of the employees every bit good as bettering their working conditions through bargaining jointly. The labour Torahs are besides drafted to guarantee that this terminal is good achieved. Automation goes against these aims because it ‘s a prima cause of unemployment because it reduces the figure of workers needed. This has ever set the brotherhoods and its Torahs against it. Despite the benefits which come with mechanization, brotherhoods find it as a major menace to employment chances. To the brotherhood, mechanization means that some employees will be laid away and that is why they are opposed to it.
Discuss mechanisation of the authorities, bureaucratism, and its inhibiting nature
A bureaucratic authorities can better be described as mechanised authorities. It is more or less similar to a mechanised organisation. As the universe today embraces democracy in assorted foreparts, a mechanised authorities will hold no room for democracy. This is because people will non be given any opportunity to aerate their thoughts. Excessive control by the leaders will decidedly engender abuse of power. This may make a perfect environment for high degree corruptness and abuse of province resources. For illustration, a president may be tempted to name his friends or give grants to their companies. This has a possible impact of engendering misgiving among his components. Again, the authorities will happen it manus to embracing alterations ( political and economic ) particularly in today ‘s disruptive universe.