Hydrogen Peroxide As Additive For Diesel Fuel Engineering Essay

Chapter 1

Introduction

HEAT ENGINES

A heat engine is a machine whose map is to bring forth mechanical energy and it does so by utilizing heat energy that is released when burning of fuel takes topographic point.

It is classified in two chief types on the footing “ where the burning takes topographic point ” .

1. External burning engines besides called the E.C engines:

Here, as name suggests, heat energy from fuel is extracted non inside the cylinder where mechanical motion is generated but outside at different apparatus from where it is carried along in any medium such as air, steam or gas and passed into apparatus where it can be used for bring forthing mechanical motion. Examples of this type of engine are hot air engines, steam turbines, steam engines and closed rhythm gas turbine. This sort of engine is largely used in electric power coevalss, ships, and driving engines.

2. Internal burning engines famously known as I.C engines:

It can be easy understood from the name that heat energy of fuel is extracted inside the cylinder from where mechanical motion originates.

I.C. Engine:

Here the mechanical energy is generated by force on nose, blades of turbines or Pistons. They are arranged in such a manner that when fuel is burned inside burning chamber the gases so produced as consequence of this action holding really high force per unit area and really high temperature creates a force that straight leads to the their motion.

From the development point of position we can state that J.J.E Lenior was the 1 who developed the first practically okay engine in 1860 and after that many different version were experimented largely holding power of around 4.5 kilowatts and efficiency near 5 % . otto-langen is given recognition for developing a four shot rhythm engine in 1876. The efficiency of engine was about about 11 % . It worked on flicker ignition system. In 1892 rudolf Diesel came with the compaction ignition engine which was more efficient than spark ignition engines.

1.2.1 Categorization of I.C. Engines.

Chapter 2

DIESEL ENGINE

2.1 Introduction

It is an internal burning heat engine where heat energy, produced by spraying fuel on compressed air holding a high temperature that is above the self-ignition temperature of fuel inside the cylinder, is converted in to mechanical work. Piston is arranged inside the cylinder that produces this mechanical work in response to burning and enlargement of air inside the cylinder.

Diesel engine works on both 2 shot and 4 shot rhythm. The chief difference between Diesel and gasoline engine is that Diesel works on the construct of changeless force per unit area heat add-on while gasoline works on the construct of changeless volume heat add-on. For an engine to work on changeless force per unit area heat add-on concept it needs fuel which has low self-ignition temperature. And the fact that merely air is compressed inside the cylinder is the ground for high compaction ratio of Diesel engine. They lie in the scope of 14-22.

2.2 Working

The four of import procedures of a Diesel engine are consumption of air, compaction of the air to temperature that is above the self-ignition temperature of fuel, burning inside the cylinder by spraying fuel on the compressed air and eventually allowing out the gases from cylinder after burning. These four procedures are repeated in rhythm to do the engine tally continuously. These four procedures can be done with two shots of Piston ( one revolution of crankshaft ) or four shots of the Piston ( two revolution of crankshaft ) .

Lashkar-e-taibas understand the four shot processes briefly because we are traveling to execute experiment on 4-stroke engine. During first stroke Piston moves down making infinite for air to come in. now when Piston moves upward it compress air within the cylinder. When Piston reaches at the top fuel is sprayed in the cylinder. This leads to burning and downward motion of Piston. After making bottom Piston moves upward taking the fumes gas from cylinder. And once more when Piston moves down fresh air is taken in cylinder and processes goes on. The up and down motion ( additive gesture ) of Piston is converted in to rotary gesture through crankshaft which is connected to the Piston. Please refer to the diagram below.

2.3 FUEL INJECTION

The injection of fuel to the cylinder is really critical procedures. If done with accurate timing and injection force per unit area it can take to enhanced public presentation of the engine. The injection force per unit area given to the fuel by injector is typically 7iˆ?106 to 7iˆ?107 dad. The accurate clip for fuel injection is when Piston is about to make the top of cylinder. When fuel is injected inside it is partially combusted as changeless volume and so as Piston moves down the staying portion is combusted as force per unit area changeless procedures.

2.4 PROS AND CONS OF DIESEL ENGINE

The Diesel engine is far more superior to the gasolene engine in footings of efficiency. They do non do noise and are really low on care demand when compared to gasoline engines. Its dependability and huskiness is more. As fuel leads to combustion due to low self-ignition temperature no flicker stoppers are required which leads to take down cost of keeping. Cost of fuel is lower, around 30 % to 40 % than gas engines. Another major advantage it gives over gasoline engine is by bring forthing low waste in fumes and chilling

Major disadvantages of Diesel engine are its high weight to horsepower ratio and trouble to do them get down when they are in cold conditions country.

Chapter 3

DIESEL FUEL AND ADDITIVES

Any liquid that can be utilized to run Diesel engine is called as Diesel fuel. Chiefly derived from following four beginnings.

Diesel fuel has been divided into three major groups by ASTM ( The American society for proving and stuffs ) , which depends on the assorted utilizations of Diesel engines. They are:

No. 1-D for frequent burden and velocity altering engines.

No. 2-D for engine with changeless velocity but high tonss.

No. three-Ds for low and medium velocity engines that operate under sustained tonss.

3.1 DESIRED QUALITIES OF DIESEL FUEL

Keeping in head the operation of Diesel engine that are few of import and critical qualities that a liquid must hold to function as Diesel fuel. They are:

3.2 STANDARD SPECIFICATION OF DIESEL FUEL

Depending upon purpose of usage, Diesel fuel is available in assorted classs. Diesel fuel is a mixture of different petroleum oil derived substances, all with their ain physical and chemical belongingss, such as paraffins, isoparaffins, napthenes, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Diesel fuel has to work in assorted sorts of engine types, holding difference in conditions of operation and rhythms of responsibility, and scope of engineering of fuel system, temperatures of engine and force per unit areas of fuel system. It must accommodate a broad scope of different climes. The balanced belongingss of each class of Diesel fuel are of import to give good public presentation over an highly assorted state of affairs.The most common in usage guidelines for Diesel fuel are given by ASTM International. ASTM specifications are created after taking into consideration, based on the broad scope of experience and amenability of Diesel fuels manufacturer, diesel engines maker and fuel systems ( and users of both ) , and other of import functionaries like province fuel quality regulators.

3.3 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF FUEL

3.4 DIFFERENT TYPES AND FUNCTIONS OF ADDITIVES

Diesel fuel belongingss are met and maintained by crude oil industry by taking the usage of figure of commercial Diesel fuel additives.

Fuel constituents and additives are different from each other. First Fuel Components are hydrocarbon categories like aromatic, iso-paraffin and naphthene. They fundamentally sum up the volume of the fuel. While Additives are added to fuel in at really less sums, by and large at the ppm degree, and is of no significance fuel volume. There are different types of additives that are used to better fuel in different ways and to get the better of different jobs. Following table give different types of additives and their maps.

Table demoing different types and map of additives.

Type of Additive

Function

Cetane figure humanitarian

Improves ignition quality by raising cetane figure, better starts, reduces white fume

Prurience humanitarians

Improves prurience, better injector & A ; pump lubrication

Antioxidants

Extend storage life, inhibit oxidization, cut down gum and precipitate formation

Stabilizers

Inhibit oxidization & A ; extend storage life

Metallic element deactivators

Deactivate Cu compounds in fuel, thereby advancing longer storage life

Pour point sedatives

Low temperature operability, better cold flow belongingss

Smoke suppressants

Promote more complete burning cut down exhaust fume

Rust preventers

Reduce formation of rust in fuel systems & A ; storage armored combat vehicles

De-emulsifiers

Used to increase the rate of H2O separation from the fuel

Chapter 4

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

Having really high oxidising capableness Hydrogen peroxide ( h2o2 ) is one of the strongest reactive oxidant that exists. Naturally, it is synthesized as the byproduct of oxidative metamorphosis in about all-living beings. It is chiefly used as a propellent in rocketry, as bleach, as an antiseptic and as an oxidant. It has IUPAC name of Di-hydrogen dioxide and is besides known as Dioxidane.

Molecular diagram of H peroxide

4.1 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF H2O2:

1. Hydrogen peroxide has a Molar mass of 34.0147 g/mol

2. It appears colorless in solution and otherwise has a really light bluish colour.

3. H2O2 has denseness of 1.463 g/cm3

4. Melting point of -.43 oc. and boiling point of 150.2 oc.

5. It has more viscousness than water.

6.It has calorific value of 2700 kJ/kg.

7. Has dipole minute of 2.13 debye and refractile index of 1.33 ( same as that of H2O )

8. It has specific heat capacity of 1.267 J/kg ( gas ) and of 2.619 J/kg ( liquid )

4.2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS AN ADDITIVE:

One of import reaction of H peroxide is its self-generated exothermal decomposition into O and H2O. The reactions is:

2 H2O2 i‚® 2 H2O + O2

It has: 1. Standard heat content of reaction of -98.4 kJ/mol

2. Gibbs free energy of -118.7 kJ/mol

3. Change of information of 71 J/mol

Because of this belongings of H peroxide it is used as propellent in projectile. Here high-test peroxide ( hydrogen peroxide with concentration of around 90 % ) is used. The H2O2 decomposes into steam and O.

Harmonizing to me same construct can be applied to diesel engine as good. Where adding little sum of H peroxide to the Diesel fuel can better ignition of Diesel fuel inside burning chamber by supplying extra O and energy when it decomposes. And steam therefore produced will easy travel out along the fumes gases.

Chapter 5

EXPERIMENT PERFORMED

5.1 Aim:

To carry on experiment utilizing 4 shot, 2 cylinder Diesel engine to analyze the effects of add-on of H peroxide to the Diesel fuel. And compare the public presentation of three different sample fuel where the first 1 is 100 % Diesel, 2nd is 95 % Diesel + 5 % H peroxide and 3rd is 90 % Diesel + 10 % H peroxide.

5.2 Purposes:

To cipher following parametric quantities for three fuel samples:

Brake power ( BP ) .

Brake average effectual force per unit area ( Pbm )

Fuel consumed ( Qf )

Heat energy produced by fuel ( Hf )

Brake specific fuel ingestion ( BSFC )

Brake thermic efficiency ( i??bt )

Air fuel ratio ( A/F )

5.3 Experimental Apparatus:

Diesel engine has two cylinders and is four shot, water-cooled engine. Dynamometer that is a rope brake type has been provided with loading detectors. Different rota-meters has been arranged to cipher flow of H2O to calorimeter of fumes gas and to the engine jacket. Setup is equipped with temperature detectors, air armored combat vehicle and fuel armored combat vehicle for supply.

Software has been programmed to roll up informations. It provides experiment performing artist to log-in informations and shop and publish them. This package allows tabular matter and comparing of informations collected.

Now lets discuss about the ergometer mentioned above. It has brake membranophones, burden cell, and agreement of chilling down H2O. It is so conjugate with the shat of the engine that burden can be changed utilizing rotary motion of wheel that increases the tenseness of the membranophone.

Another of import portion of the apparatus is installation provided to mensurate the heat energy gone along with exhaust gases. Calorific mensurating metre is equipped with jacket of the chilling H2O and shell that is in cardinal with baffles. Water is made to flux against in indirect contact with gas that comes from fumes and there is a rota-meter and valve to command the rate of flow of this H2O. So utilizing heat can be measured that is traveling out as a waste with gases that comes from fumes.

There besides is a proviso made for acquiring p-v and p-i?‘ graphs. These plants based on the detectors. Detectors that are stored in burning chamber and aligned along the shaft that gives the end product gesture that has been produced by engine. These detectors provide the package the information of different force per unit area and angle of grouch. And so we straight get graphs on the computing machine. But unhappily these detectors have been damaged and can non be used. So we are non able to acquire these graphs which are indispensable portion of public presentation analysis.

5.4 Experimental Procedure:

First of all three different samples of fuels are made. Sample 1 is pure Diesel. Sample 2 is 5 % H peroxide and 95 % Diesel. Sample 3 is 10 % H peroxide and 90 % Diesel.

All the pre-checks of the engine are conducted such as SAE 20w40 oil is filled in the oil sump up to needed degree utilizing a stick that is made specially for this intent, informations overseas telegram is linking unit of interfering with the computing machine, flow of H2O is set consequently through rota-meters.

Filling of the fuel sample in the fuel armored combat vehicle.

Get downing engine with the aid of lever that is for uncompressing. Raising this lever while turning flywheel at high velocity taking usage of handle leads to smooth get downing of engine. Run the engine for like say 2 min before any thing to be done because it needs clip to stabilisation.

Now lading of the Diesel engine is done with aid of ergometer. Here we will seek and put four different tonss for a sample of fuel. First zero kilogram so eight kilograms after that 16 kilogram and eventually 24 kilogram.

Readings are noted down or you may state logged in the computing machine for every burden and saved.

After completion of the experiment for fuel 1 same process is followed for other two samples.

After the readings and information of all samples are collected stop the engine merely after cut downing burden on engine.

Finally near the supply of H2O that is used for chilling and halt the fuel supply.

5.5 IMPORTANT SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGINE:

14 Equus caballus power engine

Diameter of dullard is 87.5 millimeter

Length of shot is 110 millimeter

Length of arm playing on ergometer is 0.165m

Density of air is taken as 1.21 kg/m3

Gravitational acceleration is 9.81 m/s2

Surface country of Piston is 6.01*10-3 M2

Volume swept by cylinder per second is.0165 m3/sec

5.6 FORMULAE USED:

Please note expression have been written after ciphering all changeless and known values as specific numerical invariable so as to acquire clear image of what and how different variables affect the values of public presentation indexs. And besides that following set of expression apply for sample 1 merely and likewise expression for sample 2 and 3 were calculated individually.

Brake-power ( in kilowatt ) :

m is mass of burden moving on ergometer ( kilogram )

N is revolution per minute of shaft

Break average effectual force per unit area ( in N/m2 ) :

Fuel consumed by engine ( in kg/s ) :

Ten is volume of fuel consumed ( in milliliter )

T is clip taken to devour X milliliter of fuel ( in seconds )

Air fuel ratio:

Qa is flow rate of air consumption by engine ( in m3/s )

Brake specific fuel ingestion ( in kg/kw-s ) :

Heat supplied by fuel ( in kilowatt ) :

Brake thermic efficiency ( in % ) :

Volumetric efficiency ( in % ) :

5.7 OBSERVATIONS, CALCULATIONS AND GRAPHS:

Sample 1:

Diesel- 100 %

Calorific value – 45300 kJ/kg

Density- 804 kg/m^3

Observation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Load on ergometer

.48

7.5

15.7

24.3

Fuel consumed

50

50

50

50

Time for ingestion

147.25

111.61

85.98

76.34

Air rate

.0162

.0157

.0157

.0154

Calculation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Brake power, kilowatt

.1220078

1.90637

3.99067

6.176646

Brake average effectual force per unit area, kN/m2

7.3919

115.499

241.778

374.218

Fuel flow rate, kg/s * 10-4

2.7301

3.6018

4.6755

5.2659

Air fuel ratio

71.8

52.7

40.6

35.3

Brake specific fuel ingestion, kg/kw-s * 10-4

22.376

1.889

1.117

.8525

Heat supplied by fuel, kilowatt

12.367

16.316

21.180

23.854

Brake thermic efficiency

.98

11.68

18.84

25.89

Volumetric efficiency

98.18

95.15

95.15

93.33

Graph:

Sample 2:

Diesel- 95 % & A ; Hydrogen peroxide- 5 %

Calorific value -43170 kJ/kg

Density – 836.95 kg/m^3

Observation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Load on ergometer

.41

8.1

15.6

23.5

Fuel consumed

50

50

50

50

Time for ingestion

158.62

114.34

96.79

83.67

Air rate

.0162

.0157

.0156

.0155

Calculation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Brake power, kilowatt

.10421

2.0588

3.9652

5.9733

Brake average effectual force per unit area, kN/m2

6.313

124.739

240.238

361.898

Fuel flow rate, kg/s * 10-4

2.635

3.655

4.318

4.9958

Air fuel ratio

74.3

51.96

43.70

37.54

Brake specific fuel ingestion, kg/kw-s * 10-4

25.28

1.77

1.08

.836

Heat supplied by fuel, kilowatt

11.37

15.78

18.64

21.56

Brake thermic efficiency

.916

13.04

21.26

27.69

Volumetric efficiency

98.18

95.15

94.54

93.93

Graph:

Sample 3:

Diesel – 90 % & A ; Hydrogen peroxide- 10 %

Calorific value – 41040 kJ/kg

Density – 869.9 kg/m^3

Observation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Load on ergometer

.53

7.8

16.2

23.9

Fuel consumed

50

50

50

50

Time for ingestion

160.34

115.72

95.26

86.59

Air rate

.0162

.0158

.0156

.0155

Calculation tabular array:

No.

1

2

3

4

RPM, N

1498

1498

1498

1498

Brake power, kilowatt

.134

1.98

4.117

6.074

Brake average effectual force per unit area, kN/m2

8.16

120.119

249.478

368.058

Fuel flow rate, kg/s * 10-4

2.71

3.75

4.56

5.023

Air fuel ratio

72.2

50.85

41.33

37.33

Brake specific fuel ingestion, kg/kw-s * 10-4

20.13

1.89

1.19

.826

Heat supplied by fuel, kilowatt

11.13

15.42

18.740

20.61

Brake thermic efficiency

1.20

12.85

21.97

29.46

Volumetric efficiency

98.18

95.75

94.54

93.93

Graph:

5.8 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISION OF PERFORMANCE:

Graph: LOAD VS BRAKE POWER

From above graph we can state that all the 3 samples of fuel are able to give same brake power end product. This helps us to corroborate that 2 experimental fuel are able to supply same end product as that provided by original fuel.

Graph: LOAD VS BSFC

From the graph we can detect that sample 2 has higher BSFC so other 2 samples at low tonss. But as the burden is increased sample 2 has somewhat lower BSFC than other two samples. While sample 3 gives you lower BSFC at low tonss and same BSFC as the sample 1 at higher tons.

Graph: LOAD VS BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

From graph above, it is clearly seeable that sample 2 and sample 3 provides higher efficiency than the original sample 1. And it is besides of import to observe that there is non much huge difference between efficiency of sample 1 and sample 2

Chapter 6

Decision

The experiment was performed on the 4-stroke, perpendicular, 2-cylinder Diesel engine. It was maintained at changeless revolutions per minute of 1498 and 50 milliliter of fuel was consumed at each burden. Four burden conditions were decided to execute experiment on 3 samples of fuel maintaining in head the capableness of engine. The 4 conditions were 0, 8, 16, and 24 kilogram.

The positives that we can take from the experiment performed are that we are able to bring forth same end product consequence in footings of end product power at end product shaft though the heating value of sample fuel 2 and 3 are lower than that of sample 1. This is the ground we are able to demo addition in brake thermic efficiency obtained by sample fuel 2 and 3 than that obtained by sample 1. But the most of import decision that I think from the experiment is that there is little lessening in BSFC of sample fuel 2 at high burden. Due to restriction of experimental conditions we can non look into the consequence for burden above 25 kilogram. I believe that this consequence has originated from the fact that H peroxide provides that extra O and energy when it decomposes exothermically to give steam and O.

The thing that hampers the proposition of H peroxide as an additive for Diesel fuel is its storage job. A research is needed on the feasibleness of hive awaying H peroxide individually than the Diesel in engine and spraying it through different injection system than that of Diesel because there could be possibility when H peroxide in the fuel armored combat vehicle it may break up itself without assistance of compaction temperature in burning chamber in long-run storage. The cost factor besides needed to be taken into history. The other few things that are sort of inconclusive and needs farther research on them are how does steam produced by decomposition reaction affects the engine on long tally and what sum of H peroxide is optimal for the engine.

Chapter 7