Here were two sorts of patriotism in 19th Century Europe. First one was the “ desire of capable peoples for independency. It led to a series of national battles for independency among the Balkan peoples ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Besides, other powers got involved and caused much instability. Second one was the “ desire of independent states for laterality and prestigiousness ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . In 1871, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, France and Britain were the great powers in Europe and they had different patriotism. Each power had national involvements which conflicted with those of other powers. In this essay, I will first speak about patriotism in each power and I will utilize some incidents to explicate how patriotism led to the First World War ( WWI ) .
Russian patriotism chiefly aimed at acquiring warm H2O port in the Balkans, such every bit Constantinople as she is a ‘land-locked ‘ province and transporting out Pan Slavism as two-thirds of her people were Slavs. Russia was the largest state which had the most population in Europe. However, her territorial aspirations clashed with the involvement of Austria-Hungary and Britain as Austria-Hungary was afraid of Pan-Slavism taking by Russia would distribute to her imperium and caused instability while British involvement in the Mediterranean Sea would be threatened. Furthermore, “ Russia could claim to be the defender of her brother races in her enlargement as most of the Balkan people were of the Slav race ” ( Chung, 2000 ) .
Austria-Hungary ‘s patriotism aimed at stamp downing the nationalist motion both inside and outside as she was a transnational state which included a batch of nationalities, such as, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Rumanians and Poles. All these nationalities resented their loss of political freedom as they were ruled by the Austrians who were German racially and the Hungarians. “ The Centre of the nationalist motions in the Balkans was Serbia ” ( Chung, 2000 ) as Serbia wanted to unify with the Serbs in Austria-Hungary through Greater Serbia Movement. As a consequence, “ Serbia became the first enemy of Austria-Hungary from 1871 to 1914 ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Furthermore, “ Austria-Hungary was hostile towards Russia as she ever backed up Serbia in any Austro-Serbian struggles ” ( Chung, 2000 ) .
German patriotism aimed at transporting out Pan Germanism. “ Germany was united in 1871 as a consequence of the Franco-Prussian War. She became the strongest economic and military power in Europe ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . German foreign policy from 1871 to 1890 wanted to keep position quo and persevered peace for internal consolidation by “ organizing a series of peaceable confederations with other powers ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . However, after 1890, German foreign policy was unfriendly and provocative when William II became the emperor as he carried out “ Welt-politik ” which meant World Politics by constructing up German influence in every portion of the universe. Thus, Germany came into serious struggles with all other European powers from 1890 to 1914.
Gallic patriotism aimed at retrieving Alsace and Lorraine and counterbalancing her glorification as she was defeated by Germany in 1871 and signed the Treaty of Frankfurt. Besides, she had to pay a immense insurance. Thus, France wanted to take retaliation on Germany so as to retrieve Alsace and Lorraine. “ In order to retrieve her national prestigiousness, France acquired oversea settlements, such as Morocco and Tunis, nevertheless, she clashed involvements of other great powers ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . For illustration, France argued with Germany in Moroccan Crises in 1905 and 1911.
British patriotism aimed at continuing her abroad imperium and her abroad trade by keeping a big naval forces as “ Britain possessed the largest abroad imperium and the largest naval forces in the universe ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Before 1890, “ her main enemies were France and Russia ” ( Chung, 2000 ) since the colonial involvements of France frequently clashed with those of Britain, such as in Africa. “ Russia ‘s involvement in the Balkan country besides alarmed Britain, as British naval involvements in the Mediterranean Sea would be threatened ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . “ After 1890, as Germany went on increasing her naval strength and threatened British naval domination and the British abroad involvements, she became Britain ‘s main enemy ” ( Chung, 2000 ) .
As different states had different patriotism which were normally opposing each other as mentioned above, it is easy for them came into struggles which eventually led to WWI. The 1877 Russo-Turkish War shows Russia ‘s patriotism. Turkey was defeated and signed the Treaty of San Stefano. However, “ both Britain and Austria-Hungary objected to the footings particularly the creative activity of a Russian-controlled Bulgaria ” ( Chung, 2000 ) as this clashed the patriotism of Britain and Austria-Hungary. “ Britain feared that Bulgaria would be a stepping rock for Russia to spread out in the Balkans. Austria feared the terminal of the Turkish Empire and the rebellions of the Slavs in the Balkans as an illustration for the Slavs in the Austrian Empire to follow ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Therefore, the Congress of Berlin in 1878 was carried out to revise the pact ‘s footings. “ Russia had received a mortifying diplomatic licking. The much reduced Bulgaria was a smack in the face for Pan-Slav sentiment ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . The Congress preserved peace in Europe, but “ the peace achieved was non a enduring one. Serbia had long been interested in taking Bosnia and Herzegovina so as to get an mercantile establishment to the sea ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . However, Austria was given the disposal of Bosnia-Herzegovina. “ It was over Bosnia that crises were provoked in 1908 and 1914 ” ( Chung, 2000 ) , precipitating the First World War. In the Bosnian Crisis, the relationship between Serbia and Austria-Hungary became worse as Austria-Hungary was supported by Germany and annexed into Bosnia and Herzegovina. Furthermore, the relationship between Russia and Germany besides worsen as Russia could non assist Serbia. Besides, “ the Congress disappointed the hopes of the Balkan provinces for they were eager to dismember the Ottoman Empire ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . For illustration, the Rumanians had lost southern Bessarabia to Russia and the Bulgars had expected a larger province. In short, “ the Congress sowed the seeds of future Balkan wars which occurred in 1912 and 1913 ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Balkan wars happened as the patriotism of the Balkan provinces, such as Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, reached a high point and wanted to subvert Turkey. “ The most of import consequence of the wars was the intensifying of bad dealingss between Austria and Serbia ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . “ Serbia ‘s program for an mercantile establishment to the sea was blocked by Albania which was created on the insisting of Austria ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . However, Serbia became strong after the wars as she gained Macedonia. “ This made Austria and Germany worried and Austria was determined to oppress Serbia before she became excessively powerful ” ( Chung, 2000 ) . Therefore, when the Sarajevo Assassination happened, Austria declared war on Serbia. As a consequence, Russia supported Serbia by mobilising her ground forces. Other great powers, like Germany, France and Britain besides joined the war. Finally, WWI happened. Furthermore, we can see Gallic patriotism clashed with German patriotism in the first and 2nd Moroccan crises in 1905 and 1911 severally. From this, we can see how different states ‘ patriotism clashed with each other and led to WWI.
To reason, patriotism of different states led to the WWI as it breeds common misgiving and Fosters aggressive foreign policy.
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