History Of Malay Language History Essay

The first stage is Old Malay ( 682-1500 C.E. ) that comprised extended adoptions from Sanskrit. The letterings from the late seventh century located in the Palembang part depicting Srivijaya and its emperor, are the earliest digesting grounds of the Malay linguistic communication. Footings for geographical constructs are borrowed from Sanskrit and the book is Indian, but the footings for authorization and political dealingss are Old Malay.

Additional cognition about how the mandala/datu relationship likely performed comes from Srivijaya ‘s letterings. These letterings are deserving depicting them briefly. They begin to attest in the late seventh C.E, utilizing Sanskrit linguistic communication and Old Malay, written in a book arising from south India. They are the oldest testament of a linguistic communication which is recognisably indistinguishable to modern Malay. To day of the month, they have been revealed in the Palembang part, near to the island of Bangka, and at locations much further off, including upper ranges of rivers in Sumatra. Inscriptions and artifacts tied with Srivijaya, dated from between the 10th and 12th centuries have been located in west Java, islands in the Straits of Melaka and on the Malay Peninsula, bespeaking a broad domain of domination. The letterings uncovered near Palembang can be divided into three descriptions: a mantra or supplication inquiring for success in an enterprise, presentment of royal triumphs and curses of devotedness seemingly imposed to heads who were associated with Srivijaya. It is from the latter two types of lettering that we can derive some thought of the system of trade and exchange on which Srivijaya ‘s standing as a port, and its system of disposal depended.

The Srivijayan/Old Malay letterings uncover bold local civilization which expressed itself in footings familiar to outlander visitants while keeping its ain individuality. The Old Malay of the Srivijayan letterings is formal in manner and tone and restricted to official royal concern yet it is recognisably related to standard modern Malay. If we compare Chaucer ‘s English with modern English and Old Malay with modern Malay, the latter is recognizably closer than the former. Inscriptions utilizing Old Malay have been found beyond Sumatra-seven in Java and one in the southern Philippines- and day of the month from between the 8th and the early tenth centuries. The being of these letterings outside sou’-east Sumatra reminds us besides that merchandising webs were extended and that points along the web were in communicating with each other.

In the western and southern parts of the Peninsula, nevertheless, the archeological grounds hints contact with Austronesian-based civilizations. The linguistic communications of some Orang Asli groups in the South of the Peninsula ( those which follow the Malayic sociocultural form ) endorse this theory because they show grounds of extended contact with Austronesian talkers.

It was merely with the acceptance of Islam and the development of the already bing Malay civilisation into one that can be called a Malay-Muslim civilisation that the imperiums centred on the Malay Peninsula and Brunei grew to a tallness which brought them celebrity to the E and West as great commercial hubs and Centres of the finest in civilization. While the Malays had their ain autochthonal composing systems, these were at best fundamental and were chiefly the tools of priest-doctors ; it was the Indians who introduced a ‘proper ‘ system of codifications to compose their linguistic communication, the Pallava book from South India. However, cognition and acquisition of the book was confined to a smattering of people near to the swayers who were the ‘gurus ‘ to the swayers, while the swayers may hold on a regular basis been illiterate, as were all their other topics. Literacy came to the Malays, irrespective of the societal category they belonged to, with the coming of Islam and the transition of the Malays to Islam in the 14th century.

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

Mention: 2. “ The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia ” volume one ( from early times to c.1800 )

The 2nd stage is Early Modern Malay ( 1500-ca. 1850 ) that witnessed the indigenization of Arabic loan words, alterations in the affix system, and a instead broad word order. The Islam reaching complements the disclosure on the land floor and the following point of Malaysia ‘s history, the period of the celebrated fifteenth century land of Melaka, begins upstairs on the first floor of the edifice.

To be Muslims they had to read the Qur’an in the Arabic book, although they did non understand the significance of the text. Acknowledging the matching of symbols and sounds

in Arabic led them to following and accommodating the Arabic authorship system for their linguistic communication. This was the beginning of the great Malay literary tradition, which can be seen in the production of a big figure of literary love affairs and the recording of the unwritten traditions of the pre-Islamic epoch in Arabic book ( which for the intent of indigenization has been termed the ‘Jawi ‘ book ) . Literacy through Islam besides made it possible for the Malays to codify their Torahs and legislative acts in the government of the land, which to all purposes and intents from that clip was based on the Torahs of Islam.

By the clip the first Europeans ( the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch and the British ) visited the Malay Archipelago in the 16th century, the Malay imperiums were already well-established civil orders with their ain systems of authorities. The Malay linguistic communication, while being the tongue franca in the ports in the archipelago, was besides the linguistic communication of diplomatic negotiations in the part, and was the linguistic communication used by the European powers in their communicating with swayers in the part. Letterss between the royal Malay tribunals and the tribunals of St. James, Paris, and Portugal were written in Malay and at this clip Malay epistolatory became developed into a all right art, non merely in the manner of composing a text but besides in penmanship and the art signifier which was a necessary feature of the coil or the cusp that was sent.

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

Mention: 3. “ Southeasterly Asia: Peoples, Land and Economy ”

Late Modern Malay ( ca. 1850-1957 ) featured significant loan words from Dutch and English, and subject- verb-object as the preferable word order. The centuries of colonial regulation brought many Portuguese, Dutch, and English words into Malay, such as buku ( book ) , pensel ( pencil ) , siling ( ceiling ) , and sekolah ( school ) . English words of Malay origin include gingham, sarong, bamboo, Calamus rotang, silk cotton, cockatoo, Paddy, and amuck. Orangutan is a combination of the Malay words Pongo pygmaeus ( individual ) and hutan ( forest ) . Compound, in the significance “ enclosed country, ” comes from the Malay campong, which means “ small town. ”

Although the Lusitanian came to govern in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century, there was no effort to learn their several linguistic communications to the public. The British who foremost arrived in the signifier of the East India Company in 1786 stayed longer than the Portuguese, and possibly on the footing of their political and commercial pragmatism established schools utilizing Malay as medium of direction every bit good as schools utilizing merely English. This development non merely introduced English as a linguistic communication through which the Malays and all other groups could achieve literacy and a formal instruction, it besides brought the usage of the Roman book as an add-on to Jawi in the authorship of Malay. Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

The first Malay school of a secular nature was established by the colonial authorities as a subdivision of the English-medium school, Penang Free School, in 1816, in Penang, the topographic point where the British first set pes on Malay dirt. Other Malay schools that followed were largely built in the rural countries to accommodate the location of the greater population of the Malays. These schools were meant to learn the ‘three Rs ‘ ( Reading, Writing, and ‘Rithmetic ) , basic agricultural accomplishment, basketry, and weaving to the kids of the provincials so that they could go good husbandmans, fishermen, and craftsmen. With the intents mentioned above, instruction in the Malay schools ne’er proceeded beyond Standard VI of primary school. Similar schools were set up in Singapore and in Borneo in Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak, where the British besides had commercial involvements. Even at the primary degree instructors needed to be trained and the colonial authorities started teacher developing programmes in 1878, but it was merely in 1922 that a male instructors ‘ preparation college was established, the Sultan Idris Training College ( SITC ) in Tanjong Malim, Perak, where male childs who had undergone six-year primary instruction were sent to be trained as instructors for the Malay schools. Boys with a similar calling orientation were besides brought in from Singapore and the Borneo districts to be trained at the college. A parallel college for adult females, the Malay Women Teachers ‘ Training College, was set up in 1935, in tandem with the addition in the population of misss go toing Malay schools. The college became an of import baby’s room in the cultivation of a Malay cultural individuality which glued together the Malays of the Peninsula, Singapore, Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak. Among those who fought for the Malayan ( 1957 ) , and so Malaysian ( 1963 ) , independency were alumnuss of the SITC. Regardless of which British settlement they came from, the college gave them an chance to see the Malays in a broader position, beyond the boundary lines of their single provinces, and stretching every bit far as Indonesia. The thought of unifying the whole, widespread Malay people was already being nurtured, with the relevant individuality factors being a bundle consisting of ethnicity ( Malay descent ) , faith ( Islam ) , and linguistic communication ( the Malay linguistic communication ) . Mention: 1. “ The Languages of East and Southeast Asia ”

The thought of supplying instruction in English was to develop Malayans to work in the authorities service, largely as clerks and general decision makers. With proficiency in English they were able to construe authorities policies to the people. More and more English schools were built following the first 1 in Penang, both by the authorities every bit good as by Christian missionaries. At the terminal of the 5th twelvemonth of their secondary schooling, pupils had to sit for a standard set of scrutinies designed and assessed by the Cambridge organic structure known as the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. A good base on balls in the Senior Cambridge Examinations ( as it was known ) would let pupils to come in a biennial pre-university programme, at the terminal of which they had to sit for the Higher Cambridge Examinations which would take them to third instruction in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth states. Third instruction in Malaya and Singapore merely saw its beginning in 1948 with the constitution of the King Edward VII College of Medicine and Dentistry in Singapore, a university college of the University of London. It was merely in 1952 that this college, together with other modules added to it, became a full university, known as the University of Malaya. The university provided another topographic point, and this one closer to place, for pupils who had had the privilege of go toing the English schools to prosecute a higher instruction. In 1956 a 2nd subdivision of this university was built in Kuala Lumpur, and in 1962 the two subdivisions separated, the one in Kuala Lumpur staying as the University of Malaya while that in Singapore became known as the National University of Singapore.

In an attempt to increase the figure of Malay kids in the English schools, bright Malay kids were later taken from Malay schools at the terminal of Primary IV to come in a programme known as the Particular Malay Class in the English schools. This was a biennial programme in which the pupils were immersed in a course of study which was wholly run in English. At the terminal of the two old ages they were promoted to Form I of the secondary school where for the first clip in their life they saw themselves sitting with kids of other racial groups. The duty that the British felt towards the ‘sons of the dirt ‘ ( i.e. the autochthonal Malays ) motivated the British to set up a boarding school in 1925 based on Eton in England and intended for the boies of the Sultans, the Malay blue bloods and captains. This was the Malay College Kuala Kangsar ( MCKK ) which produced some of the earliest English-educated Malay elite, who were so channelled to universities in the United Kingdom, including Oxford and Cambridge. In 1948, a parallel school was built for the misss in Kuala Lumpur, known as the Malay Girls ‘ College. It should be added that all these educational ‘innovations ‘ in the life of the Malays were localized in the Malay Peninsula, but served those who were in Singapore and the British districts in Borneo including Brunei. Just as common people in Brunei were given the chance to fall in the SITC in Tanjong Malim, so members of the Brunei royalty were given topographic points in the MCKK and in the other well-placed English schools. This made it possible for the British colonial authorities to put up a individual nucleus course of study for all the districts, with way from Kuala Lumpur. The same was besides true for the preparation of office decision makers, with a common system set up by the cardinal authorities in Kuala Lumpur.

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

Mention: 1. “ The Languages of East and Southeast Asia ”

The stage of Contemporary Modern Malay ( post-1957 ) saw the lift of Malay to national linguistic communication position in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei, and the constitution of establishments and agencies-such as Indonesia ‘s Balai Pustaka dan Lembaga Bahasa dan Kebudayaan and Malaysia ‘s Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka ( DBP ; Institute of Language and Literature ) -for developing the linguistic communication and literature. A common writing system and nomenclature was developed in 1972. Bahasa Melayu is widely used in the media in contemporary Malaysia.

Literacy became a right for every Muslim Malay and was non confined to the little elite which held the reins of power in the land. The manner it spread was in the signifier of informal instruction of faith in the places of captains, mosques, and village spiritual schools which were known as pondok. These schools were in private funded by villagers through the payment of tithes and little contributions, and instructors were paid from the tithes. The pondok schools were the earliest establishment to supply formal instruction to the Malays, and they continued to work as an educational establishment good into the 2nd half of the 20th century when their topographic point was taken over by authorities schools which included spiritual surveies and Arabic in their course of study.

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

The Malay authorship system

The traditional authorship system for Malay is known as Jawi. It is based on Arabic letters introduced along with Islam in the 14th century, the clip when the great Malay imperium centred on Malacca converted to Islam. As the sacred linguistic communication of the Qur’an, and the linguistic communication of the Muslim heartland of the Middle East, Arabic enjoyed enormous prestigiousness for centuries-and still does. The Jawi system ( so-named after the island of Java ) is designed to be written with a coppice, and so the letters are smooth-flowing, and most have somewhat different signifiers depending on their place in words. Versions of the Jawi book were the chief vehicle for composing Malay until good after the European colonisation. The Dutch introduced a Romanization into the part which is now Indonesia, and the British introduced a somewhat different system into what is now Malaysia, but the existent dominance of Roman letters ( and the diminution of Jawi ) did non take topographic point until good into the 20th century. There is still one Malayan newspaper published in Jawi, and larning the rudimentss of Jawi is still portion of the Malayan school course of study. Until1972, the Romanizations used in Indonesia and Malaysia differed from one another in assorted ways, a consequence of differences between the Dutch and British systems. In that twelvemonth, both states modified their systems to make a common writing system.

Mention: 1. “ The Languages of East and Southeast Asia ”

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”

Arrival of the Chinese and the Indians: A Change in the Malayan Demography

Although there were Chinese and Indians who came to settle in the Malay Peninsula from the 14th century onwards, these were comparatively undistinguished in figure. It was merely towards the terminal of the 19th century that immigrants from China and India arrived in big Numberss attracted by the growing of the Sn mines and the gum elastic plantations, doing the Malay Peninsula, or Malaya as it was besides known ( which so included Singapore ) , to undergo a changing human ecology, in which the three chief races of Malay, Chinese, and Indian found themselves concentrated in different geographical niches: the Malays in the rural countries taking attention of their rice farms and traditional fruit lands, the Chinese in the Sn mine countries turning themselves into affluent mineworkers and in the urban Centres where they dominated as merchandiser bargainers, and the Indians chiefly in the gum elastic estates and along the railroad routes where they worked as laborers. Each community carried on with its ain socio-economic chases, and practised their ain cultural civilizations, communicated in their ain linguistic communications, and construct their ain schools utilizing their ain linguistic communications, without much intervention from the others. The prolongation of such separate individualities was moreover endorsed and encouraged by the British swayers of Malaya through a deliberate policy of divide and regulation. Quite by and large, while the Malayans are homogenous in footings of their individuality factors, the same can non be said flatly of the Chinese and Indians present in Malaya/Malaysia. Though the Chinese may be homogenous in one sense, in footings of ethnically belonging to the people normally known as ‘Chinese ‘ , the Chinese ‘language ‘ subsumes a broad scope of idioms which are non reciprocally apprehensible and which separate talkers into different linguistic communication communities. The Chinese are besides non homogenous in footings of spiritual attachment, as while most Chinese may be Buddhists and Taoists, there are besides those who are Christians and Muslims. As for those referred to loosely as the ‘Indians ‘ , this label links up many subgroups which differ from one another non merely in footings of lingual association but besides in footings of civilization and faith. Although the Malayan Indians originate from all over the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka, it is the southern Indians which predominate in the Indian population in Malaysia. The Malayan Indian Congress which has been a spouse to the Malay political party, the United Malays National Organization ( UMNO ) , and the Chinese political party the Malaysian Chinese Association, in governing Malaya from the clip of independency from the British in 1957, is overpoweringly Tamil in footings of its rank.

Mention: 3. “ Southeasterly Asia: Peoples, Land and Economy ”

Mention: 1. “ The Languages of East and Southeast Asia ”

Racial Riots, the Sedition Act, and Renaming the National Language

While the Malay population in the sixtiess seemed to believe in and be endeavoring towards the creative activity of a national individuality facilitated by a common national linguistic communication, such a committedness was non evidently shared by the non-Malays. In arguments over national policies whether among politicians or faculty members, the particular rights and privileges of the Malays every bit good as the usage of the national linguistic communication were on a regular basis brought up as subjects of treatment and ailment, and these two subjects were perennially major castanetss of contention among non-Malays. On the other manus, the Malays themselves appeared really heartsick over their socio-economic lower status when compared to the non-Malays, particularly the Chinese. Mistrust towards one another led to struggles in the market topographic points and in May 1969 this gave rise to the most serious of all time racial struggle in the state ‘s history, get downing on 13 May, and enduring for over a hebdomad. The communal force which is now referred to as the May 13 Incident led to the suspension of Parliament and for 21 months Malaysia was ruled by a commission known as the National Operations Council ( NOC ) chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak Hussain. It was during the regulation of the NOC that the of import New Economic Policy was formulated with a two-pronged aim: to eliminate poorness and to reconstitute society in the state. The Sedition Act was besides amended in a important manner to do it illegal to knock constitutional clauses associating to Malay particular rights, the national linguistic communication, the Sultanate, and the citizenship rights of the non-Malay communities. It was to boot during the disposal of the NOC that the terminology of the national linguistic communication was changed to bahasa Malaysia ( linguistic communication of Malaysia ) from Indonesian Melayu ( linguistic communication of the Malays ) . The thought behind such a alteration was to give the linguistic communication a more ‘national spirit ‘ , as it had been argued by dissidents that the national linguistic communication was truly merely the linguistic communication of the Malays, non of the Malaysians in general. In connexion with this name alteration, there was the local case in point of Indonesia which had taken ( a signifier of ) Malay and renamed it bahasa Indonesia ( linguistic communication of Indonesia ) , thereby seemingly winning greater credence for it as the national linguistic communication of Indonesia. By renaming the national linguistic communication in Malaysia it was hoped that parties hitherto averse to accepting bahasa Melayu as the national linguistic communication would happen it easier to place themselves with bahasa Malaysia as the linguistic communication of the whole country/the Malaysians, and non merely the Malays. This name alteration was ne’er incorporated into the fundamental law, nevertheless, and the official name every bit far as the fundamental law goes has ever been Malay ( bahasa Melayu ) . It can besides be noted that 30 old ages after the May 13 Incident, when the place of the national linguistic communication had become to the full stable as official linguistic communication every bit good as the chief linguistic communication medium in instruction, the term Malay ( bahasa Melayu ) has resurfaced, spearheaded by the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, with the statement that the official name as recognized by the fundamental law was so bahasa Melayu, non bahasa Malaysia. So far there has non been any protest against the renewed usage of the term Malay/bahasa Melayu.

Mention: 3. “ Southeasterly Asia: Peoples, Land and Economy ”

Malay Language as National Identity

For the Malays, nevertheless, the appellation of a linguistic communication as the national linguistic communication of Malaysia was seen as a extremely of import, symbolic act, showing the sovereignty of the freshly independent state, and there was no inquiry of holding any other linguistic communication imported from outside their native universe to be placed on a par with the linguistic communication of their pick, allow entirely assume its place. If that happened, Malaya in their eyes would no longer retain its place as a Malay state. Potentially seting English side by side with Malay on an equal national linguistic communication terms was besides unacceptable for the simple ground that it was a colonial linguistic communication with negative associations in add-on to holding a foreign beginning. An exoglossic pick for national linguistic communication was hence out of the inquiry for the Malay population. Malay besides appeared to be the natural pick for national linguistic communication for assorted grounds other than being the female parent lingua of the Malays. First of wholly, the linguistic communication projected a sense of history from within the land itself and was non a linguistic communication transported from outside. Second and connected to the first factor was that Malay had had a long tradition of being the linguistic communication of the successful imperiums that had ruled insular Southeast Asia, and a wealth of all right literature.

Malaysia Independence reflected a critical manner of thought in the heads of the Malayans: that linguistic communication was their psyche and the psyche of the state as contained in their slogan Bahasa Jiwa Bangsa ( linguistic communication is the psyche of the state ) . This motto has since become the slogan of the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka ( Institute of National Language ) , established in 1956, a twelvemonth before independency, to implement all policies refering the development, usage, and use of the national linguistic communication. The importance of the national linguistic communication as a symbol of the sovereignty of the state is echoed in many other mottos to the same consequence. It has become portion of the belief system of the Malayans that they have to continue the linguistic communication come what may, because in it rests their whole ethos and standing as a race and as a state. It is believed that if linguistic communication progresses, so will the people.

( Mention: 3. “ Southeasterly Asia: Peoples, Land and Economy ” )

When Malay became the national and official linguistic communication, the book chosen for it was the Roman book, and this has been incorporated in the fundamental law. Sacrificing the Jawi book which has been portion of the Malay individuality since the 14th century was seen as a measure towards suiting non-Malays in the state, so that they would happen the linguistic communication easier to larn and accept it as the national linguistic communication of the whole state. The Jawi book with its particular penmanship now remains as a cultural trait specific merely to the Malays, and is non used as a medium for public authorship of the national linguistic communication when directed at all citizens of the state.

Concern for individuality exists at all degrees of the society, and this concern frequently surfaces when a peculiar group feels its being threatened by others. In the Malayan state of affairs, national individuality had its beginnings within the Malay cultural group when the Malays belonging to divide small lands on the Malay peninsula began to believe of themselves as belonging to a individual cultural group jointly dominated by a foreign colonial power, the British. And this stance and the nurturing of a sense of belonging together with those who portion the same typical ethnicity had an infective consequence ; it flowed on to the other cultural groups present in Malaya, subsequently Malaysia. Official Malayan authorities policy has ne’er strived to blockade the growing and development of cultural individuality. In fact considerable aid is given by the authorities for the different racial groups to foster and perpetuate their separate cultural traits, including their lingual heritage. Cultural diverseness is considered a important plus to the state. Whilst back uping such diverseness at the sub-national degree, the overall individuality of the state and the designation of all racial groups with a individual national image has been promoted through official indorsement of one common linguistic communication as the chief medium of mundane communicating in the state. This was the idealised image and end right from the beginning, stemming from the Malay belief that a national linguistic communication is the psyche of the state, and that the growing of a shared national linguistic communication is possible merely in the common usage of a individual linguistic communication, unopposed by other linguistic communications at the degree of national communicating. Socio-economic developments in the state and procedures of globalisation particularly in the country of educationand engineering later motivated a alteration in mentality and it came to be believed that the national linguistic communication, Malay, could keep its critical place as the individual most of import symbolic incarnation of national individuality, even if certain lingual infinite was ceded to another linguistic communication for usage in assorted functionary and formal spheres, notably English. The credence of English as a linguistic communication holding matter-of-fact utility in formal spheres has later been made in Malaysia, paralleling the state of affairs in Brunei. The construct of national individuality and its building and care is of import non merely for the value it has in potentially giving a sense of belonging to different racial groups in multiethnic states such as Malaysia, but besides for the projection of the image of a state relation to other states.

Mention: 4. “ Tatabahasa Dewan Jilid 1: Ayat ”