History Of Kai Tak Airport Engineering Essay

The Kai Tak is named after two business communities, Sir Ho Kai and Mr. Au Tak, they were involved in a company in Kowloon bay for a residential lodging strategy in the reclaim land. The company unluckily failed and the rescued land was left vacant, and this rescued land is used by the landing field. The first flight from Kai Tak was on 1925 on lunar twelvemonth ‘s twenty-four hours. The air power in Kai Tak was a alone piece of land ; and established the winging school and besides the British military winging unit. In the twelvemonth 1928 they constructed shipway for the hydroplanes, and in the twelvemonth 1935 the first control tower and the hangers are built, the first rider flight ‘Dorado ‘ landed on 24 March 1936, this reaching began the Kai Tak airdrome as an public transit.

In the twelvemonth 1954, the Hong Kong authorities approved for the airdrome development, and they constructed the track of 2529 metre long, and they besides constructed the rider terminus. Due to the heavy jobs in the air traffic at Kai tak, the development section went for the airdrome enlargement undertaking. The Kai Tak airdrome is now 3rd busiest airdrome in the universe for international riders. The new airdrome has besides 50 per centum more in-migration control desks and custom review places, and twice every bit many luggage reclaim units, cutting shorter the clip that visitants take to clear imposts. Departure from the new airdrome has been helped by an addition of one-third in the figure of security testing places.

History of Kai Tak airdrome

The Airport was build on a unreal island, the two former islands that were leveled and consist approximately 25 % of the surface country of the airport.The Kai Tak air power was started with a winging school and the British military winging unit. They constructed a shipway for the sea planes utilizing the Kowloon bay in the twelvemonth 1928. In 1930 they appointed a aerodrome overseer for the air power activities. They besides constructed the control tower and the hanger, and the first rider ‘s flight landed on 24 March 1936 from Penang operated by the Imperial Airways, that was the first reaching and began for the Kai Tak airdrome for the public transit. During the World War II the 2nd track was built by the Nipponese, during the war the airdrome was badly damaged by the bombardment. After the war the civil air power section was established and took the duty of disposal of the air service activities.

They made the airdrome enlargements and they besides constructed the terminuss which is built under the design and construct contact. The Kai Tak has the universe ‘s first sail terminuss ; the terminus has a big rectangular footmark which is constructed over the three chief degrees and has the tallness of 40m. The terminus has the capacity of 8400 riders and 1200 crews ; the design combines a figure of energy salvaging steps and will bring forth power from renewable beginnings, it besides makes the usage of the recycled rain H2O for chilling.

The Airport Development

The authorities approved for the Kai Tak Airport development in the twelvemonth 1954, because of the additions in the figure of riders and air traffic issues the authorities went for the airdrome development. They constructed the new track of about 2529 metre long, and the rider terminal edifice was built, and in 1974 the ocular attack was replaced by the instrument counsel system for the better landing and goings. Once once more the job has arise, there were 31 air hoses which was operated in to Hong Kong, due to the air traffic issues they once more went for the airdrome track enlargement, in the twelvemonth 1976 they extended the track of 3,390 metres with all operating demands, in the same twelvemonth the Hong Kong Air cargo Terminal was opened.

The Expansion Undertakings

The authorities planned for the developing the rider ‘s terminal edifice, due to the addition in the riders.

The addition in the air traffic, they planned for enlargement undertaking the terminus was started in the twelvemonth 1984 and completed in 1988,

The new terminus has the capacity of 18 million riders per annum besides adding the terminus parking installations.

Once once more the enlargement undertaking initiated in the 1992 for the terminal2 which is for the Hong Kong air lading, managing the capacity of 1.5 million dozenss per annum.

In the twelvemonth 1992 they completed the enlargement of East Apron. The enlargement of East Apron provided 4 extra parking bays for the aircrafts.

And the concluding enlargement is the South Apron, which provided 11 more parking bays for the aircraft, with this design the capacity of the aircraft reached to 24 million riders per annum.

The Environmental Impact on the Airport during the Expansion undertaking

During the building and enlargement of the Kai Tak Airport there were many environmental impacts near the airdrome surrounding, the Kai Tak airport constructed over the H2O due to this there were many environmental impacts arise during the enlargement and building procedure, some of affects are

Land taint impact

Land H2O taint

Water quality impact

Air quality impact

Noise impact

Impact on cultural heritage

Marine ecological impact

Land taint impact

There many jobs held during the building and enlargement of the Kai Tak airdrome, the undertaking country identified that the some of the countries in the GFS apron and south apron of the Kai Tak airdrome were contaminated with the metals. But the track was good plenty for the development.

Land H2O taint

They tested the land H2O samples ; the consequences of the research lab uncover some jobs. So the hazard appraisal has been undertaken to measure the land H2O contaminations. They conducted 3 monitoring Wellss during the site probe ; the free merchandise was tested to be indistinguishable to petroleum hydro Cs with resemblance to kerosene. They cleaned up the site to the redress mark and developed the undertaking, and to protect the workers from site jeopardies.

Water quality Issue

They proposed for the decommissioning method of the obsolete fuel mahimahi in position that the plants country is little. The H2O quality impacts for the land based plants, associated with contaminated overflow ; these are controlled by extenuation steps.

The proper site direction and the good housework patterns are implemented to look into that the building wastes and the stuffs should non come in into the H2O. The site review is undertaken in-order to inspect the work countries and steps are implemented decently. The proper review is done to command storm H2O discharges is the execution of best direction patterns.

Air quality issue

The dust monitoring and audit plan is carried out, extenuation measurings are implemented efficaciously. The dirt gas emanation was identified near the south apron country and the narrow strip of the north apron. The emanation of air near the aprons countries includes TPH, ethylbenzene and xylols these are harmful gases which can impact the workers, they cleaned the gases.

Noise impact

The most common impact is the noise impact, building noise generated from the destruction and decontamination plants are identified as the possible beginnings of the nose impacts from the undertaking. The Kai Tak Airport is constructed far off from the metropolis so noise consequence is non considered. In the position there is a big separation distance between the building site and the noise sensitive receiving systems.

Impact on cultural Heritage

This is the desk based undertaking the study have been conducted for the undertaking country and revealed several heritage resources with the Kai Tak airdrome, this include the three air current poles, the airdrome wharf, fire station, breakwater and the track. They examined that none of the heritage resources will be affected by the Kai Tak enlargement undertaking. The three air current poles are located in the countries that were non accessible to public during the operation. The airdrome wharf non associated with any technological progresss. The fire Stationss were located in the countries that were non accessible to the populace during the operation. From the above factors they have the low cultural heritage significance ; none of the resources are affected by the undertaking so no extenuation is required.

Marine Ecological impact

In the study of the marine ecological impact they indentified that the Marine home grounds within the undertaking country are really low, due to their high artificial and distributed nature. The species diverseness and the copiousness of the home grounds are really low and some restricted species has been recorded. The species recorded are really little in size and few species are H2O birds.

Operationss in the Kai Tak Airport

The kai Tak Airport is operated by the Hong Kong airdrome authorization, the civil air power Department is responsible for the air traffic control services. The Kai Tak Airport has two tracks which have been given a preciseness attack and the north track has the higher evaluation, this track allows pilots to set down merely 200 metres visibleness. These two tracks have capacity of 60 aircrafts motions per hr, nowadays they have 49 frontal bases, 28 remote bases and 25 lading bases. The Kai Tak airdrome has five parking bays at the Northwest, and capable of suiting the reachings. This airdrome is the 3rd busiest airdrome in the universe, there are 85 international air hoses and supplying approximately 760 scheduled riders and every bit good as lading flight around the universe.

Construction of new Kai Tak Cruise Terminal in Hong Kong

The building of new Kai Tak terminus had started with the particular ceremonial ; these undertakings have been built under the Design and construct contract, the terminal building make a gateway to the metropolis. The terminus has big rectangular pes print which is arranged over the three chief degrees to a maximal tallness of 40m. The 13m deep terminus will hold the capacity of 8400 riders and 1200 crew, the design matches with the new coevals sails which are presently being designed. The Construction of the new airdrome was lone portion of the Airport Core Program, which besides involved building of new route and rail links to the airdrome, with associated Bridgess and tunnels, and major land renewal undertakings on both Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon.. The inside is more broad and extremely flexible and can change over into locale, the edifice can to the full use. The design combines of energy salvaging steps and can bring forth power from the beginnings, and can do usage of the recycles rain H2O for chilling.

Decision

By doing usage of the advanced engineering the Kai tak airdrome is constructed, they faced many jobs in the building of Airport. The first and the foremost job is environmental impact ; they introduced an environmentally sensitive attack. Taking environmental issues in to consideration they started building, the Construction of the new airdrome was lone portion of the Airport Core Program, which besides involved building of new route and rail links to the airdrome, with associated Bridgess and tunnels, and major land renewal undertakings on both Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. They constructed the rail Airport Express to the Airport and it takes 23 proceedingss from the station in the cardinal territory on Hong Kong to the airdrome. The Airport was completed on clip and within their budget, this made the Kai tak Airport a successful Airport, it stands 3rd busiest airdrome in the universe. They faced many jobs after the gap of the airdrome in mechanical and proficient jobs this jobs have about crippled the airdrome. They once more solved the proficient and mechanical jobs and things settled down after six months and the airdrome started to run usually.