Global Cooperation Against Sub Conventional Conflicts History Essay


Militaries, historically, have been the tools used to forcefully achieve national aims. Menaces to utilize force are every bit old as the humanistic disciplines of warfare and diplomatic negotiations themselves. In 400 BC, there were cases of Athens and Sparta endangering to utilize power as a agency of influence. Subsequently, there were others by Bismarck, Charlemagne and Richelieu. Frederick the Great one time declared that diplomatic negotiations without power was like an orchestra without a mark.[ 1 ]The colonial powers excessively, have in the yesteryear used the menace of military might to accomplish their foreign policy aims. As a corollary, there have been legion cases of peaceable usage of military to foster a state ‘s international dealingss. This peaceable usage of the military as a tool of national diplomatic negotiations led to the usage of the term ‘military diplomatic negotiations ‘ .[ 2 ]Sub-Conventional Warfare is a generic term embracing all armed struggles that are above the degree of peaceable co-existence amongst provinces and below the threshold of war. It includes combativeness, insurgence, proxy war and terrorist act employed as a agency in an insurrectionist motion or undertaken independently. Border brushs besides fall within this class.[ 3 ]

The sub-conventional challenges which India faces today, scope from unsolved boundary line differences with China and Pakistan, to insurgences in Jammu & A ; Kashmir and the Northeastern provinces, the turning threat of Left Wing Extremism ( LWE ) and panic onslaughts across the length and comprehensiveness of the state. Piracy, nautical terrorist act, gun running and drug smuggling present a significant menace to India ‘s maritime and energy involvements in the IOR. Equally far as current menace degrees on land are concerned, most of them are straight or indirectly linked to Pakistan and its scheme of asymmetric warfare executed through a well-calibrated design, to work the mistake lines in India ‘s socio-politico-economic construction.[ 4 ]

Part of the solution to the above jobs lie in politico-military and societal procedures which would include constructive duologues, Confidence Building Measures within the provinces and economic advancement of the affected. Another facet of deciding these is the development of an effectual military power in the sub-conventional sphere. The 3rd aspect concerns Military Diplomacy, wherein the cooperation between multiple bureaus is sought to counter the menace. The nature of relationship with Pakistan does n’t give much range of an effectual Military ( instead Army ) Diplomacy and India may hold to trust on first two agencies to manage the ‘on land ‘ sub-conventional struggles. The seaward threats nevertheless, based on the experiences of the joint anti-piracy patrol in the Gulf may hold range for usage of Military Diplomacy to counter them.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and analyze the sub-conventional menaces in the Indian Ocean Region and the usage of assorted aspects of Maritime/Naval Diplomacy in countering them.


Elementss of Military Diplomacy. Military diplomatic negotiations is similar to regular diplomatic negotiations in its content, wherein it includes visits, meetings, and exchanges, dialogues, take parting in international conferences, pact sign languages and exchanges of diplomatic paperss. The difference is that all these would either be conducted by armed forces forces or the civilians in the defense mechanism ministries and that the content would be military-oriented. The chief facets of military diplomatic negotiations include strategic degree activities such as defense mechanism audiences and strategic duologues, weaponries transportations, regional activities, including province to province military protocols, gap of military bases, engagement in bilateral and many-sided military exercisings, professional military instruction exchanges, including cooperation in non -traditional security countries, like directing armed forces to counter – terrorist act exercisings, UN Peacekeeping operations. Military diplomatic negotiations besides include: exchange of military attaches, visits by military deputations, military survey abroad, engagement in international weaponries control and disarming programmes, weaponries import and export, and military aid to friendly states. Military diplomatic negotiations besides addresses the demand to co-opt environing states and certain advanced states that could go possible menaces in the hereafter, and in conclusion a class of military diplomatic negotiations aimed at avoiding struggle.[ 5 ]


The Indian Army ‘s Doctrine on Sub-Conventional Operations, promulgated in December 2006, defines asymmetric warfare as a term to depict ‘a military state of affairs in which two combatants of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strength and failings of themselves and their enemies ( severally ) . This interaction frequently involves schemes and tactics outside the bounds of conventional warfare.[ 6 ]

The construct of asymmetric warfare is non new. Similar construct has been articulated by Kautilya in Arthashastra, his treatise on statesmanship, economic policy and military scheme in the fourth century BC. Kautilya ‘s doctrine of ‘concealed war ‘ and ‘silent war ‘ , affecting the usage of bravos, betrayers, and cocottes, and contrived struggles aimed at winning conflicts against an adversarial male monarch, could be compared to the assorted ( current ) signifiers of asymmetric warfare. Similarly, Sun Tzu ‘s averment that an Army should avoid facing the strength of the enemy and should alternatively try to interrupt the latter ‘s bid maps ; logistics and other failings bear similarity to asymmetric warfare.[ 7 ]

Sub-conventional warfare has become a complex phenomenon. The troubles in covering with such struggles begin with its really nature – it defies the logical, geometrical and technological facets of conventional warfare every bit good as its rules. Each struggle has its ain generation, alone environment, purpose and methodological analysis for battling such motions. Management and declaration of such struggles necessitates a multi-pronged push by all elements of national power to turn to the root causes.[ 8 ]

Pakistan backed Terrorism. India has faced sub-conventional belligerencies since independency, aided and abetted by Pakistan, ab initio for the control of J & A ; K, thenceforth as a reverberation of the humiliation of 1971. It is with this built-in ill will towards India that Pakistan keeps all attempts of diplomatic declaration at bay. Thus these issues can merely be resolved through dedicated political, military and economic attempt.

Security Environment In IOR

Another signifier of sub-conventional struggle which is going a cause of concern is the security environment in the IOR which needs to be contained. It is these which need an extended military diplomatic attempt to counter them and the same are discussed in item.

Political Insecurity. Enough political struggles exist along the all of import SLOCs from Bab el-Mandeb and the Straits of Hormuz along the coastline of South Asia to the Straits of Malacca and to the geographical extension of the South China Sea. At the Horn of Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti and Kenya are virtually populating in an unstable environment formed by eternal civil wars and watercourses of refugees flying from across the states.[ 9 ]

Military Challenges in the Region

SLOC Protection. Indian Ocean plays a critical function in India ‘s economic prosperity. For India, with about 89 per centum of its oil imports geting by sea, it is imperative that the SLOCs be secure. Unfortunately, the assortment and strength of menaces, including buccaneering, nautical terrorist act, drug trafficking, gun-running, human smuggling, pollution, accidents and inter-state struggles, are relative to the rise in trade in this part.[ 10 ]Supplementing this is the political instability of countries in West Asia that frequently holds hostage the supply of oil from the part. In the yesteryear, supplies from this part have been disrupted on at least seven different occasions all of which were due to political causes and were non market driven.[ 11 ]

Piracy. From the Straits of Malacca to the Horn of Africa, buccaneering is a major menace. Their links with other signifiers of “ nautical upset and terrorist act, ” such as narco-terrorism and human smuggling are well-established and organic extensions of one another.[ 12 ]

Nautical Terrorism. Maritime security has assumed a new dimension station terrorist work stoppage from the sea at Mumbai. The effect of maritime terrorist act has been realised by the full universe and planetary cooperation to counter these has gained terms.

Narco-Terrorism and a Terror-Crime Nexus. An of import fond regard to maritime terrorist act is drug trafficking. The link of these two activities is so deep that they are frequently analysed under the same parametric quantities. Iran and Pakistan form a major part of the “ Golden Crescent, ” while Myanmar and Thailand make up the bulk of the “ Golden Triangle, ” both ill-famed for the illegal drug production. Bing in the IOR, narco-terrorism has become a major security concern for littoral provinces like India, which itself has emerged as a theodolite point for a bulk of the drugs that emanate from these two countries.

Other Asymmetric Threats. The coming of modern engineering and its easy handiness may, in the close hereafter ; enable the onslaught on naval forces to be carried out by usage of high tech sensing, designation and arm launch platforms. Light Intensity Maritime Operation undertaken by these groups with the advantage of a littoral environment could hold a deep deadly impact.


Why do we need military officers to prosecute in diplomatic negotiations? Not merely does the nature of modern-day international political relations call for it, but other of import states practise it. GenA Martin Dempsey, president of the joint heads of staff of the US and the four-star generals that head its theatre bids are of import participants in operationalising Washington ‘s foreign policy around the universe. The armed forces are cardinal participants in the security policies India ‘s neighbors, from China to Indonesia and Pakistan to Myanmar. Given that these admirals and generals are engaged in diplomatic activities of serious importance to India, therefore the demand for wider military diplomatic cringle.[ 13 ]

Advancement in Military Diplomacy. In the past few old ages, India has entered into defense mechanism cooperation understandings with most great powers, including China, as besides with smaller states like Malaysia and Singapore, and even Mauritius. The touchable additions are already seeable. First, military diplomatic negotiations has helped in cut downing tensenesss with China and allowed the two states to research the potencies of a partnership in the emerging Asiatic security architecture. Second, it has allowed India to keep a peaceable fringe and undertaking its power in a discreet and elusive mode.

Scope for Growth. The security state of affairs in South Asia and the IOR is invariably fluctuating ; India hence needs to concentrate on re-inventing the overall ploy of military diplomatic negotiations. It could likely larn from the Chinese experience that is based on the wise balance of military diplomatic negotiations and military modernization, synergism with political and economic diplomatic negotiations and above all, procuring its fringe through the concerted security path.[ 14 ]A


Maritime Diplomacy. Maritime Diplomacy entails the usage of naval forces in support of foreign policy aims to beef up international cooperation on the one manus and to signal capableness and purpose to discourage possible antagonists on the other. Navies have an built-in propensity towards executing a diplomatic function on history of two features. The first is their position as comprehensive instruments of a state ‘s autonomous power, whereupon their very presence in a certain country signals the state ‘s political purpose and committedness to prosecute national involvements in that part. Therefore, their presence or absence can be calibrated to direct a political message to possible friends and enemies likewise. The 2nd characteristic easing the naval forces ‘s diplomatic function is in the really attributes of maritime forces, including entree, mobility, nutriment, range, flexibleness and versatility. These combine to offer a assortment of tools for fostering national involvements and prosecuting foreign policy ends. Naval forces can be readily deployed, can execute multiple functions and undertakings that can be calibrated in visibleness and strength as per demands, and can merely as easy and quickly be withdrawn, to direct a countersignal. It is the handiness of force to endorse up and supply support to diplomatic attempts at assorted degrees. Naval diplomatic negotiations is designed to act upon the will and decision-making setup of a province or group of provinces in peacetime and all state of affairss short of full belligerencies. It can be used on the one manus to back up or reassure and can be a important subscriber to alliance edifice. On the other manus, it can be used to discourage and hale trouble-makers.[ 15 ]

Aims of Naval Diplomacy

Portrayal of Credible Defence Posture and Capability. This is a cardinal aim in the naval forces ‘s diplomatic function. The success of strategic disincentive and projection of a strong national image both require a robust, believable defense mechanism position and capableness. The navy can quickly travel up the escalatory ladder on the menace or usage of force, and its presence and position sends a signal to possible beginnings of instability and insecurity. It can thereby discourage assorted histrions from set abouting actions that would endanger nautical security. This is supported by the procedure of edifice defense mechanism dealingss with maritime neighbors who portion the desire for nautical security in the IOR, and projection of a believable defense mechanism capableness.[ 16 ]

Strengthen Political Relations and Goodwill. The visit of men-of-war between two states affords chances for interactions at several degrees, supplying a platform for exchange of positions and positions, and to develop upon bing dealingss.[ 17 ]

Missions in the Diplomatic Role

Constructive Maritime Engagement. This is done by mutual visits, combined exercisings, developing programmes, and assorted other interactions and proficient programmes, so as to ease sharing of experiences, inter-operability and sweetening of MDA through information-sharing mechanisms.[ 18 ]

Presence. Ships and aircraft of the Navy are required to continue to countries of maritime involvement, show their presence to all stake-holders in the part, whilst maintaining the country and motions and events therein under surveillance towards observing events that could encroach on nautical security.

Peace Support Operations. India is one of the original 50 laminitis members of the UN and has participated in 43 of the 63 UN peacekeeping operations to day of the month. Indian part has been led by the Indian Army, with support from the IAF and besides from the IN, as seen in Operation Restore Hope, in Somalia in 1993-94. Peace Support Operations ( PSO ) comprise the undermentioned types of operations: –[ 19 ]

Peace Enforcement Operations. India ‘s engagement in UN operations in Somalia in 1993-94 ( UNOSOM II ) .

Peace Keeping Operations. The Indian Peace Keeping Force ( IPKF ) in Sri Lanka.

Peace Making Operations. Covers those activities after beginning of a struggle, to procure a ceasefire or motivate a rapid peaceable colony.

Peace Building Operations. Covers actions that support political, economic, societal and military steps and constructions, to beef up and solidify political colonies in order to turn to the causes of struggle.

Undertakings in the Diplomatic Role[ 20 ]

Abroad Deployment. The Navies around universe are deployed far from ain shores to countries of operational or political involvement.


Technical Military Assistance. These are diplomatic enterprises to construct capacity and enhance military capableness of friendly nautical provinces. This would enable them to better pull off their ain security related jobs, which in bend enhances the overall security and stableness in the part. Some of these enterprises include transportation of war vessels and aircraft to friendly states, refit aid, supply of military hardware and spares, nautical surveillance aid, naval preparation, etc.

Bilateral and Multilateral Exercises. Ships of the IN regularly exercising with ships of friendly naval forcess In to heighten interoperability, The range and content of these exercisings is continually increasing to maintain up with the demands of nautical security.

Out of Area Contingency ( OOAC ) Operations. Indian Navy may be called upon to supply aid and support to friendly authoritiess. These organize a portion of the maritime aid and support provided to friendly states as per their petition. The support to Maldives in Op Cactus 1988 is an illustration of OOAC.


Non-combatant Evacuation Operations ( NEO ) . The IN may be tasked with undertaking Non-combatant Emptying Operations ( NEO ) as portion of its diplomatic function. NEO of 2,280 Indian citizens and forces from friendly states was undertaken by the IN during Op Sukoon in July 2006 from war-ravaged Lebanon


Regional Naval Cooperation. Naval developing constitutions in India on a regular basis accept naval forces from Southeast Asian and IOR states for preparation which is instrumental in developing a stronger and more influential relationship with friendly naval forcess around the part. India has spearheaded a many-sided naval exercising, designated MILAN, since the mid 1990s. MILAN is a series of exercisings, includes engagement from the Bay of Bengal Rim provinces and is conducted biyearly off the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The MILAN series was institutionalised with the aim of accomplishing interoperability with ASEAN naval forcess, and advancing good will between India and ASEAN states. IN MILAN 2012, Navies from 13 states participated which, for the first clip included Seychelles and Mauritius, in add-on to Myanmar, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Australia.[ 21 ]

Battle with Foreign Navies. India has strengthened its bilateral defense mechanism ties with Southeast Asiatic states including Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore. Signing of a defense mechanism cooperation treaty with Singapore in 2004 has drastically changed the cloth of New Delhi ‘s defense mechanism ties in the part. Similarly station -Tsunami 2004, the Indian Navy was foremost to react and subsequently was joined by the US, Japan and Australia for deliverance and relief operations in the part. Some other stairss which have been critical constituents of India ‘s naval diplomatic negotiations in Southeast Asia include regular treatments on the safety of sea lanes of communicating ( SLOC ) , co-ordinated patrols, port calls by ships, preparation of naval officers in Indian military establishments, and intelligence sharing peculiarly on maritime personal businesss. At the many-sided degree, the Indian Navy behaviors exercises with seven major naval forcess including the PLA Navy. In add-on, bilateral and many-sided exercisings affecting search-and-rescue drills, exchanges of information and anti-terror tactics have been held between regional naval forcess from clip to clip.[ 22 ]

This has allowed India to portion its ain experience and cognition with other states and learn from their experiences. This has enabled India to guarantee enhanced policing of the next Waterss in the Indian Ocean part, through sharing of intelligence with other states. India ‘s capableness to control buccaneering and other insurgent activities in the part has decidedly increased as witnessed in the recent sinking of pirate ships in the Gulf of Aden by the Indian Navy.[ 23 ]

The Multi-lateral Approach. From an Indian mentality it is indispensable that the assorted maritime challenges be addressed on a multi-lateral footing. India ‘s engagement in ReCAAP ( Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia ) is a important measure towards this.

Indian Ocean Naval Symposium. Till 2007, there was a close entire absence of a many-sided attack to battle nautical upset. Indian Navy took the enterprise to keep the inaugural IONS ( Indian Ocean Naval Symposium ) in the beginning of 2008 with an purpose to increase nautical co-operation among take parting navies/ maritime bureaus by supplying a forum for treatment of maritime issues, both planetary and regional and in the procedure generate a flow of information and sentiment between naval professionals taking to common apprehension and possible understandings on the manner in front.[ 24 ]

Maritime Assistance and Support. These may be in the signifier of emptying operations, delivering of stuff assistance, maritime patrols for augmenting stableness and security, maritime intercession operations, etc. During Operation Sukoon in July 2006, the IN carried out emptying operations non merely for Indians but besides many subjects of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Lebanon and Greece, from war-ravaged Lebanon.

In December 2004, the IN provided human-centered alleviation and assistance to Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia, even as it provided the same to her ain people, all struck by the Asian Tsunami. Other illustrations of aid provided by Indian Navy include the escort mission undertaken for US high-value ships pass throughing the Malacca Straits in 2002 and offshore security provided to the African Union Summit in Maputo, Mozambique the undermentioned twelvemonth. A premier illustration of India ‘s committedness to back uping her neighbors was Operation Cactus in 1988, wherein Indian air, naval and army forces acted fleetly and jointly to counter the attempted putsch by a group of soldier of fortunes against the democratically elective Government of Maldives.[ 25 ]


Technical/Hardware Support. The last few old ages has seen major policy displacement towards military diplomatic negotiations in general and Naval diplomatic negotiations in peculiar. The little initial stairss in footings of bilateral and many-sided exercisings need to be augmented, with weaponries gross revenues to states of involvement. The history is full with illustrations that states bond good together when they fulfill each other ‘s military demands whether in footings of military hardware or through technological and developing support and capacity edifice.

Constitution of Joint Maritime Centres. Indian Navy should proactively ship upon concerted programmes such as set uping Joint Maritime Centers consisting regional naval forcess and seashore guards at of import ports in IOR to enable speedy, co-ordinated responses to smuggling, buccaneering, human-centered catastrophes, illegal migration, environmental incidents and Search & A ; Rescue operations. These Centres may besides supply a locale for sharing of intelligence, steps to protect ports & A ; seaports and to organize attempts on use and direction of marine resources.

Progressive Inroad in Gulf and Middle East. Indian Navy, as instrument of foreign policy demands to increasingly keep a important and lasting naval presence in the politically unstable Gulf part. This would non merely lower the exposure threshold of the ain SLOCs and the choking coil points but besides guarantee that the free flow of energy to ain state.


The Indian Navy remains a really of import instrument of diplomatic negotiations for the state. The Navy ‘s foreign cooperation is governed by the national involvements, security considerations and is in consonant rhyme with the foreign policies of the state. The Indian Navy was the first of the Services to put up a Directorate of Foreign Cooperation and Intelligence. However, equal focal point was being given to this aspect even earlier. As the trade additions, and energy security becomes progressively of import, the Navy will necessitate to augment its force degrees to protect the national involvements. Keeping Sea Lines of Communications ( SLOCs ) open becomes an of import undertaking, which in this globalised universe means that the Indian Navy will be called upon to protect ships transporting Indian exports and imports. The menace in the signifier of nautical panic will go on to loom and will necessitate the Indian Navy to affect in planetary action to counter it. At the regional degree, the Indian Navy has brought about the foundation of Indian Ocean Naval Symposium ( IONS ) to promote naval forcess of the Indian Ocean Region to interact with each other and find common solutions to the maritime menaces and challenges that plague the part. It will be of extreme importance to constructively prosecute one another through the creative activity and publicity of regionally relevant mechanisms, events, and activities. In fact the subject for IONS 2010 is brooding of the basic dogma of Military Diplomacy: “ Together, for the Reinforcement of Maritime Security in the Indian Ocean.