Ghost Of Vietnam Does It Still Haunt America History Essay

The Vietnam War, the United States longest war, was one of the most tragic chapters in the history of United States ; it was even more tragic for Vietnam. The United States became engaged in a struggle in a distant Asiatic state, confident that its military capableness could bring forth a triumph and halt the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. By acquiring involved in a war against Asiatic people contending for their freedom. Massive United States intercession began in 1965, but continued to intensify U.S. military personnels numbered good over half a million by 1968. This immense armed force with modern arms was nevertheless, denied triumph by a resilient, determined Vietnamese ground forces. In clip, Washington learned that stacking up the dead organic structures would non needfully convey triumph. However, for political grounds, it would turn out much more hard to acquire of Vietnam than it was to acquire in. After the Geneva conference of 1954 which called for Gallic backdown from Indochina after a decisive licking at Dien Bien Phu. The understanding established the independent province of Laos and Cambodia, and made a impermanent separation of Vietnam into two zones divided at the 17th analogue. In the North a communist authorities, the democratic democracy of Vietnam was already established with Hanoi as its capital and Ho qi minh as its president. In the South, the Gallic transferred power the native sovereign, Bao dai in Saigon. But in south Vietnam the most effectual leader was non the male monarch Bao dai but his premier curate, Ngo Dinh Diem. Subsequently on it was his actions which led to the formation of Viet congs as he oppressed Communists and progressives, and prefering Roman Catholics led to build up battle against his government which was ab initio supported by the united provinces. Finally U.S. functionaries in Saigon and Washington came to the decision that Diem must be replaced. A group of south Vietnamese ground forces functionaries, encouraged by U.S. embassy and CIA staged a putsch in November 1963 and killed diem and his brother Nhu, and established a military junta. In early 1964 after the gulf of Tonkin incident, president Lyndon b. Johnson ordered relatiative air work stoppages against marks in North Vietnam, but more significantly this lead to escalation of war. Both President Richard Nixon and Johnson used it as the legal base for monolithic military operations in Vietnam and nearby states.[ 1 ]The continued bombardment of south Vietnam and its supply paths into the south viz. the Ho qi minh trail and heavy committedness of American forces in hunt and destroy missions seemed to assure certain triumph, but despite their losingss the viet cong and the people ‘s ground forces of north Vietnam grew stronger who were enrolling soldiers who were ready to contend and decease for their state at an of all time increasing rate, and so on the weary war carried on through 1967, this war was no more south Vietnam ‘s war it was now Lyndon b. Johnson ‘s war. And with North Vietnam now engaged in in the battle in South Vietnam, it became an wholly different struggle, by the beginning of the optimism in the Saigon and in Washington began to give manner to pessimism. The war was going an escalated military deadlock. By this clip, after three full old ages of big graduated table warfare and progressively volatile protests at place, Johnson could hear even within his ain disposal and his ain disposal.

Reappraisal of literature

The Vietnam War was the drawn-out battle between nationalist forces trying to unite the state of Vietnam under a communist authorities and the United States ( with the assistance of the South Vietnamese ) trying to forestall the spread of communism. Engaged in a war that many viewed as holding no manner to win, U.S. leaders lost the American populace ‘s support for the war. Since the terminal of the war, the Vietnam War has become a benchmark for whatA notA to make in all future U.S. foreign struggles. U.S. troops fought a jungle war, largely against the well-supplied Viet Cong. The Viet Cong would assail in ambuscades, set up booby traps, and escape through a complex web of belowground tunnels. For U.S. forces, even merely happening their enemy proved hard. Since Viet Cong hid in the dense coppice, U.S. forces would drop Agent Orange or napalm bombs which cleared an country by doing the foliages to drop off or to fire away. In every small town, U.S. military personnels had trouble finding which, if any, villagers were the enemy since even adult females and kids could construct booby traps or assist house and feed the Viet Cong. U.S. soldiers normally became defeated with the contending conditions in Vietnam. Many suffered from low morale, became angry, and some used drugs.

On January 30, 1968, the North Vietnamese surprised both the U.S. forces and the South Vietnamese by orchestrating a coordinated assault with the Viet Cong to assail about a 100 South Vietnamese metropoliss and towns. Although the U.S. forces and the South Vietnamese ground forces were able to drive the assault known as Tet offensive this onslaught proved to Americans that the enemy was stronger and better organized than they had been led to believe. The Tet Offensive was a turning point in the war because President Johnson, faced now with an unhappy American populace and bad intelligence from his military leaders in Vietnam, decided to no longer intensify the war. For the Vietnam the cost of war was decease and devastation on an unprecedented graduated table. For America the cost of war dead, a immense drain on the economic system, strained realtions with Alliess, and loss of influence in the 3rd universe. The war besides caused serious political and societal turbulence at place. The Tet offense was military reverse for Americans, after a letup in the combat, which the united provinces interpreted as a mark that enemy had eventually worn down, the viet cong and PAVN launched a surprise offense throughout south Vietnam during Tet, the lunar new twelvemonth vacation. They were able to take 30 six of 40 four provincial capitals in the state, and most surprisingly of all the staged a major onslaught on Saigon, where self-destruction commandos even penetrated to the evidences of embassy. The impact of Tet violative as communist forces had predicted, shattered the popular semblance of the American leaders that they were on the brink of a triumph. On January 27, 1973, the peace negotiations in Paris eventually succeeded in bring forthing a cease-fire understanding. The last U.S. military personnel left Vietnam on March 29, 1973, cognizing they were go forthing a weak South Vietnam who would non be able to defy another major communist North Vietnam onslaught After the U.S. had withdrawn all its military personnels, the contending continued in Vietnam. In early 1975, North Vietnam made another large push South which toppled the South Vietnamese authorities. South Vietnam officially surrendered to communist North Vietnam on April 30, 1975. On July 2, 1976, Vietnam was reunited as a communist state, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The concluding cost of the war for the united provinces includes more than 58,000 soldiers killed and more than 300,000 wounded. The war cost estimated $ 165 billion. Indirect economic effects are beyond, appraisal, but the immense outgo for the drawn-out war certainly contributed to the rising prices, the shortage and the balance of payments jobs that plagued the Vietnam calamity is besides incalculable. The cost of the war to the people of Indochina was greater yet. The American estimation of ARVN deceases was over two hundred 1000s and for enemy forces both NLF and PAVN about five 100 1000. We will ne’er cognize how many civilians died or how many became refugees. In an interview in 2002, McNamara put the figure of dead at 3.4 million. American dropped three times more bomb on Vietnam than it dropped on its enemies during World War 2. In add-on it defoliated over 5 million estates with agent orange, a powerful, malignant neoplastic disease, doing weedkiller.


To analyze major events which led to the Vietnam war and its escalation.

To analyse grounds for the licking of the U.S.A. in the Vietnam war.

Research inquiry

What were the factors which lead to mortifying licking of the United States of America, and the factors which lead to a military intercession in a state halfway around the universe from their places, The undertaking besides deals with how the war lead to alterations in United State ‘s military, intelligence and political domain. The desolation caused by Vietnam war and the casualties of the war from both the sides and human rights misdemeanor which occurred during the war has besides been discussed,


The ground for the licking of the United States of America was because of its hapless intelligence web in the part and unskilled leading who thought Vietnam war to be same as Korean war.


The research work trades with several articles written about the Vietnam War and books related to the subject, mentions from the cyberspace have besides been taken.

Data Collection

The survey involves all the three classs of research methodological analysiss including analytical, descriptive every bit good as historical. It will affect secondary informations such as assorted Articles, Books and Journals.



Vietnam before the war

There had been contending in Vietnam for decennaries before the Vietnam War began. The Vietnamese had suffered under Gallic colonial regulation for about six decennaries when Japan invaded parts of Vietnam in 1940. It was in 1941, when Vietnam had two foreign powers busying them, that communist Vietnamese radical leader Ho Chi Minh arrived back in Vietnam after passing 30 old ages going the universe. Once Ho was back in Vietnam, he established a central office in a cave in northern Vietnam and established the Viet Minh, whose end was to rid Vietnam of the Gallic and Nipponese residents. Having gained support for their cause in northern Vietnam, the Viet Minh announced the constitution of an independent Vietnam with a new authorities called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam on September 2, 1945. The Gallic, nevertheless, were non willing to give up their settlement so easy and fought back. For old ages, Ho had tried to tribunal the United States to back up him against the Gallic, including providing the U.S. with military intelligence about the Nipponese during World War II. Despite this assistance, the United States was to the full dedicated to their Cold War foreign policy of containment, which meant forestalling the spread of Communism.[ 2 ]This fright of the spread of Communism was heightened by the U.S. “ Domino theory, ” which stated that if one state in Southeast Asia fell to Communism so environing states would besides shortly autumn. To assist forestall Vietnam from going a communist state, the U.S. decided to assist France licking Ho and his revolutionists by directing the Gallic military assistance in 1950. In 1954, after enduring a decisive licking at Dien Bien Phu, the Gallic decided to draw out of Vietnam. At the Geneva Conference of 1954, a figure of states met to find how the Gallic could peacefully retreat. The understanding that came out of the conference ( called the Geneva Accords ) stipulated a cease fire for the peaceable backdown of Gallic forces and the impermanent division of Vietnam along the 17th analogue ( which split the state into communist North Vietnam and non-communist South Vietnam ) . In add-on, a general democratic election was to be held in 1956 that would reunite the state under one authorities. The United States refused to hold to the election, fearing the Communists might win.[ 3 ]

United provinces before the war

During theA Cold WarA America fought Communism in many topographic points around the universe. US presidents promised to assist states that wereA threatenedA by Communism. They thought that if they let Communists take over the southern portion of Vietnam other states in the part would go Communist excessively. This was called the “ A Domino TheoryA ” . PresidentA John F. KennedyA saw this danger and started directing militaryA advisersA to assist the South Vietnamese ground forces. After an American war vessel wasA attackedA off the seashore of North Vietnam Kennedy ‘s replacement, Lyndon B Johnson started sendingA land troopsA to southeast Asia. With aid from the United States, South Vietnam carried out the election merely in South Vietnam instead than countrywide. After extinguishing most of his challengers, Ngo Dinh Diem was elected. His leading, nevertheless, proved so atrocious that he was killed in 1963 during a putsch supported by the United States. Since Diem had alienated many South Vietnamese during his term of office, communist sympathisers in South Vietnam established the National Liberation Front ( NLF ) , besides known as the Viet Cong, in 1960 to utilize guerilla warfare against the South Vietnamese.

Causes of Vietnam War

Most American wars have obvious get downing points or precipitating causes: the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the gaining control of Fort Sumter in 1861, the onslaught on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the North Korean invasion of South Korea in June 1950, for illustration. But there was no fixed beginning for the U.S. war in Vietnam. The United States entered that war incrementally, in a series of stairss between 1950 and 1965. In May 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized a modest plan of economic and military assistance to the Gallic, who were contending to retain control of their Indochina settlement, including Laos and Cambodia every bit good as Vietnam. When the Vietnamese Nationalist ( and Communist-led ) Vietminh ground forces defeated Gallic forces at Dienbienphu in 1954, the Gallic were compelled to submit to the creative activity of a Communist Vietnam North of the 17th analogues while go forthing a non-Communist entity South of that line. The United States refused to accept the agreement. The disposal of President Dwight D. Eisenhower undertook alternatively to construct a state from the specious political entity that was South Vietnam by manufacturing a authorities at that place, taking over control from the Gallic, despatching military advisors to develop a South Vietnamese ground forces, and unleashing the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) to carry on psychological warfare against the North.[ 4 ]President John F. Kennedy rounded another turning point in early 1961, when he in secret sent 400 Particular Operationss Forces-trained ( Green Beret ) soldiers to learn the South Vietnamese how to contend what was calledA counterinsurgencyA war against Communist guerillas in South Vietnam. When Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, there were more than 16,000 U.S. military advisors in South Vietnam, and more than 100 Americans had been killed. Kennedy ‘s replacement, Lyndon B. Johnson, committed the United States most to the full to the war. In August 1964, he secured from Congress a functional ( non existent ) declaration of war: the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Then, in February and March 1965, Johnson authorized the sustained bombardment, by U.S. aircraft, of marks north of the 17th analogue, and on 8 March dispatched 3,500 Marines to South Vietnam. Legal declaration or no, the United States was now at war. The multiple starting day of the months for the war complicate attempts to depict the causes of U.S. entry. The United States became involved in the war for a figure of grounds, and these evolved and shifted over clip. Chiefly, every American president regarded the enemy in Vietnam — the Vietminh ; its 1960s replacement, the National Liberation Front ( NLF ) ; and the authorities of North Vietnam, led by *Ho Chi Minh — as agents of planetary communism. U.S. policymakers, and most Americans, regarded communism as the antithesis of all they held beloved. Communists scorned democracy, violated human rights, pursued military aggression, and created closed province economic systems that hardly traded with capitalist states.[ 5 ]Americans compared communism to a contagious disease. If it took clasp in one state, U.S. policymakers expected immediate states to fall to communism, excessively, as if states were dominoes lined up on terminal. In 1949, when the Communist Party came to power in China, Washington feared that Vietnam would go the following Asiatic Domino. That was one ground for Truman ‘s 1950 determination to give assistance to the Gallic who were contending the Vietminh, Truman besides hoped that helping the Gallic in Vietnam would assist to shore up the developed, non-Communist states, whose destinies were in surprising ways tied to the saving of Vietnam and, given the Domino theory, all of Southeast Asia. Free universe rule over the part would supply markets for Japan, reconstructing with American aid after the Pacific War. U.S. engagement in Vietnam reassured the British, who linked their postwar recovery to the resurgence of the gum elastic and Sn industries in their settlement of Malaya, one of Vietnam ‘s neighbours. And with U.S. assistance, the Gallic could concentrate on economic recovery at place, and could trust finally to remember their Indochina officer corps to supervise the rearmament of West Germany, a Cold War step deemed indispensable by the Americans. These aspirations formed a 2nd set of grounds why the United States became involved in Vietnam. As presidents committed the United States to conflict spot by spot, many of these aspirations were forgotten. Alternatively, inactiveness developed against retreating from Vietnam. Washington believed that U.S. backdown would ensue in a Communist triumph — Eisenhower acknowledged that, had elections been held as scheduled in Vietnam in 1956, “ Ho Chi Minh would hold won 80 % of the ballot ” — and no U.S. president wanted to lose a state to communism. Democrats in peculiar, like Kennedy and Johnson, feared a rightist recoil should they give up the battle ; they remembered vividly the accusative tone of the Republicans ‘ 1950 inquiry, “ Who lost China? ” The committedness to Vietnam itself, passed from disposal to disposal, took on cogency aside from any rational footing it might one time hold had. Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy all gave their word that the United States would stand by its South Vietnamese Alliess.[ 6 ]If the United States abandoned the South Vietnamese, its word would be regarded as undependable by other authoritiess, friendly or non. So U.S. credibleness seemed at interest. Along with the larger structural and ideological causes of the war in Vietnam, the experience, personality, and disposition of each president played a function in intensifying the U.S. committedness. Dwight Eisenhower restrained U.S. engagement because, holding commanded military personnels in conflict, he doubted the United States could contend a land war in Southeast Asia. The vernal John Kennedy, on the other manus, felt he had to turn out his resoluteness to the American people and his Communist antagonists, particularly in the wake of several foreign policy bloopers early in his disposal. Lyndon Johnson saw the Vietnam War as a trial of his heart, as a Southerner and as a adult male. He exhorted his soldiers to “ nail the coonskin to the wall ” in Vietnam, comparing triumph to a successful hunting expedition. When Johnson began bombing North Vietnam and sent the Marines to South Vietnam in early 1965, he had every purpose of contending a limited war. He and his advisors worried that excessively munificent a usage of U.S. firepower might motivate the Chinese to come in the struggle. It was non expected that the North Vietnamese and the NLF would keep out long against the American military. And yet U.S. policymakers ne’er managed to suit military scheme to U.S. ends in Vietnam. Massive bombardment had small consequence against a decentralised economic system like North Vietnam ‘s. Kennedy had favored pacification warfare in the South Vietnamese countryside, and Johnson endorsed this scheme, but the political side of counterinsurgeny — the attempt to win the “ Black Marias and heads ” of the Vietnamese peasantry — was at best developing and likely doomed. Presidents proved loath to mobilise American society to the extent the generals thought necessary to get the better of the enemy.[ 7 ]As the United States went to war in 1965, a few voices were raised in dissent. Within the Johnson disposal, Undersecretary of State George Ball warned that the South Vietnamese authorities was a functional nonexistence and merely could non be sustained by the United States, even with a major attempt. Antiwar protest groups formed on many of the state ‘s campuses ; in June, the left-of-center organisation Students for a Democratic Society decided to do the war its chief mark. But major dissent would non get down until 1966 or subsequently. By and big in 1965, Americans supported the disposal ‘s claim that it was contending to halt communism in Southeast Asia, or people merely shrugged and went about their day-to-day lives, unaware that this bit by bit escalating war would rupture American society apart.[ 8 ]

Chapter III

Escalation of war

On August 2, 1964, USSA Maddox, an American destroyer, was attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin by three North Vietnamese gunmans boats while carry oning an intelligence mission. A 2nd onslaught seemed have occurred two yearss subsequently, though the studies were unelaborated ( It now appears that there was no 2nd onslaught ) . This 2nd “ onslaught ” led to US air work stoppages against North Vietnam and the transition of the Southeast Asia ( Gulf of Tonkin ) Resolution by Congress. This declaration permitted the president to carry on military operations in the part without a formal declaration of war and became the legal justification for intensifying the struggle.[ 9 ]In requital for the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin, President Lyndon Johnson issued orders for the systematic bombardment of North Vietnam, aiming its air defences, industrial sites, and transit substructure. Get downing on March 2, 1965, and known as Operation Rolling Thunder, the bombardment run would last over three old ages and would drop an norm of 800 dozenss of bombs a twenty-four hours on the North. To protect US airbases in South Vietnam, 3,500 Marines were deployed that same month, going the first land forces committed to the struggle. By April 1965, Johnson had sent the first 60,000 American military personnels to Vietnam. The figure would intensify to 536,100 by the terminal of 1968. In the summer of 1965, under the bid of General William Westmoreland, US forces executed their first major violative operations against the Viet Cong and scored triumphs around Chu Lai ( Operation Starlite ) and in theA Ia Drang Valley. This latter run was mostly fought by the 1st Air Cavalry Division which pioneered the usage of choppers for high velocity mobility on the battleground. Learning from these lickings, the Viet Cong rarely once more occupied American forces in conventional, pitched conflicts preferring alternatively to fall back to hit and run onslaughts and ambuscades. Over the following three old ages, American forces focused on searching and destructing Viet Cong and North Vietnamese units runing in the South. Frequently mounting big scale expanses such as Operations Attleboro, Cedar Falls, and Junction City, American and ARVN forces captured big sums of arms and supplies but seldom engagd big formations of the enemy.[ 10 ]

The “ ecocide ” of Vietnam[ 11 ]

A In Vietnam, American military strategians set out to intentionally destruct much of the farming area and rice Paddies that fed the enemy and the jungle environment that hid their military personnels. The tools were a monolithic bombardment run and engineering borrowed from American agricultural invention – powerful chemical weedkillers. Critics charge that this was a policy of conventional and chemical warfare that created the “ ecocide ” of Vietnam – the devastation of full ecology of huge parts. Vietnam was the most to a great extent bombed state in history. Between 1964 and 1975, there were over 7.5 million dozenss of bombs and other regulation dropped on North and South Vietnam. That compares with 2.1 million dozenss of weaponries during all of World War II and 454,000 dozenss during the Korean War.

Guerilla Tactics against US military personnels

In December 1965, Ho Chi Minh and the North Vietnamese leading ordered a alteration in a manner the war in the South was to be fought. From now on, the Vietcong would avoid pitched conflicts with the Americans unless the odds were clearly in their favour. There would be more hit and run onslaughts and ambuscades. To counter the American build-up, Vietcong enlisting would be stepped up and more North Vietnamese Army military personnels would be infiltrated into South Vietnam.The Vietcong, following the illustration of Chinese guerrillas before them, had ever given the highest precedence to making safe base countries. They were developing evidences, logistics centres and central offices. They besides offered unafraid sanctuaries for times when the war might travel badly.Hiding the base countries had ever been a high precedence for the Vietcong. Now, with American spotter planes everyplace, it was more critical than of all time to protect them. In distant swamps or woods, there were few jobs, but nearer the capital, it was much more hard. The reply was to construct tremendous systems of belowground tunnels.The orders coming from NLF central offices were perfectly clear. Tunnels were non to be treated as mere shelters. They were contending bases capable of supplying uninterrupted support for military personnels. Even if a small town was in enemy custodies, the NLF beneath were still able to carry on violative operations. There were composites large and little scattered across the state. Each villager in a NLF country had to delve three pess of tunnel a twenty-four hours. There was even a standard enchiridion stipulating how tunnels were to be built. The biggest tunnel systems were in the Iron Triangle and the Cu Chi District, merely 20 stat mis from Saigon.[ 12 ]A

Vietnamiztion of war

Campaigning under the slogan “ Peace with Honor, ” Richard M. Nixon won the 1968 presidential election. His program called for the “ Vietnamization ” of the war which was defined as the systematic physique up of ARVN forces to the point that they could prosecute the war without American support. As portion of this program, American military personnels would easy be removed. Nixon complemented this attack with attempts to ease planetary tensenesss by making out diplomatically to the Soviet Union and People ‘s Republic of China. In Vietnam, the war shifted to smaller operations geared towards assailing North Vietnamese logistics. While the antiwar motion in the US was pleased with Nixon ‘s attempts at detente with communist states, it was inflamed in 1969, when intelligence broke about a slaughter of 347 South Vietnamese civilians by US soldiers at My Lai ( March 18, 1968 ) . Tension grew further when, following a alteration in stance by Cambodia, the US began bombing North Vietnamese bases over the boundary line. This was followed in 1970, with land forces assailing into Cambodia, a move viewed as spread outing the war instead than weaving it down. Public sentiment sunk lower in 1971 with the release of the Pentagon Papers. A top secret study, the Pentagon Papers detailed American errors in Vietnam since 1945, every bit good as exposed lies about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, detailed US engagement in force outing Diem, and revealed secret American bombardment of Laos. The documents besides painted a black mentality for American chances of triumph. Despite the incursion into Cambodia, Nixon had begun the systematic backdown of US forces, take downing troop strength to 156,800 in 1971. That same twelvemonth, the ARVN commenced Operation Lam Son 719 with the end of break uping the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos. In what was seen as a dramatic failure for “ Vietnamization, ” ARVN forces were routed and driven back across the boundary line. Further clefts were revealed in 1972, when the North Vietnamese launched a conventional invasion of the South, assailing into the northern states and from Cambodia. This offense was merely defeated with the support of US airpower ( Operation Linebacker ) .

End of struggle

In October 1972, Nixon ‘s National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, concluded a secret peace understanding with North Vietnam ‘s Le Duc Tho. After reexamining the understanding, President Thieu demanded major changes to the papers. In response, the North Vietnamese published the inside informations of the understanding and stalled the dialogues. Feeling that Hanoi had attempted to abash him and to coerce them back the tabular array, Nixon ordered the bombardment of Hanoi and Haiphong in late December 1972 ( Operation Linebacker II ) . On January 15, 1973, after coercing South Vietnam to accept the peace trade, Nixon announced the terminal of violative operations against North Vietnam.[ 13 ]

Paris Peace Accords

The Paris Peace Accords stoping the struggle were signed January 27, 1973, and were followed by the backdown of the staying American military personnels. The footings of the agreements called for a complete ceasefire in South Vietnam, allowed North Vietnamese forces to retain the district they had captured, released US captives of war, and called for both sides to happen a political solution to the struggle. As an temptation to Thieu, Nixon offered US airpower to implement the peace footings. With US forces gone from the state, South Vietnam stood entirely. The state of affairs worsened in December 1974, when Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, cutting off all military assistance. This act removed the menace of air work stoppages should North Vietnam break the footings of the agreements. Shortly after the act ‘s transition, North Vietnam began a limited offense in Phuoc Long Province to prove Saigon ‘s resoluteness. The state fell rapidly and Hanoi pressed the onslaught. Surprised by the easiness of their progress, against mostly unqualified ARVN forces, the North Vietnamese stormed through the South, finallyA capturing Saigon. South Vietnam surrendered on April 30, 1975, following the autumn of its capital. After 30 old ages of struggle, Ho Chi Minh ‘s vision of a united, communist Vietnam had been realized. During Vietnam War, the United States suffered 58,119 killed, 153,303 wounded, and 1,948 losing in action. Casualty figures for the Republic of Vietnam are estimated at 230,000 killed and 1,169,763 wounded. Combined the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong suffered about 1,100,000 killed in action and an unknown figure of hurt. It is estimated that between 2 to 4 million Vietnamese civilians were killed during the struggle.[ 14 ]



Vietnam war which turned out be U.S.A. ‘s most annihilating war can be taken as a perfect illustration for what non make when you are engaged in an asymmetric warfare against guerrillas. Changeless alterations in south Vietnam ‘s leading and failure of intelligence services of U.S.A. , which led to nil but increased the no. of KIA, Further the actions of both south Vietnam and U.S authorities were nowhere near the construct of winning the local support of the people, because it being the most of import tool for success in counter guerrilla warfare.