Geopolitics Involved In The Regional Context History Essay

The immediate menace to any state arises in its vicinity. That is why the care of peace, stableness and friendly relationship with neighbouring provinces is considered basic to a state ‘s foreign policy. India ‘s dealingss with its neighbors hence constitute a important constituent of its foreign policy.[ 1 ]. The specific geo-strategic location of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean and cultural similarity of the Indian Tamils with the Sri Lankan Tamils have been the most critical factor in their relationship. India is the closest neighbor of Sri Lanka, separated from it at its narrowest point by 22 stat mis of sea called the Palk Strait. The illation of such a close propinquity is that developments in each state have affected the other. The long drawn cultural struggle in Sri Lanka and the direct bearing of any developments in Sri Lanka to India has directed the foreign policies of the two states in context to each other. Sri Lanka ‘s strategic location caused concern to Indian security peculiarly because of the possibility of the engagement of external powers in the cultural struggle. The incidence of external powers there can perchance present a serious menace to the security and integrity and unity of India every bit good as to regional stableness[ 2 ].

2. India-Sri Lanka dealingss in the post-1990 period have undergone a comparative alteration, together with alterations in India ‘s foreign policy perceptual experiences[ 3 ]. After the terminal of the Cold War and the outgrowth of the US as the exclusive world power, India ‘s foreign policy perceptual experiences excessively have changed. In maintaining with the altering planetary economic and trade scenario, India ‘s strategic precedences in the Indian Ocean part have besides undergone a alteration during the last two decennaries. India ‘s national security perceptual experiences have now been enlarged to include economic security, free trade and commercialism, energy security, and societal security of the population in add-on to territorial unity. After the terminal of LTTE, an old chapter has been removed from the history and way has been paved for fresh bilateral dealingss between the two provinces.[ 4 ]



3. The terminal of LTTE in Sri Lanka has ushered a new epoch in the geopolitics in the Indian Ocean Region with a big No of regional & A ; planetary participants seeking chances in the part. It is hence proposed to place & amp ; analyze the geopolitics involved in the regional context after the expiration of LTTE with particular mention to India.


4. Sri Lanka is soon at hamlets where it is endeavoring to tackle international aid & A ; at the same clip develop its dealingss particularly with regional participants like China & A ; Pakistan besides India. It is hence imperative for India to prosecute with Sri Lanka & A ; follow a ‘proactive & A ; non intrusive policy ‘ to reaffirm its diplomatic laterality in the South Asiatic Region.

Justification OF THE STUDY

5. After more than 25 year of battling terrorist act, Sri Lanka eventually achieved peace in May 2009. Sri Lankan triumph has been hailed as ‘ one of the few cases in modern history in which a terrorist group has been defeated militarily ‘ . Sri Lanka ‘s triumph over LTTE has brought about a batch of alterations in the manner the state conducted its diplomatic negotiations in the planetary & A ; the universe idiom. The state is now on a way of rapprochement & A ; rehabilitation of it ‘s displaced civilians as besides wants to turn in economic & A ; societal domains. There would a perceptible displacement in its dealingss with states and more so with India one time LTTE has been removed from the scene and new regulations of battle between the states can be formulated. Therefore it is imperative that the geopolitics in the part be studied in item so as to convey out relevancy of these developments and the hereafter in front.


6. The range of research is as follows: –

( a ) Chapter I. Introduction.

( B ) Chapter I. India Sri Lanka – Changing Political Relationss over Old ages.

( degree Celsius ) Chapter II. Sri Lanka Post LTTE.

( vitamin D ) Chapter III. Sri Lanka as Epicentre & A ; Involvement of Global Players.

( vitamin E ) Chapter IV. China ‘s Engagement in Sri Lankan Affairs.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Chapter V. India Sri Lanka Relations – The Way Ahead.

Chapter 1


7. India-Sri Lanka dealingss are based on a deep and staying friendly relationship based on shared historical experience and common civilization and cultural values sustained by geographical propinquity and cultural affinity[ 5 ]. There have been displacements and alterations in the form of the relationship marked by common differences, thorns, cooperation and friendly relationship. But, both the states have developed equal strength to defy the emphasiss and strains ; this is a noteworthy characteristic of their bilateral relationship. India-Sri Lanka dealingss are multifaceted and interconnected ; constantly, hence, they have ever carried deductions for domestic political relations and economic system in the two states. In the yesteryear, about every bilateral issue between them was intertwined with some domestic issues and hence go a affair of domestic political argument. There is mutuality but, at the same clip, the smaller spouse besides used to kick of dissymmetry in the relationship.[ 6 ]

8. The two major factors act uponing India ‘s dealingss with Sri Lanka in the yesteryear have been security and the shared ethnicity of Tamils populating in southern India and in northern and eastern Sri Lanka. Before 1980 common security perceptual experiences and New Delhi ‘s reluctance to step in in internal personal businesss in Sri Lanka ‘s capital of Colombo made for comparatively close ties between the two states ‘ authoritiess. Get downing in the mid-1950s, and co-occuring with the backdown of Britain ‘s military presence in the Indian Ocean, India and Sri Lanka progressively came to portion regional security involvements. In the 1970s, New Delhi and Colombo enjoyed close ties on the strength of the relationship between Indira Gandhi and Sri Lanka ‘s premier curate, Mrs. Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias ( S.R.D. ) Bandaranaike. India wholly approved Sri Lanka ‘s desire to replace the British security umbrella with an Indian one, and both sides pursued a policy of objectiveness and cooperated to minimise Western influence in the Indian Ocean.

9. In the post-1990 stage, the aggressively up economic coaction between India and Sri Lanka had its roots in the maturating political relationship. India ‘s clear, sincere and staying duty to the integrity, sovereignty and territorial unity of Sri Lanka and its support for a peaceable, negotiated colony of the Sri Lankan cultural clang put hatred behind and sowed the seeds for extinguishing all thorns in the political dealingss between the two states. The leaders of both the states, except for a few cases, worked together to hammer harmoniousness and peaceable dealingss between the two despite the outstanding issues. Keeping in position New Delhi ‘s altering foreign policy perceptual experiences and India ‘s earlier experience of the Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement of July 29, 1987 and the undermentioned mission of the IPKF from 1987 to 1990, and peculiarly after the blackwash of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi by the LTTE, India has resisted the option of arbitration or intercession in the cultural struggle of Sri Lanka. The events that unfolded between 1987 and 1990 imparted a new dimension to bilateral ties and these were the most hard-pressed and by and big conflictual old ages in India-Sri Lanka relationship. India ‘s intercession in the Island State had embittered both the authorities and people of Sri Lanka.

10. Gaining the restraints and cost of its direct intercession in the internal personal businesss of Sri Lanka from 1987 to 1990, India adopted a new policy of non-intervention with active involvement in the cultural struggle of Sri Lanka, the focal point being on economic cooperation. India ‘s new Sri Lanka policy vis-a-vis the cultural struggle combines its old base with the new worlds. At the centre of India ‘s foreign policy was a reproduction of the Indian Government ‘s committedness to protect Sri Lanka ‘s integrity, sovereignty and territorial unity. India ‘s realistic policy of non-intervention in the internal personal businesss of Sri Lanka and Sri Lanka ‘s committedness towards India ‘s security concerns created a convincing ambiance and accordingly brought a new epoch in the dealingss between the two states. India ‘s new policy had contributed to taking the cultivated fear composite of Sri Lanka. The leading and the people in Sri Lanka changed their attitude and believing about India. For the first clip, India was measured as an plus instead than a menace to Sri Lanka ‘s security. In the post-1990 stage, India and Sri Lanka have recognized a dense articulation web of establishments and mechanisms so as to guarantee uninterrupted cooperation irrespective of domestic political relations and alterations in the peripheral environment of the two states. However, the isolation of India from any intercession in Sri Lanka ‘s personal businesss caused other planetary and regional participants to increase their engagement in the part. A big figure of states showed avidity due to their varying involvements in the part. This shall be discussed in the subsequent chapters of this research paper.[ 7 ]

Chapter 2


11. After more than 25 old ages of battling terrorist act, Sri Lanka at last achieved peace in May 2009. But the costs – more than 75,000 deceases – were high and the battle backbreaking. To this twenty-four hours, few concede the trouble of get the better ofing what the FBI had described as “ one of the most unsafe and deadliest outfits in the universe. ” Although the universe excessively merely ignores the importance of Sri Lanka ‘s accomplishment, some of America ‘s elected functionaries are get downing to understand[ 8 ]. A Senate Foreign Relations Committee study, issued last twelvemonth, hailed Sri Lankan triumph as “ one of the few cases in modern history in which a terrorist group had been defeated militarily. ”

12. Sri Lanka ‘s attempt is a triumph for planetary democracy and demonstrates that a feasible theoretical account exists for eliminating terrorist act, a theoretical account from which the international community may yet derive valuable penetration. Sri Lankan authorities has thenceforth embarked upon the journey of difficult work of Reconstruction. The authorities has redoubled its attempts to rejuvenate democracy across our state, regenerate the economic system, and settle any differences. As the planetary community tickers, Sri Lanka recognizes the demand for clarity of action.

13. The sort of transmutation which the island state of Sri Lanka has undergone over the past few old ages is dramatic.[ 9 ]The apparently eternal war did non pass over out Sri Lankan decide to contend back, and the authorities did demo stoic bravery to reorganize and eliminate the devils. Astoundingly, they non merely defeated the LTTE, but besides uprooted it wholly. The full universe, including India, witnessed their triumph. Sri Lanka had won the war, but it has to win the Black Marias and heads.

14. The Cost of Conflict[ 10 ]. Certain inquiries nevertheless remain as to the cost which the state and the people had to pay for the triumph over LTTE. The on-going struggle has inflicted barbarous human and material costs. The contours of the human-centered catastrophe scope from people wedged in the struggle countries, the quandary of those internally displaced in the nor’-east and those who ran off from the state as refugees. By conformist estimations, at least 40,000 civilians were trapped in the crossfire in Mullaithivu territory.

15. The triumph nevertheless does non connote the terminal of jobs and belligerencies. The human ecology of this sea-locked state is to a great extent slated toward the Singhalese, who formulate 73 per cent of the entire population. Sri Lankan Tamils constitute 12.5 per cent of the population, whereas Indian Tamils and Muslims make up for 5.4 per cent and 4.8 per cent, severally. The war is undeniably over, but the issue is still unsolved.

The cultural issue was really much active, but was in hibernation, even before Sri Lanka became independent in February 1948. After their independency, the issue came to the bow, and its non-redressal led to regular reopening and maturation of the issue. The Tamil sentiments got disquieted due to the continuity of an thought in which the tyrant Sinhalese Group believed that there should be a Sinhala hegemony over the Tamil minorities.

16. The war may hold ended, but with a immense cost. The war has left Sri Lanka with cicatrixs of economic devastation, emotional agony, ruined hopes and tattered dreams. The authorities has the tremendous, if non unsurmountable, duty of picking the debriss and dust, knitting the nest and rehabilitating the Tamils. There are more than 2,50,000 internally displace individuals, who are to be fed and attended to. The Numberss of soberly physically injured individuals are countless. The Northern and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka are in debriss ; roads, infirmaries, temples, houses, churches, schools – everything has been ruined and turned into dust. It has to be reconstructed without any unreasonable hold.

17. The ‘Four-Ds ‘ scheme – Demilitarisation, Development, Democratization, and Devolution – in that order of precedency has been reiterated by President Rajapaksa[ 11 ]. The authorities is still in the first two stages and says the others “ will follow at a ulterior phase. ” Colombo has been jointing the demand for happening a ‘home adult solution ‘ to the cultural issue. However, at the uttermost, what is on the cards is the bing 13th Amendment, an derived function of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord of 1987. Through the 13th Amendment, the Island was separated into assorted states and established some powers under Provincial List. However, the Provincial Councils ever lacked sufficient powers – particularly land, constabularies and finance – to run their traffics in an efficient mode. In add-on, the Centre wields huge powers of supplanting any Provincial determinations. Alternatively of beef uping the Provinces, the present authorities is be aftering to weaken the present agreement farther. Unless there is echt power sharing, this Provincial Council apprehension will simply be an eye-lotion.

18. The Rajapaksa authorities has to travel past the constitutional tinkering in making out to minorities by demoing generousness of spirit[ 12 ]. Resettlement of the displaced, Restoration of the war-ravaged Northeast and rehabilitation of the LTTE cells should be done in a more grave and just mode. Trust shortage that exists between assorted communities of the island must be bridged on a precedence footing. These assurance edifice steps will travel a drawn-out manner in converting even the Tamil diaspora that is presently maintaining the hopes of Tamil Eelam alive. It is of import for the Sri Lankan authorities to link with the diaspora to do them lend decidedly to the development of the state. It must be realised that this is the important chance available to Rajapaksa government non merely for deciding the cultural issue one time and for all, but besides to take the Island state to new highs.


19. The pristine Island is in despairing demand of immense international assistance, both in looks of hard currency, and sort. The desolation and crumbling of economic system led to a big figure of foreign states being invited by Sri Lankan authorities for rehabilitation and other aid. The international community – particularly the US and other Western states, including India have extended a broad assisting manus to see that Sri Lanka is taken out of this ruinous state of affairs. Each state had its ain involvements in head and an docket to continue while being generous. Mahinda Rajapaksa may get down from the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution made in 1987 – a landmark in the history of Tamil cultural agitation in Sri Lanka. The work of alleviation, rehabilitation and modernisation has to be continued with extreme preciseness and choiceness. Any apathy or dreamy attack will impair the full procedure of mending. Bringing Tamils in the political mainstream – The licking of the LTTE may be forcing hardliners to the corners, but complacence on the portion of political leading in this respect may give clip to the hardliners to realine and distribute discontent among the Tamil population which is already transeunt through a period of unprecedented societal, economic and political convulsion. The procedure of economic rebuilding and political declaration should travel side by side ; else, the original euphory may split like bubbles. The sky-high assurance of the authorities and the Sri Lankan defense mechanism forces should be channelised in a positive and constructive way. Peace edifice and development will necessitate the strengthening of local traditions of pluralism and common carbon monoxide being over forms of segregation and exclusivity. Policies and programmes to further Diaspora engagement in development can at the same time heighten the rapprochement across the cultural divides.A A

Chapter 3


20. Since the LTTE ‘s licking, Sri Lanka has been drawn into the whirl of great power competition. Sri Lanka ‘s strategic place in South Asia and astride the cardinal sea paths from the Middle East and Africa to North East Asia and across the Pacific has made it the bosom of turning attending by the major powers. For case, China, which is looking for to protect its maritime trade, used the war to beef up its place in Colombo-providing weaponries, assistance and diplomatic backup in return for economic and strategic concessions-in specific, a major new Southern Port in Hambantota. India and Pakistan, along with the European powers, are besides competing for place in Sri Lanka.

21. The Sri Lankan Government under President Mahinda Rajapakse is working the geo-political battle flowering in the Indian Ocean between India and China, and with the United States holding its ain docket for retaining its influence.[ 13 ]While Pakistan is playing for bets in Sri Lanka with Chinese cognition to thwart the pitch for India, the Russians excessively are maintaining a hawk oculus on any action in the Indian Ocean. Pakistan ‘s battles in Sri Lanka are specifically strategically sensitive to India.[ 14 ]Strategically, it is in India ‘s involvement to maintain its challengers out of its field of influence. India needs to put more in Sri Lanka to maintain China within its zone of influence. India sought to extinguish these bullying through assorted bilateral understandings with Sri Lanka.

22. Owing to assorted apparent grounds, In the post-LTTE epoch, Sri Lanka has become close to China, Pakistan and Israel because of their political and military support to Colombo during the war[ 15 ]. China has partly filled the vacuity created by India ‘s disinclination to actively take part in Sri Lanka ‘s war attempt. While the Indian Government declined to offer military equipment, mentioning political irresistible impulses and anxiousness over the usage of force against the LTTE, China filled in the breach with broad supply of a broad assortment of armaments. The timely aid rendered during the war has enabled China to derive a batch of strategic infinite and dependability in Sri Lanka. More about Chinese intercession in Sri Lanka would be discussed in the subsequent chapter.

23. The USA has besides been an active participant in Sri Lanka both in advancing the peace procedure 2002 and subsequently in back uping Sri Lanka ‘s war attempt[ 16 ]. The major destabilising factor, nevertheless, besides has been the US, which is determined to counter China ‘s turning influence in Asia, including Sri Lanka. Following the LTTE ‘s licking in Sri Lanka, the Obama disposal, which had backed Rajapakse ‘s war, cynically played the “ human rights ” card. Together with the Europeans, Washington offered a declaration in the United Nations Human Rights Council naming for a war crimes probe as a agency of coercing the Sri Lankan authorities. China, nevertheless, flexed its diplomatic might, blocked the US and European move and supported the Sri Lankan authorities ‘s ain declaration acclaiming its triumph in the “ war against panic ” . By early December, the US had besides shifted tack. A major study entitled “ Sri Lanka: Recharting US Strategy After the War ” , issued by the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, highlighted the danger of China ‘s turning influence in Colombo to US strategic involvements and bluffly declared that the US “ can non afford to ‘lose ‘ Sri Lanka ” . It advised “ a new attack that increases US purchase vis-a-vis Sri Lanka ” utilizing economic, trade and security inducements. Equally far as “ human rights ” , while they remained of import, the study stated, “ United states policy towards Sri Lanka can non be dominated by a individual docket. It is non effectual at presenting existent reform, and it shortchanges US geostrategic involvements in the part ” .

24. On the other manus, Rajapakse is besides acutely cognizant that he can ill-afford to estrange the US. During the class of the presidential election, he boasted that he had opposed the “ international confederacy ” to salvage the LTTE and smear the ground forces with war offenses charges. But his anti-Western posturing and defense mechanism of “ small Sri Lanka ” ever had its bounds. While indicating to Washington ‘s war offenses in Afghanistan, he merely did so to warrant his ain. He was ever careful ne’er to take names and now shows every mark of desiring improved ties with the earlier “ plotters ” -the US and the EU.

25. On issues associating to Sri Lanka, the USA had been keeping close contact with India[ 17 ]. It is apparent that USA values India for its sole geographic and strategic advantage in Sri Lanka ; this relationship is likely to be strengthened to equilibrate the mounting Chinese profile in the South Asiatic part. Recent U.S and Western policy towards Sri Lanka has been fashioned mostly by the Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora. The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora, i.e. people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin populating outside Sri Lanka, constitutes about 1 million individuals in the Western states ( Table ) .A A It has important anterooms in states such as Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union, A and Australia who use ballots and financess to act upon politicians in the name of Tamil rights. The LTTE ‘s secessionist battle in Sri Lanka and its huge fiscal kingdom of licit and illicit activities was built about wholly with Diaspora support.A A

26. The nature of future dealingss between Washington and the Rajapakse government is by no agencies transparent.[ 18 ]What is certain is that this great power competition, particularly between the US and China, is adding an explosive new issue to the volatile and unstable mix of Sri Lankan political relations. USA is confounded by the turning influence of China in the part and fears its hegemonic purposes. It has hence intensified its attempts to take on board states in the part like Sri Lanka and show a more active engagement in the personal businesss in the part. Whatever the immediate result, the factional warfare in the opinion elites will merely intensify the economic crisis confronting the island, and hence the resoluteness of whoever comes out on top to establish a barbarian assault on the societal place of the on the job category.

27. There are some important grounds why India would wish to play a larger function in the Sri Lankan peace procedure. The first would be to repeat India ‘s diplomatic dominance over the South Asiatic part. The active diplomatic function being played by Norway in the Sri Lanka ‘s peace procedure could signal an augmented international function in step ining in struggle declaration processes in South Asia as a whole. Norway is among the major supplier of human-centered aid to Sri Lanka. In 2009 Norway contributed with 94 million NOK ( 16 million USD ) to back up attempts of the UN, International and local Non-governmental Administrations and the International Committee of the Red Cross.A It has supported support, peculiarly in the piscary sector, and school building as precedence countries. Norway besides supported Reconstruction of spiritual sites in the South and the East. The entire Norse part to rehabilitation attempts in Sri Lanka came to 54 million USD.

28. Although both the Sri Lankan and Norse authoritiess have taken public strivings to maintain India briefed on developments in the peace procedure, there has been a decorative component to them. India has been unable to debar the internationalization of Sri Lanka ‘s peace procedure. What started as an sole Norse enterprise in 2000 has now grown into a procedure that officially includes Japan, the United States and the European Union. These three international histrions, all of them planetary world powers, now have a go oning function as co-chairs of the Tokyo conference that set benchmarks for the peace procedure which pledged a monolithic sum of USD 4.5 billion for five old ages. Indian sadness at Japan ‘s political and economic function in the peace procedure has been reported in the media. The challenge for Sri Lanka is to chase away India ‘s security and geopolitical concerns even as it strives to tackle international aid to decide its cultural struggle and construct up its economic system.

29. Relationss between Pakistan and the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka are by and big warm[ 19 ]. In the yesteryear, Pakistan assisted the Government of Sri Lanka in supplying hi-tech military equipment to the Sri Lankan ground forces in the civil war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Sri Lanka started purchasing weaponries and ammo from Pakistan in a large manner from 1999. The entire purchases until Jan 2008 were deserving $ 55 million while there has been a sudden leap in the measure of ware ordered in 2009- 2010 and the sum has been tripled. Pakistan has made the best usage of the isolation which India showed towards Sri Lanka due to its domestic concerns and has embarked upon a journey of beef uping dealingss with Sri Lanka. With India hesitant to subscribe a Defence Cooperation Agreement with Sri Lanka and unwilling to provide it with the sort of arms it is looking for, Colombo had turned progressively to Pakistan. There are sections of sentiment in Sri Lanka that are in favour of the authorities finalizing a defense mechanism cooperation understanding with Islamabad.

30. In May 2000, President Musharraf of Pakistan supplied 1000000s of dollars of much-needed arms to the Sri Lankan authorities, when separationist Tamil Tiger Rebels were about to recapture their former capital of Jaffna[ 20 ]. In August 2006, suspected LTTE Rebels attempted to assassinate Pakistan ‘s embassador to Sri Lanka, Bashir Wali Mohamed, with a claymore mine in Colombo. Wali Mohamed was non hurt, but seven others died. In May 2008, Lt. Gen Sarath Fonseka of the Sri Lanka Army held negotiations with his Pakistan Army counter-parts sing the sale of military equipment, arms and ammo. The sale of 22 Al-Khalid MBTs to Sri Lanka was finalised during these negotiations in a trade worth over US $ 110 million.

31. Soon after the licking of the LTTE in Sri Lanka, Islamabad congratulated Sri Lanka and the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Hussein A Bhaila of Sri Lanka called Pakistan a true friend stating “ The authorities and the people of Sri Lanka have considered Pakistan as a true friend of Sri Lanka, which has ever stood by it in times of demand… ” For India, it is hence of import to retain a balance in dealingss with Sri Lanka. While it can non regulate the Sri Lankan dealingss with other states, it can do an attempt to maintain a balance and guarantee that its ain involvements are non badly hijacked by any other state. A batch needs to be done diplomatically to prolong the age old coherence between the two provinces.

Chapter 4


“ China will look into Indian efforts to rule the Indian Ocean. India seeks to develop its Navy to equal big planetary powers. This is something we can non accept. We are non prepared to allow the Indian Ocean become India ‘s Ocean. ”

-General Zhao Zhanqui, Director of the Chinese Academy of Military Sciences, 1993

32. The People ‘s Republic of China ‘s relationship with Sri Lanka has frequently been regarded as all conditions and clip tested. This friendly relationship for both the Asiatic states holds great importance and is invaluable in footings of common involvement. In recent old ages the company has deepened even further and China has several defense mechanism pacts with Sri Lanka. China has been a steady beginning of defense mechanism equipment and has cooperated with Sri Lanka to overhaul and spread out the Sri Lanka Defence Force.

China and Sri Lanka keeping and advancing closer cooperation in the country of Defence. China ‘s defense mechanism exports to Sri Lanka have tripled.

China exports ammo, anti-tank guided missiles, Rocket launchers and shoulder fired SAMs, particularly during its battle against LTTE. China and Sri Lanka have been willing to hike their capablenesss for hi-tech aerial warfare and restructure and reorient its military ‘s to react to the new and rising challenges of battling insurrectionists and therefore has sought Chinese aid for the same.

33. China and Sri Lanka besides collaborating in the country of military preparation, exercises. Recently Sri Lanka Defence Secretary & A ; Sri Lankan military squad visited China. A Chinese senior military officer & A ; Chinese military squad expected to see Sri Lanka in the twelvemonth 2020 to increase the defense mechanism supply between the two states.

34. China became Sri Lanka ‘s biggest weaponries provider in the 1990s, when India and Western authoritiess refused to sell arms to Colombo for usage in the civil war

21. Earlier, after the 1971 Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna ( JVP ) rebellion, the so authorities of Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike purchased arms from China to run into security demands. Beijing had increased weaponries gross revenues significantly to Sri Lanka since 2007 to include among others, Chinese Jian-7 combatant jets, flak guns and JY-11 3D air surveillance radio detection and rangings, when the US suspended military assistance over human rights issues. Since 2007, China has encouraged Pakistan to sell arms to Sri Lanka and to develop Sri Lankan pilots to wing the Chinese combatants. China has besides provided important diplomatic support in the UN Security Council, thronging attempts to set Sri Lanka on the docket. It has besides boosted fiscal assistance to Sri Lanka, even as Western states have reduced their parts. China ‘s assistance to Sri Lanka jumped from a few million dollars in 2005 to about US $ 1 billion in 2008, replacing Japan as the biggest foreign giver

22. By comparing, the United States gave US $ 7.6 million and Britain merely ? 1.35 million. China is besides building a port at Hambantota, on the Southern seashore of Sri Lanka, 10 stat mis from one of the universe ‘s busiest transportation paths, at a cost of US $ 1 billion. China plans to utilize the port as a refuelling and docking station for its naval forces, as it patrols the Indian Ocean and protects China ‘s supplies of Saudi oil. While the Chinese say that Hambantota is a strictly commercial venture, its strategic location makes it a really valuable plus for future usage. As of now, China has no programs for a fully fledged naval base at Hambantota, nevertheless, India needs to maintain a close ticker over the developments.

35. China has besides used it veto power in the United Nations Security Council to blockade the treatment on stairss undertaken by the Sri Lankan authorities in its battle against the LTTE. This was welcomed by Colombo with claims that these moves in the UN, “ have been shot down by Sri Lanka ‘s steadfast ally in its war on terrorist act, i.e. China. ” Well it would non be incorrect to reason that this measure was taken by Beijing in order to beef up its influence in the part. It has been Beijing ‘s policy to non interfere in the domestic affairs of any state. But in this respect it did travel out of its manner to demo its support for the Sri Lankan authorities ‘s policies.

36. China ‘s quiet averment in India ‘s backyard has put Sri Lanka ‘s authorities in a place non merely to play China off against India, but besides to disregard ailments from outside Asia about human rights misdemeanors in the merely complete war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam ( LTTE ) .

23While Chinese diplomatic negotiations in South Asia, grounded as it is in a policy of “ harmoniousness ” and deep pockets, is of obvious concern to India, so are the sentiments of Tamils at place. India will hold to guarantee that the aspirations of Tamil people in Sri Lanka are met, while at same clip non take any action that will set Sri Lanka farther into the Chinese crease. India hence needs to step on a hard way of equilibrating its act.

37. India has supplied “ defensive or non lethal ” weapon systems like automatic 40mm L-70 close scope anti-aircraft arms and ‘Indra ‘ low winging sensing radio detection and rangings to the Island state, apart from preparation of Sri Lankan military forces. India ‘s parts had besides grown, to about US $ 600 million in 2008. But this twin-pronged scheme of supplies of weaponries and military preparation, coupled with sharing of intelligence and “ coordinated ” naval patrolling, has nevertheless, failed to efficaciously counter Pakistan and China ‘s ever-growing strategic inroads into Sri Lanka. The increasing intimacy between Beijing and Colombo is a ground for concern for New Delhi. During the building of the, port a big figure of Chinese experts are to be expected to be present in the part which is turn outing to be a sedate security concern for the Indian side.

38. Another result of Chinese diplomatic negotiations is that Beijing has decided to allow Sri Lanka a duologue spouse position in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization ( SCO ) .

24Sri Lanka along with Belarus will be the first states to have this particular position after it was instituted last twelvemonth. This show of turning Chinese involvement in the Indian Ocean has made it richly clear that Beijing is following a designed scheme to encircle India in the sub-continent. The ‘all conditions friendly relationship ‘ between China and Pakistan has been a grave cause of concern for India for a long clip. But with the transition of clip, China has successfully undermined India ‘s influence in states like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. China is besides at the same time seeking to increase its influence in Afghanistan every bit good. With such warming ties between Colombo and Beijing it is rather obvious that China has been successful in diplomatically doing India the 2nd most of import participant in its ain part.

Chapter 5


39. India-Sri Lanka dealingss are based on a deep and digesting friendly relationship, based on shared historical acquaintance and common civilization and cultural values sustained by Al closeness and cultural affinity[ 25 ]. There have been alterations and displacements in the form of the relationship marked by common differences, thorns, cooperation and friendly relationship. However, both the states have developed equal strength to defy the strains and emphasiss ; which is a outstanding characteristic of their bilateral relationship. India – Sri Lanka dealingss are multifaceted and interconnected systematically, hence, they have terrible deductions for domestic political relations and economic system in the two provinces. About every bilateral issue between the two states is intertwined with some domestic issues and has hence become a affair of domestic political argument. There is mutuality nevertheless, at the same clip, the smaller spouse besides complains of dissymmetry in the relationship.

40. In the post-LTTE epoch, a frictional chapter in India-Sri Lankan history has come to an terminal. It is clip for India and Sri Lanka to get down a new chapter with renewed energy and verve by strict cooperation in assorted Fieldss. It is likely that this period would non witness the policy of intercession but instead of common trust and harmoniousness. In this period, both states have agreed that with the decision of the military operations in Sri Lanka, the clip is favourable to concentrate attending on issues of alleviation, relocation, rehabilitation and rapprochement, every bit good as a digesting political solution to the cultural struggle.

41. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh noted in his response to the argument on the gesture of thanks to the President ‘s reference to the joint session of the Parliament that the Tamils ‘ job was much larger than the LTTE and he hoped the Sri Lankan Government would demo bravery and imaginativeness in run intoing the legitimate concerns and aspirations of the Tamil people. The Prime Minister told the Parliament that India has made it cognize to all that it has no purpose of teaching Colombo on the political forepart, but it is ready to play an vigorous portion in alleviation and rehabilitation of the IDPs. India has granted Rs 500 crores for this intent. The Prime Minister, Mr Manmohan Singh stated in Parliament: “ We are willing to make more to reconstruct normalcy and to assist such displaced people return to their rightful place and businesss. ” India ‘s bilateral dealingss with Sri Lanka could be strengthened even further with the terminal to the military struggle.

42. It is hence imperative that India adopts a pro-active scheme towards Sri Lanka in order to non merely procure the Tamil cause but besides for its ain hypertrophied security concerns. Economic assistance could be a immense trump card in India ‘s foreign policy. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has congratulated the President of Sri Lanka, Mahinda Rajapakse, on his re-election as the President on January 26, 2010. The recent visits of Sri Lankan Oresident in May 2010 and during the Commonwealth Games have endorsed the turning dealingss and intimacy between the two states.

43. Hence it is imperative that India positions at these developments in Sri Lanka with great cautiousness and ensures an appropriate foreign policy towards Sri Lanka. India will hold to safeguard its involvements chiefly in the Indian Ocean part. The sea lanes of the Indian Ocean have become more and more critical for India ‘s spread outing planetary trade. They carry fossil fuels so important for India ‘s of all time increasing energy demands. India needs to put more in Sri Lanka to maintain China within its zone of influence. India ‘s timely aid during the Tsunami has proved to the universe that India is capable of managing challenges confronting the part. India-Sri Lanka dealingss are now wide based with the economic docket being a precedence followed by strategic considerations. India ‘s strategic involvements in Sri Lanka have been enlarged to protect and project India ‘s strategic and economic involvements by constructing strong bonds with Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka was the first state with which India has signed a Free Trade Agreement, the trade between the two states is expected to turn to $ 4.5 billion by the terminal of this twelvemonth. There is greater grasp between the two states of each other ‘s jobs and perceptual experiences.

44. Sri Lanka has therefore far been punctually sensitive in covering with the Indian concerns. When axis of oil geographic expedition were parceled out in the Gulf of Mexico, the Sri Lankan authorities gave equal chances to both India and China, apportioning one axis each to both states. With bilateral ties making $ 2.02 Bn in 2009, Sri Lanka is now India ‘s largest trading spouse in SAARC. India should, nevertheless be more generous in opening its ain markets to Sri Lanka and follow a more matter-of-fact attack so that Sri Lanka is non forced to follow a pro China attack.

45. Apart from economic cooperation, there are other countries where India needs to prosecute Sr Lanka. Militarily, India can develop its military personnels with Sri Lnkan forces who are fresh out of their experience against LTTE. India has already assisted Sri Lanka in settin up of its air defense mechanism apparatus every bit good as heightening its int capablenesss. India excessively can derive from experience of Sri Lanka and selectively use them in its battle against terrorist act. India can besides portion its engineering in the Fieldss of infinite engineering, revolution in communicating sphere, research and development in scientific discipline, medical specialty and wellness attention. The following few old ages will turn out to be really important for specifying dealingss between the two states when Sri lanka is looking for greater engagement in its growing by foreign participants.

46. There is consensus within and outside Sri Lanka that with the LTTE out of the manner, a aureate chance has presented itself before the authorities to work towards a merely, honorable and lasting political colony of the cultural struggle. In the post-LTTE epoch without degeneration the internal state of affairs in Sri Lanka would go on to be edgy. This could hold an unannounced consequence on the Tamil Nadu state of affairs. In the post-civil war period if the relationship between the Tamils of Tamil Nadu and the Tamils of Sri Lanka is turned into a positive and vivacious force, a antecedently restraining factor in India-Sri Lanka dealingss could transform into a promising connexion pulling India and Sri Lanka closer to each other. Other countries where India needs to prosecute Sri Lanka include societal and cultural kingdoms where the two states find themselves similar to each other than any other state. The cultural similarity between the two states can be instrumental in adhering the two states strongly. More frequent exchanges need to be carried out with an purpose to interfacing the people and taking any trust shortage which may be go outing due to certain differences[ 26 ].


46. India-Sri Lanka dealingss are now wide based with the economic docket being a precedence followed by strategic considerations. India ‘s strategic involvement in Sri Lanka has been enlarged to protect and project India ‘s strategic and economic involvements by constructing strong bonds with Sri Lanka[ 27 ]. With the terminal of LTTE, there is greater esteem between the two states of each other ‘s jobs and perceptual experiences. It is imperative that India adopts a pro-active policy towards Sri Lanka in order to non merely salvage the Tamils but besides for its ain hypertrophied security grounds and prosecute Sri Lanka in a constructive mode as along term spouse. Today, the India-Sri Lanka relationship is strong and poised for a quantum leap by constructing on the rich bequest of historical linkages and strong economic and development partnerships that have been forged in recent old ages.

47. India and Sri Lanka must look to the hereafter, to an interrelated South Asiatic hereafter where geographics becomes an instrument of chance in our common growing narrative, where history binds instead than divides, where trade and cross-border links flourish and convey prosperity to all our peoples.

28Some will state these are simply dreams ; yet there few worthwhile accomplishments in the universe that have non been preceded by ambitious aspirations. But dreams will merely turn into world if we take action to carry through this brighter hereafter together. Merely work on the land will assist us get the better of prejudiced mentalities, dogmatic philosophies and self-perpetuating myths. One thing is nevertheless clear. Our fates are inextricably linked and we have to work together to raise our lives out of underdevelopment and struggle to peace and prosperity.

Today, the India-Sri Lanka relationship is strong and poised for a quantum leap by constructing on the rich bequest of historical linkages and strong economic and development partnerships that have been forged in recent old ages. The skyline stretches far but the sky is well-lit, therefore the demand of the hr is that in the shared pursuit for peace and prosperity, the two states need to cruise together.