French And Indian War History Essay

Introduction

War is defined as “ an openly declared province of organizedA struggle, typified by extremeA aggression, societalA break, and highA mortality ” ( Wikipedia ) . War is normally between two different groups or parties that disagree about certain issues. This study is about the early phases of the United States of America ( U.S.A ) and the non- familiar wars that shaped the state the manner it is today.

The Gallic and Indian War started before the U.S.A was a state. This war helped the enlargement of districts. It showcased George Washington in his first military leading function. The war gave the settlers the passion to contend the British for our freedom subsequently on in the Revolutionary War. As Reverend Samuel Johnson of Connecticut declared, “ It is genuinely a suffering thing that we no Oklahoman leave contending our neighbours, the Gallic, but we must fall to disputing among ourselves ” ( Shmoop ) .

The War of 1812 was called the 2nd war of independency. After this war, no foreign power has of all time fought on our dirt once more. Due to the fact that exports were stopped, Americans had to depend on their ain capablenesss to bring forth supplies. This war made the remainder of universe return notice of this state called U.S.A. Andrew Jackson sums the chief thought of independency during this war. He says, “ Who are we? And for what are we traveling to contend? A Are we the coroneted slaves of George III? A The military draftees of Napoleon the Great? A Or the frozen provincials of the Russian Czar? A No.A We are the freeborn boies of America.A The citizens of the lone democracy now bing in the world.A And the lone people on Earth who possess rights, autonomies, andA propertyA which theyA dareA name their ain ” ( Pastebin ) .

The Mexican-American War was about the invasion of the Americans on Mexican land particularly in Texas and California. The Mexican-American War produced and developed future officers and leaders of the War Between the States. The War besides expanded the United States yet once more. It inflamed the bondage issues in these districts every bit good. As Ashbel Smith former secretary of province for the Texas Republic stated, “ the Mexican War is portion of the mission of the fate allotted to the Anglo-Saxon race on this continent.A It is our fate, our mission to Americanise this continent… . The blade is the great civilizer ” ( Pinzler ) .

These wars are sometimes disregarded or hardly mentioned in United States history. They created future leaders and presidents of the United States. Their significances are stepping-stones to our military power, territory enlargement, and our pride for our state.

Gallic and Indian War

The Gallic and Indian War started in 1754 and lasted until 1763. Wars between France and Britain were first fought in Europe. There were three phrases that led up to the Gallic and Indian War. The first stage was from 1690- 1697 and it better known as the King William ‘s War. The 2nd stage was Queen Anne ‘s War it is was fought in 1702 and lasted until 1713. The last stage before the Gallic and Indian War was King George ‘s War and it was fought between 1744-1748. “ Following the 3rd of these struggles, Gallic governments in North America began to set up a twine of garrisons in the Ohio state West of the Allegheny Mountains ” ( US History ) . In 1755, France held most of the districts in America. It covered topographic points from Canada and the stretch of land from the Mississippi River all the manner to Louisiana. A group of Virginians received grants for land secret plans in the Ohio Valley. This land was supposed to be used for fur trading. This made tensenesss rise because the indigens favored the Gallic. They thought that the Gallic traded more reasonably and they did non endanger their land like the British. “ In 1753, a little group of work forces were dispatched to the disputed district by Virginia lieutenant governor Robert Dinwiddie. The purpose was to present a missive of protest to Gallic functionaries ” ( US History ) . They refused and on May 28, 1754 Washington and his forces broke out in conflict and inflicted heavy casualties. Washington besides took many prisoners. Then on July 3rd of that same twelvemonth, the Gallic forces struck back. After a twenty-four hours long conflict, which was the first of the Gallic and Indian War George Washington, signed footings of resignation and returned defeated. The Gallic and Indian War had now officially begun.

The Gallic and Indian War involved military personnels from Austria, England, Great Britain, Prussia, Sweden, and France. These military personnels and their leaders were involved in wars throughout Europe, India and North America. In early 1755, England sent two regiments to the settlements to protect them from the Gallic and Indian invasions. Then in 1756, readyings were made for conflicts across the American frontier. The English planned to travel up Lake Champlain and environing countries. The Canadians joined the war during the Battle of Oswego on August 10, 1756. The Canadian reserves took over Fort Oswego. This gaining control interrupted the transportation off nearby Lake Ontario. Americans suffered greatly from the loss in this conflict. Fort Duquesne was a failed effort by General John Forbes ‘s British- American Army. He had 6,000 work forces recruited in Fort Cumberland in Maryland and an excess 2,000 led by George Washington. There was no ground that he could hold non won. But on September 14, 1758 he falls to the Gallic in the Battle of Fort Duquesne. On July 6- 26 in 1759, the Gallic resignation to 2,500 British work forces in the Battle of Fort Niagara. This was a 20- twenty-four hours besieging and so eventually the British made the Gallic resignation. This was one of the concluding conflicts in the Americas during the Gallic and Indian War. “ Then in 1759, the British won the Battle of The Plains of Abraham, which allowed them to busy Quebec ” ( US History ) . In 1760, they captured Montreal, and this completed their coup d’etat of Canada. This ended the war in North America. For the Gallic they had Louis Joseph de Montcalm and for the British they had General James Wolfe. Both of the leaders were killed during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. In 1762, Spain entered the war as a Gallic ally, but it suffered great lickings from the British. The British captured Havana and Manila in 1762. The Spanish started to rethink who they should be Alliess with.

This War had important people on both sides. On the British side you had the Earl of Loundoun. He was an “ appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in 1756, Loundoun presided over, and caused, many lay waste toing failures for the British ” ( Sparknotes ) . Then there was Major General Edward Braddock and he was with the

British. He was the 1st general to get from Britain. He was killed in the Battle of Fort Duquesne. The British had Lieutenant General Robert Dinwiddie every bit good. He was the colonial leader of Virginia in 1754. He was concerned about Gallic military personnels nearing the Virginia boundary line. He sent 22 twelvemonth old George Washington to seek to make an understanding with Gallic forces. Then there was the celebrated George Washington who was on the British side of this war. He was asked to vacate after The Battle of Fort Necessity. He so returned to the war as a voluntary under British authorization. He learned how to be a leader during this war. He so became our first president and truly set his leading accomplishments to utilize. William Pitt was a strong force in the British military. He assumed leading in 1756. His new policies were aggressive and were important parts in turning the tide in Britain ‘s favour in the 2nd portion of the war. The last important individual on the British side was James Wolfe. He was the Major British general who lead his military personnels to the triumph during the Battle of Quebec. The Gallic had cardinal people as good in this war. Louis- Joseph de Montcalm was commander-in-chief of the Gallic forces in North America. He was a respectful general but besides was feared. He was killed in the Battle of Quebec. The other individual important to the French was Marquis de Vaudreull. He became governor of Canada in 1755 and he replaced Marquis Duquesne.

The tide in the war changed in 1756 when William Pitt became the British Secretary of State. The war eventually ended in 1763 with The Treaty of Paris. In this pact, France agreed to give Canada and all Gallic district E of the Mississippi, except New Orleans to England. All Gallic district West of the Mississippi along with New Orleans went to Spain. The war brought a triumph to England. An consequence that the war had on them was that they suffered enormous fiscal losingss. Even with all the losingss the “ British territorial claims greatly expanded in America ” ( Feldmeth ) . The settlements in America besides were affected by this war. They gained assurance and military experience. They awakened to the thought of the demand of colonial integrity in order to repair common jobs. Last the settlements “ saw the danger of the Gallic and certain Indian folk and removed from their frontiers, therefore decreasing their dependance of the female parent state ” ( Gordon ) . This caused 13 North American settlements to interrupt away from England and get down the beginning of the United States of America. The Gallic and Indian War ‘s long spiral of events finally led to the start of the Revolution.

War of 1812

The following war that had a heavy impact on the United States was the War of 1812, which lasted from 1812 boulder clay 1814. It took topographic point in Eastern and Central North America, Atlantic and the Pacific. “ The basic causes of the War of 1812 were: 1 ) English intervention with American trade, particularly in the ictus of American ships, 2 ) English impressments of American crewmans, 3 ) American bitterness of England, dating back to Revolutionary yearss, 4 ) American belief that the English in Canada were build uping the Indians and motivating them to bust American frontier colonies, and 5 ) American aspirations to annex Canada from England, and Florida from England ‘s ally, Spain ” ( Gordon ) . The United States attempted to alter policies by utilizing economic agencies. That did non work and on June 18, 1812 President James Madison signed a declaration of war that he passed through Congress. Ironically, Britain two yearss earlier had announced that it would revoke it orders. But it was excessively late and the War of 1812 had begun.

Important conflicts and events of the war included America ‘s efforts to suppress military personnels in Canada. All of the efforts failed and that participated greatly to America ‘s defeat during the war. Some events are even talked about to this twenty-four hours. They had affected history in a large manner. One of those events was the British capturing Washington D.C and firing several Government edifices. The British military personnels so advanced to Fort McHenry at Baltimore. Fort McHenry was still standing after the barrage. This event inspired Francis Scott Keys ‘s Star Spangled Banner. There were several conflicts every bit good during the war that affected its result. The first major conflict was at Queenston Heights. It occurred on October 12, 1812. The result was that General Brock was shot and killed. Brock ‘s decease was a major blow to the British. He inspired military personnels with his assurance. Sheaffe, his replacement could non command the same regard. He was already known to many of the military personnels in Upper Canada as a rough disciplinarian.A The Battle of Queenston Heights was a immense encouragement to British morale. On August 24, 1814 something major took topographic point that affected the British morale as good. “ It was “ the ” conflict to protect the bosom of America, and the Americans failed ” ( Ducote ) . There were many grounds why the Americans lost this conflict. The general lost assurance in his work forces and besides in his ain capablenesss. Citizen soldiers besides lost their nervus on the battleground. This lost greatly impacted Washington D.C in the instance that it left it exposed so the British could assail. Madison was forced to fly and the British came and fire down the White House, Capitol, Treasury, and the War Office. Then the following twenty-four hours after they burnt down everything and collected what they wanted they went back to their ships and acted like nil had happened. One of the most of import conflicts for the U.S in the War of 1812 was the Battle of Plattsburg Bay. On September 3, 1814, Sir George Prevost and his military personnels crossed over the boundary line into New York State. “ While the British ground forces moved down the western side of Lake Champlain, the American military personnel fell back to Plattsburg and prepared to do a base ” ( GalaFilm ) . The British acquiring ready for conflict moved easy down the lake being led by Captain George Downie. Brigadier General Alexander Macomb commanded the U.S forces. The Americans were outnumbered but they besides had the support of Thomas Macdonough and his fleet of U.S ships. For two hours the British and U.S ships were in conflict and 15 proceedingss in George Downie was killed. Then a few hours subsequently the British realized that they had been beaten and they surrendered. For the United States, it was a great morale supporter. The last conflict that was of import in the War of 1812 was The Battle of New Orleans. This conflict took topographic point on December 23, 1814 boulder clay January 26, 1815. General Andrew Jackson commanded American forces. He defeated the occupying British ground forces who had intended on seizing and taking control of New Orleans. They wanted the land acquired by America in the Louisiana Purchase every bit good. The dry portion was that the Treaty of Ghent was signed the twenty-four hours after the conflict had started. But intelligence of the peace would non make the military personnels until February. The conflict is frequently regarded as the greatest American land triumph of the war. It had no impact on the concluding colony though.

There were many important people in this War. “ It generated a dramatis personae of new American heroes, including twoA futureA presidents ” ( Shmoop ) . One of those work forces is Andrew Jackson. He commanded American forces at New Orleans. He so became our Seventh President and preserved the Union when South Carolina wanted to splinter. William Henry Harrison our 9th President besides commanded forces in the war. An extra major individual that affected this war was Harrison Gray Otis. “ As a leader within the Federalist Party during the War of 1812, he participated in the Hartford Convention, a meeting of New England Federalists called to organize the part ‘s resistance to the war ” ( Shmoop ) . He was a symbol for Federalist discontent throughout the war. The President at the clip of the War of 1812 was James Madison. He is known for doing the first war that was to a great extent influenced by the American Public. He said that we needed the war because Britain was barricading U.S ports and the British refusing to revoke an order that forbad certain states to merchandise with European states. The Secretary of War under Madison was John Armstrong. He served in the Continental Army during the Revolution. In the War of 1812, he was criticized for his public presentation. He had to get by with a little ground forces, aging officers, a little fleet of ships and unpredictable financess. There was a great trade of battle from New England governors who were unwilling to run into Armstrong ‘s troop petitions. After being criticized by people for a clip he eventually resigned on September 4, 1814. Native Americans besides played a portion in the war. A major Indian was Tecumseh, and he sided with the British to contend against U. S forces. At the Battle of Thames in 1813 Tecumseh was killed and the British and Indian forces fell to the American reserves. Thames is located in present-dayA Chatham, OntarioA inA Upper Canada. His decease led to the devastation of the Native American alliance, which he led.

The War of 1812 reaffirmed American Independence. This war was the 2nd clip we had gone into conflict against Britain and it was the 2nd clip that we came out winning. After this war, no other state would oppugn our independency or our ground forces as a whole. The war besides resulted in the decease of the Federalist Party. The war came to an terminal with The Treaty of Ghent. Although theA Treaty of GhentA addressed none of the original grudges that started the War of 1812, most Americans considered it a success. The pact was used to convey the ill will between England and the United States to an terminal. It included conditions such as all land district and captives be returned to the several side. After the War of 1812 had ended and the pact was signed people in the United States were full of pride. This is the ground it was nicknamed the “ 2nd War for American Independence. ” Americans besides turned their attending off from personal businesss in Europe. They started to be more concerned in their ain domestic personal businesss and besides conquerings and colonies of the West. Another consequence that the War of 1812 had was that industrialisation was greatly encouraged. “ The war cut off the imports of foreign goods, therefore making a demand for American industries ” ( Gordon ) . The Federalist Party dissipated after the war. They disappeared because that were ridiculed and accused of lese majesty after the Hartford Convention. They expired as a political party because no Americans wanted to be linked to them any longer. Overall historiographers argue that the war was really merely a waste of clip, lives, and resources.

Mexican- American War

In 1846, war broke out between Mexico and America and it lasted until 1848. The pressing issue that caused this war was the appropriation of Texas in 1845. Mexico decided non to negociate, the United States prepared to take Mexico by force and take what they could. There is one certain event that happened before the declaration of war that changed the manner Texans and Mexicans felt about each other. This event was the Battle of The Alamo. “ The conflict of the Alamo was portion of the appropriation of Texas from Mexico, which took topographic point ten old ages before the Mexican American War. This appropriation is believed to be one of the major factors taking up to the war ” ( UEN ) . The Alamo was used for both the Revolutionaries and the Monarchists during Mexico ‘s ten-year battle for independence.A Peoples remember the Alamo as a heroic battle against impossible odds and a topographic point where work forces made the ultimate forfeit for freedom. For this ground, the Alamo is known as the Shrine of Texas Liberty. A boundary difference was besides a cause of the Mexican War. The U. S said that the southern boundary line of Texas was formed from the Rio Grande. Mexico disputed that the boundary traditionally was at Nueces River, which was farther north. Then there was the inquiry approximately California every bit good. President Polk wanted to spread out the state to the Pacific Ocean. This was a screening of Polk desiring to stay by Manifest Destiny. The last large cause of the Mexican- American War was pecuniary claims against Mexico. The U.S had a promise with Mexico and its authorities. The promise was to pay $ 3 million to cover claims of citizens who lost belongings during convulsion and rebellions. “ Mexico defaulted on those payments and the American creditors pressed their authorities for action ” ( US History ) . The U.S declared war on May 13, 1846 and after a twosome of conflicts Mexico declared war on July 7 of that same twelvemonth.

Important events and conflicts took topographic point during the Mexican- American War. One of them was Taylor ‘s run in Northeastern Mexico. General Zachary Taylor led an ground forces of 2, 499 work forces towards Fort Texas. But along the manner Mariano Arista and his ground forces of 3,400 Mexicans intercepted him. Taylor ‘s work forces nevertheless were successful and forced the Mexicans to withdraw. This was better known as the Battle of Resaca de la Palma and it took topographic point on May 9 1846. July 7 of that same twelvemonth was another of import win to the Americans. They fought in The Battle of Monterey and won and gained Monterey as a topographic point to hive away U.S Navy vass. An of import win for the Mexicans that twelvemonth was on September 22-30 and the Siege of Los Angeles. General Jose Maria Flores led Mexican and Californians military personnels and they retook control of Los Angeles. Los Angeles was an country of battle for both Mexico and America. On January 8, 1847 in The Battle of Rio San Gabriel there was a series of conflicts for control of Los Angeles. Then the following twenty-four hours there was the Battle of La Mesa, which was the last struggle before U.S forces entered Los Angeles. U. S forces defeated the Mexicans and gained back control. Another hot topographic point for contending was in Mexico City. On September 13 and 14, fierce contending broke in what is known as the Battle for Mexico City. Mexican politicians surrendered the metropolis to the U.S after a twelvemonth of conflict.

“ Despite early popularity at place, the war was marked by the growing of a loud anti-war motion, which included such celebrated Americans as Ralph Waldo Emerson, former president John Quincy Adams and Henry David Thoreau ” ( The History Guy ) . Other cardinal people in the Mexican- American War start with the president of the clip, which was James Polk. He was the 11th president of the United States. However two yearss after he took office, dealingss between Mexico and the United States went downhill because of the appropriation of Texas. Manifest Destiny is normally linked to Polk. Manifest Destiny was “ nineteenth-century belief that theA United StatesA had a mission to spread out westward across the North American continent, distributing its signifier ofA democracy, A freedom, and civilization ” ( New World Encyclopedia ) . Franklin Pierce was our 14th president and besides was a brigadier general in the Mexican War. He led 2,400 military personnels in The Battle of Mexico City. Besides Pierce, Polk relied on General Winfield Scott during the war. Scott led the invasion of Mexico City in September 1847 and he became the first American officer to of all time take an invasion of a foreign capital. Scott was bold and make bolding in his schemes. The war made Scott a national hero and he commanded the southern onslaughts during the war. Another commanding officer during the war was General Stephen W. Kearny. He commanded the Army of the West. In August of 1846, he and 1,600 military personnels occupied Santa Fe and he helped to form a new civil authorities for New Mexico. General Zachary Taylor was of import during the Mexican- American War. He commanded the run in the North and he subsequently became the twelfth president. “ President Polk ordered General Taylor to near the Rio Grande after the U. S annexed Texas in late 1845 ” ( Shmoop ) . He had successes with runs at Palo Alto and at Resaca de la Palma. His triumph at Buena Vista made him a hero and good liked. Taylor was nominated for President on the Whig ticket because of his popularity. He assumed office in 1849. The cardinal individual on the Mexican side of this war was Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. He was the president of Mexico and a general. He capitalized on post- independency Mexico because he sided with the dominant sliver group. He was ever looking in polar 19th century event that concerned the American programs for enlargement of Texas. He was seen as the leader in the celebrated Battle of The Alamo. “ When war did interrupt out in 1846, the so exiled Santa Anna returned to Mexico and took bid of a Mexican ground forces ” ( Shmoop ) . After the pandemonium and casualties during the invasion of Mexico City by the Americans Santa Anna resigned and left the authorities taking to a prostration.

The terminal of the Mexican- American War was on February 2, 1848 when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. The land of current California, Nevada, Utah and parts of provinces surrounding those were handed over to the United States Mexico besides accepted Texas and its new southern boundary. Mexico besides received $ 15 million from U.S for amendss that had been done. Lasting effects that the Mexican- American War had was additions in district for the United States. An internal struggle over bondage was besides brought up and affected the ruin of the Mexican authorities. Mexico for a piece did non like America and was non really polite. Mexico lost huge sums of land and they were acrimonious and their authorities was fall ining because of rebellion that took topographic point during and after the war. U.S was affected in a manner that they benefited and got hurt because of the war at the same clip. The gained many districts but the wake in Congress was awful. There was the edifice of hate between the North and South and it about the pattern of bondage. This war featured the first major amphibian landing by U.S. forces in history. “ Many historiographers have regarded the Mexican War as an ignoble exercising of power fueled by the Southern slave proprietors ‘ expansionist demands ” ( US History ) .

Decision

Harmonizing to Benjamin Franklin, “ There ne’er was a good war or a bad peace ” ( AntiWar ) . This was true about the Gallic and Indian War, the War of 1812, and the Mexican-American War. The Gallic and Indian War ‘s biggest casualty were the Native Americans. The terminal of the War of 1812 brought harmoniousness and friendly relationship to the U.S.A and Britain. The Mexican-American War gave U.S the districts from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and in between. It fostered the issue of bondage in these new districts and that was one of the chief grounds for the United States Civil War every bit good. These wars should be analyzed and reviewed because of the indispensable parts they play in the foundation of the United States of America.