Fossil Fuels A Source Of Energy Engineering Essay

Fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil are the major beginning of energy in the universe at the minute, with of all time increasing demands throughout the universe, there measures are acquiring lower and lower twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours and in fact we have hit the extremum of the parabolic curve and now production of non-renewable energy resources is falling quickly. Consequently, the utilizations of alternate beginnings such as solar energy are going more broad spread. To do usage of solar energy more efficient, the sum of visible radiation on solar array systems must be maximized. A executable attack to maximising the efficiency of solar array systems is sun tracking. Proposed in this study is a system that controls the motion of a solar array so that it is invariably aligned towards the way of the Sun.

This undertaking utilizes a combination of both hardware and package in order to develop a system that proves the construct of solar trailing. Solar tracking allows solar panel to acquire exposed to more sun radiation which consequences in higher end product power. First, complete paradigm is developed in Proteus and successfully imitate. A hardware paradigm system is developed and recommendations sing future betterment on the system are besides presented.


First, I would wish to state thanks to my household and my supervisor, Mr.A NaderA Anani. He has truly been helpful throughout my undertaking and ever gave me best advice and support whenever I needed. It was his support that helped me successfully finish this undertaking.

I would besides wish to thanks my friends, who have given me a batch of aid and support throughout my universities surveies.

Table of Contentss

List of Figures

1 Introduction

Solar cells like most of the other renewable energy resources are non efficient plenty that they can use all the Sun energy to change over it to electricity, it is reported that efficiency of merely 30 % is achieved when utilizing solar cells under direct sunshine. In order to do certain that every bit much sunshine as possible can be converted to electricity, modern power electronics and digital processing techniques are being utilised. In add-on to this, maximal power point tracking circuits along with specialised solar cells are being used to bring forth electrical energy.

One of import issue that is frequently over looked is, increasing the clip of solar panel ‘s exposure to sunshine, which can be of limited continuance if solar panel is fixed or due to the motions of clouds over the solar panel. If the continuance of Sun visible radiation on solar panel is increased, this becomes the most come-at-able method of bettering the public presentation of solar cells. By using a solar tracker, end product energy from a solar powered power system can be increased dramatically.

1.1Sun Motion

If we are located in the Torrid Zones, we see that the Sun appears to follow a way that is about straight overhead. However, for locations north or South of the Torrid Zones ( e.g. , latitudes greater than 23.5 grades ) , the Sun ne’er reaches a place that is straight overhead. Alternatively, it follows a way across the southern or the northern portion of the sky. If we could acquire a solar cell to turn and look at the Sun all twenty-four hours, so it would be having the maximal sum of sunshine possible and change overing it into the more utile energy signifier electricity

1.2 Aim

Aim of this undertaking is to plan, simulate and develop a solar tracker system which will guarantee that the solar panel is aligned to the maximal sum of visible radiation by revolving it utilizing stepper motors, in order to acquire maximal Sun radiation on the solar cell surface.

1.3 Aims

This undertaking can be broken down in the undermentioned aims:

Literature Review ( Details of the Sun tracker and constituents used )

Simulation of the circuit in Proteus

Development of hardware

Testing of the merchandise

Consequences and Discussion


Recommendation for future work

Undertaking Demonstration

In order to guarantee that all the above aims of the undertaking are achieved, a logical attack is taken by make up one’s minding to make some background survey of the Sun tracker and elaborate analysis of hoofer motors. After this, hardware portion of the undertaking will be built and tested.

1.4 System Block Diagram

Figure: Block Diagram of System

As shown in the block diagram of the system on the old page, 4 visible radiation dependent resistances will be mounted on the top of the Solar panel, these LDR will be placed on the outer shell of the solar panel, it will be ensured that LDRs do non cover any portion of the solar cell surface. By mensurating the sum of visible radiation on these LDRs, determination will be made by the microcontroller as to which way stepper motor should be moved in order to revolve the solar panel for acquiring maximal sum of visible radiation.

Within the microcontroller, Analogue to digital convertor block will be utilized along with timers and digital input end product functionality.

1.5 Report Structure

Throughout the continuance of this undertaking, parts of the study have been written whenever a milepost is achieved. This subdivision demonstrates the construction which has been utilized to compose the study.

1 ) Introduction: In this subdivision, purposes, aims and block diagram including study construction is presented.

2 ) Literature reappraisal: In the literature reappraisal, inside informations of solar tracker are given. Furthermore, inside informations of the PIC microcontroller and hoofer motors will besides be presented in this subdivision.

3 ) Method: Method illustrates prototyping techniques, which includes simulation and hardware development.

Figure: Structure of Report

4 ) Hardwar Testing and Results: After development merchandise is tested and consequences obtained from it are given in this subdivision.

5 ) Discussion and Decisions: Consequences obtained from the trials are analyzed and discussed in this subdivision along with the undertaking decision.

6 ) Future work: This chapter presents possible thoughts that can be implemented on the designed paradigm in the hereafter.

7 ) Mentions: Mentions of information taken from cyberspace.

8 ) Appendix: Appendix contains the first pages of all the constituents informations sheets used in the current undertaking.

2 Literature Review

From start it was decided to utilize a microcontroller and stepper motor in add-on to the light dependent resistance for solar trailing. Literature Review of this study consists of the undermentioned subdivisions:

Solar Trackers

PIC Microcontrollers

Stepper Motors


Components used in this undertaking

2.1 Solar Tracker

A solar tracker is a device that is used to aline a individual P.V faculty or an array of faculties with the Sun. Although trackers are non a necessary portion of a P.V system, their execution can dramatically better a systems power end product by maintaining the Sun in focal point throughout the twenty-four hours [ 9 ] . Efficiency is peculiarly improved in the forenoon and afternoon hours where a fixed panel will be confronting good off from the Sun beams. P.V faculties are expensive and in most instances the cost of the faculties themselves will outweigh the cost of the tracker system. Additionally a well-designed system which utilizes a tracker will necessitate fewer panels due to increased efficiency, ensuing in a decrease of initial execution costs [ 8 ] .

Solar trackers can be divided into three chief types depending on the type of thrust and detection or placement system that they incorporate. Passive trackers use the Sun ‘s radiation to heat gases that move the tracker across the sky. Active trackers use electric or hydraulic thrusts and some type of pitching or actuator to travel the tracker. Open cringle trackers use no detection but alternatively find the place of the Sun through prerecorded information for a peculiar site.

2.1.1 Gas Trackers ( Passive Trackers )

Passive trackers use a tight gas fluid as a agency of leaning the panel. A case shot on the sun side of the tracker is heated doing gas force per unit area to increase and liquid to be pushed from one side of the tracker to the other. This affects the balance of the tracker and caused it to lean. This system is really dependable and needs small care. Although dependable and about care free, the inactive gas tracker will really seldom indicate the solar faculties straight towards the Sun. This is due to the fact that temperature varies from twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and the system can non take into history this variable [ 2 ] .

2.1.2 Active Trackers

Active trackers measure the light strength from the Sun to find where the solar faculties should be indicating. Light detectors are positioned on the tracker at assorted locations or in specially molded holders. If the Sun is non confronting the tracker straight there will be a difference in light strength on one visible radiation detector compared to another and this difference can be used to find in which way the tracker has to lean in order to be confronting the Sun [ 2 ] .

2.1.3 Open Loop Trackers

Open cringle trackers determine the place of the Sun utilizing computing machine controlled algorithms or simple timing systems.

2.1.4 Timed Trackers

These use a timer to travel the tracker across the sky. Incremental motion throughout the twenty-four hours keeps the solar faculties confronting the general way of the Sun. Trackers of this type can use one or two axes depending on their application. The chief disadvantage of timed systems is that their motion does non take into history the seasonal fluctuation in sun place.

2.1.5 Altitude / Azimuth Trackers

These use astronomical informations or sun place algorithms to find the place of the Sun for any given clip and location. Tracker location, day of the month and clip are used by a micro accountant to repair the place of the Sun. Once the place has been calculated, the faculties are moved utilizing servo motors and their place measured by encoders built into the tracker frame.

2.2 PIC Microcontroller

PIC is a household of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by micro chip engineering, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by general instrument ‘s microelectronics division. The name PIC ab initio referred to “ Programmable interface accountant ” , but shortly thenceforth was renamed as “ programmable intelligent computing machine ” . PIC is popular due to their low cost, broad handiness, big user base, extended aggregation of application notes, handiness of low cost or free development tools and consecutive scheduling ( and re-programming with brassy memory ) capableness [ 3 ] .

2.2.1 Core Architecture of 8-bit CPUs

The PIC architecture is distinctively minimalist. It is characterized by the undermentioned characteristics [ 10 ] :

Separate codification and informations infinites ( Harvard architecture )

A little figure fixed length instructions.

Most instructions are simple rhythm executing ( 4 clock rhythms ) with individual hold rhythms upon subdivisions and skips.

A individual collector ( W ) , the usage of which ( as beginning operand ) is implied ( i.e. , is non encoded in the opcode ) .

All RAM location map as registries as both beginning and/or finish of math and other maps.

A hardware stack for hive awaying return references.

A reasonably little sum of addressable informations infinite ( typically 256 bytes ) , extended through banking

Data infinite mapped CPU, port and peripheral registries

Architecture of the PIC microcontroller

Harvard architecture is newer construct. It rose out of the demand to rush up the work of the microcontroller. In Harvard architecture, informations coach and reference coach are separate, therefore a greater flow of informations is possible through the cardinal processing unit and of class greater velocity of work. Separating a plan from informations memory makes it further possible for instructions non to hold to be 8-bit words.

PIC18f household uses 14 spots for instructions which allows for all instructions to be one word instructions. It is besides typical for Harvard architecture to hold fewer instructions to be one word instructions. It is besides typical for Harvard architecture to hold fewer instructions than Von Neumann ‘s and to hold instructions to be executed in one rhythm. The major advantage with this architecture is that while an direction is being executed the following can be fetched.The executing velocity is doubled.We find this architecture in PIC16 to PIC32 households.

2.3 Stepper Motors

The hoofer motor is an electromagnetic device that converts digital pulsations into mechanical shaft rotary motion. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in distinct measure increases when electrical bid pulsations are applied to it in the proper sequence. The sequence of the applied pulsations is straight related to the way of motor shafts rotary motion. The velocity of the motor shafts rotary motion is straight related to the frequence of the input pulsations and the length of rotary motion is straight related to the figure of input pulsations applied. Many advantages are achieved utilizing this sort of motors, such as higher simpleness, since no coppices or contacts are present, low cost, high dependability, high torsion at low velocities, and high truth of gesture [ 1,4 ] . Many systems with stepper motors need to command the acceleration/ slowing when altering the velocity.

Figure: Stepper Motor

2.3.1 Bipolar v/s. Unipolar Stepper Motors

The two common types of hoofer motors are the bipolar motor and the unipolar motor. The bipolar and unipolar motors are similar, except that the unipolar has a centre pat on each weaving [ 1 ] .

Figure: Unipolar Stepper Motor

The bipolar motor demands current to be driven in both waies through the twists, and a full span driver is needed.The centre pat on the unipolar motor allows a simpler drive circuit, restricting the current flow to one way. The chief drawback with the unipolar motor is the limited capableness to stimulate all twists at any clip, ensuing in a lower torsion compared to the bipolar motor [ 1 ] . The unipolar hoofer motor can be used as a bipolar motor by unpluging the centre pat. In unipolar there are 5 wires. One common wire and four wires to which power supply has to be given in a consecutive order to do it drive. Bipolar can hold 6 wires and a brace of wires is given supply at a clip to drive it in stairss.

Figure: Bipolar Stepper Motor

2.4 L293D

We use an optoisolator ( besides called optocoupler ) to insulate microcontroller circuitry from motor. Motors can bring forth what is called back EMF, a high-voltage spike produced by a sudden alteration of current as indicated in the V = Ldi/dt expression. In state of affairss such as printed circuit board design, we can cut down the consequence of this unwanted electromotive force spike ( called land bounciness ) by utilizing uncoupling capacitances. As motors have inductances ( spiral weaving ) a uncoupling capacitance or a rectifying tube will non make the occupation. In such instances we use optoisolators. An optoisolator has an LED ( light-emitting rectifying tube ) sender and a photosensor receiving system, separated from each other by a spread. When current flows through the rectifying tube, it transmits a signal visible radiation across the spread and the receiving system produces the same signal with the same stage but a different current and amplitude. Optoisolators are besides widely used in communicating equipment such as modems. This device allows a computing machine to be connected to a telephone line without hazard of harm from power rushs. The spread between the sender and receiving system of optoisolators prevents the electrical current rush from making the system [ 10 ] .

Controling Motors while turning a motor on and off requires merely one switch ( or transistor ) commanding the way is deceivingly hard. It requires no fewer than four switches ( or transistors ) arranged in a cagey manner.


These four switches ( or transistors ) are arranged in a form that resembles an ‘H ‘ and therefore called an H-Bridge. Each side of the motor has two transistors ; one is responsible for forcing that side HIGH the other for drawing it LOW. When one side is pulled HIGH and the other LOW the motor will whirl in one way. When this is reversed ( the first side LOW and the latter HIGH ) it will whirl the opposite manner.

L293D has been used in this undertaking to insulate the microcontroller circuitry from motor circuitry and to hold better control over motor rotary motion.

Components used in this undertaking

In this undertaking PIC18F458 is used as the chief microcontroller, one of the grounds it was chosen is that it is a 40 pin device which gives more flexibleness in footings of interfacing two stepper motors and 5 LDRs. In add-on to this, bipolar hoofer motor is chosen to aline the microcontroller towards maximal sun visible radiation. Bipolar hoofer motor requires merely 4 wires to be connected to the microcontroller as compared to 5 wire interface of unipolar hoofer motor.

3 Method

After traveling through the inside informations of major constituent being used in this undertaking, it is decided to travel in front with the development of paradigm circuit.

In order to guarantee that a robust and efficient circuit is built for this undertaking, method is divided in the undermentioned chief classs.

Initial Circuit Designs in Proteus

Development of Complete circuit in Proteus

Development of the circuit on Hardware

3.1 Initial Circuit Designs

In order to get down with the circuit design, datasheet of all the constituents is analyzed and read exhaustively. Final design of the circuit was concluded after every major portion of the circuit design were developed and tested separately. Circuit designs given in this subdivision of the study, outlines major circuits that were developed before developing concluding circuit.

3.1.1 Microcontroller digital input end product circuit

First, in order to prove the microcontroller functionality along with the digital input end product map, following circuit was built in Proteus and so it was simulated by composing the C Code.

In this circuit, a 10k resistance is used to draw the active low Reset ( MCLR ) pin of the microcontroller high, so that microcontroller can run the codification. In add-on to this an external crystal of 20 MHz along with two smoothing capacitances of 18pF is used to supply clock beginning to microcontroller. LED is connected to Trap 23 via a 150 ohm resistance to restrict the sum of current fluxing out of the microcontroller.

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Figure: Microcontroller Digital Input Output Test Circuit

Microcontroller digital input end product Test circuit was built in Proteus by utilizing PIC18F458, LED and external crystal of 20MHz. By utilizing MPLAB IDE and C18 compiler, following C codification was written. Code was compiled and hex file was used in Proteus for simulation.

C Code for, Microcontroller digital input end product Test

# include & lt ; p18cxxx.h & gt ;

# define config WDT = OFF

# define config OSC = HS

nothingness chief ( nothingness )


TRISCbits.TRISC4 = 0 ;

LATCbits.LATC4 = 1 ;

while ( 1 )


Above codification was written to guarantee that, microcontroller acknowledges external crystal, set PIN 4 of PORTC as end product and so put the pin logic high to turn the LED on. Circuit behaved as expected and proved right hardware and package design.

3.1.2 Analogue to Digital Conversion Circuit

Light dependent resistances are being utilized in this circuit in order to observe the sum of Sun visible radiation. As explained in the literature reappraisal subdivision, opposition of the LDR decreases with the sum of light falling on it, it means it has high value of opposition in dark.

This changing opposition can be used to mensurate the sum of light by making a signal conditioning circuit which can change over this changing opposition to changing electromotive force. This electromotive force is so fed to the microcontroller in order to change over this physical measure to digital figure.

Following circuit is used to mensurate the electromotive force at the ADC channel of the microcontroller.

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Figure: LDR Signal Conditioning Circuit

This agreement of the LDR circuit outputs high electromotive force end product if the strength of visible radiation is high and low end product electromotive force if light strength is low. If the resistance of 10k is put before the LDR, circuit will end product high electromotive force when light strength is less and frailty versa.

The circuit was built in Proteus and by using 5v power assorted strength of visible radiation was shine on the LDR, by altering the figure on the left, by utilizing a practical voltmeter it was noted that high electromotive force was obtained at the end product when strength of visible radiation was increased and frailty versa.

Now this circuit was combined with the old circuit in order to change over linear measure electromotive force in to digital figure. Following circuit diagram shows this agreement:

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Figure: LDR Analogue to Digital Conversion

LDR parallel to digital transition circuit was designed in Proteus and by composing the undermentioned extra package codification, parallel to digital transition of the LDR opposition was verified.

C Code for, LDR ADC circuit

Void ADC_init ( nothingness )


ADCON0 = 0x80 ; ADCON1 = 0xC2 ;

ADCON0bits.ADON = 1 ;


Above presented codification, turns on ADC Module, set the transition clock at the slowest rate so that the good sum of signal can be sampled, choice parallel channels AN0, and right justified 10 spot ADC consequence.

After composing this codification in MPLAB, jinx file was created and so was used in Proteus to guarantee that the Analogue to digital transition of the LDR was performed. In order to verify the ADC consequence, debug tool of the Proteus was used by enabling Watch window functionality. Successful consequences of ADC were obtained.

3.1.3 Stepper Motor interface Circuit

As mentioned in the literature reappraisal, due to the rush effects of hoofer motors and different electromotive force evaluations as compared to runing electromotive force of microcontroller, a double H span L293D is used in this undertaking to drive the motor.

It is possible to prove the hoofer motor circuit operation in Proteus by utilizing the microcontroller. In order to transport on with the testing, L293D ( H Bridge ) and stepper motor were added to the circuit. This is shown in the undermentioned circuit diagram.

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Figure: Stepper Motor interface Test

After the circuit was built in Proteus, following C codification was written in MPLAB IDE by utilizing the C18 compiler.

C Code for, Stepper Motor interface Test Circuit

Part A

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x01 ;

LATD = 0x01 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x04 ;

LATD = 0x04 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x02 ;

LATD = 0x02 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x08 ;

LATD = 0x08 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

If LDR opposition is set high, it means there is less light, less electromotive force on the ADC channel, so Part A of the codification ensures that motor turns anti clock wise.

C Code for, Stepper Motor interface Test Circuit

Part B

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x01 ;

LATD = 0x01 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x04 ;

LATD = 0x04 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x02 ;

LATD = 0x02 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

LATC = 0x08 ;

LATD = 0x08 ;

Delay10KTCYx ( 1000 ) ;

If LDR opposition is set low, it means there is more light and high electromotive force end product, so Part B of the codification ensures that motor turns clock wise.

In order to smooth the gesture of motor hold of 1000 clock rhythms is added at each measure alteration.

After roll uping the written C codification with the old C codification from other parts of this undertaking, jinx file was generated which is used in Proteus to imitate the developed circuit. The circuit was tested by simply altering the sum of visible radiation on LDR utilizing arrow up and arrow down, it was noticed that motor moved to time wise way if the opposition was excessively low and frailty versa.

3.2 Development of Complete circuit in Proteus

After each major faculty of the solar tracker circuit was tested by composing C codification for it, a complete circuit was built in the Proteus. There were some of import alterations that were made in the design. One of the alterations was the add-on of an excess LDR in the circuit which will be placed on the center of the solar Panel shell. This will let the motor to keep the solar panel level if light on the in-between portion of the solar panel is higher than the visible radiation on the top or bottom sides.

Second alteration that was made in the circuit was the add-on of 2nd motor, along with the motor driver L293D. Both of these motors are thought to be placed on the in-between right and left places of the solar panel casing so that solar panel can be positioned exactly under changing light conditions.

The circuit diagram of the concluding design in Proteus is shown below:

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Figure: Final Circuit Design

It can be seen from the circuit that different LDRs are used whose opposition can be changed by increasing the strength of light bulb on the left side of each LDR. This gives more realistic and dynamic image to the simulation procedure.

State Machine to acquire variable sum of visible radiation

unsigned char Get_Event ( nothingness )


unsigned char Event ;

if ( ( ADC_Top_Right & gt ; ADC_Bottom_Right ) || ( ADC_Top_Left & gt ; ADC_Bottom_Left ) )


Event = 1 ; // Turn Both Motors to 0 Degree


else if ( ( ADC_Top_Right == ADC_Bottom_Right ) || ( ADC_Top_Left == ADC_Bottom_Left ) )


Event = 2 ; // Turn Both Motors to 180 Degree


else if ( ( ADC_Top_Right & lt ; ADC_Bottom_Left ) || ( ADC_Top_Left & lt ; ADC_Bottom_Left ) )


Event = 3 ;


else if ( ( ADC_Middle & gt ; ADC_Top_Right ) || ( ADC_Middle & gt ; ADC_Top_Left ) || ( ADC_Middle & gt ; ADC_Bottom_Right ) || ( ADC_Middle & gt ; ADC_Bottom_Left ) )


Event = 4 ;


return Event ;


A province machine is built by utilizing the C codification ; this province machine makes determination sing which way both the motors should be moved base on the Event generated by the Get_Event ( nothingness ) map given on the old page.

This map sends information to the chief codification in the piece cringle and this codification decides upon the action to take.

3.3 Development of the circuit on Hardware

After turn outing the circuit construct in Proteus, hardware assembly of the design is followed by developing the circuit on bread board. For proving intents, ab initio one stepper motor is used with a piece of unlifelike stuck to its rotor, LDR are placed on the composition board piece by utilizing the score tape. The C codification written antecedently has been used for proving this simple attack. It was noticed that the hoofer motor moved clock wise and anti-clockwise as expected when different sum of Sun visible radiation was shined on LDR ‘s.

After this, a solar panel, strapped to two hoofer motors was used to resemble the concluding circuit diagram. When the new circuit agreement was tested, it was noticed that there was some jitter in the motion of the motor and some clip a slowdown was present between the gestures of both the motors. The job was tracked down and it was noticed that the hold between the gestures of both the motors was due to the natural ADC value of LDR opposition.

In order to smooth out the ADC value and make proper averaging, another C map was written which utilised, drifting point math in order to average 15 samples of the ADC value before go throughing the ADC value to the chief map.

The usage of this C map is presented below:

State Machine to acquire variable sum of visible radiation

float ADC_Ave_Values ( nothingness )


inactive float mAdcAv [ 5 ] = { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 } ;

float mAdcResult [ 5 ] = { 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 } ;

mAdcResult [ 0 ] = ( float ) ADC_Read ( 0 ) ;

mAdcResult [ 1 ] = ( float ) ADC_Read ( 1 ) ;

mAdcResult [ 2 ] = ( float ) ADC_Read ( 2 ) ;

mAdcResult [ 3 ] = ( float ) ADC_Read ( 3 ) ;

mAdcResult [ 4 ] = ( float ) ADC_Read ( 4 ) ;

CalcAverageFloatV2 ( & A ; mAdcResult [ 0 ] , & A ; mAdcAv [ 0 ] , 15, 4, 15,5 ) ;

ADC_Top_Right_Ave = mAdcAv [ 0 ] ;

ADC_Top_Left_Ave = mAdcAv [ 1 ] ;

ADC_Bottom_Right_Ave = mAdcAv [ 2 ] ;

ADC_Bottom_Left_Ave = mAdcAv [ 3 ] ;

ADC_Middle_Ave = mAdcAv [ 4 ] ;

return 1 ;


After composing this map in the chief plan modus operandi, motion of the stepper motor became really smooth and both the motors were harmonized in their gesture.

4 Hardware Testing and Results

This subdivision of the study concentrates on discoursing some of the trials performed on the developed paradigm and their consequences are besides presented.

Hardware was built on the bread board and so interfaced with the LDR ‘s on solar panel, complete C codification was written with province machine execution. State machine design was based on Moore theoretical account and passage from one province to another province was achieved after relevant passage direction received from the Get_Event map was processed.

This undertaking revolves around guaranting successful interface of microcontroller with the hoofer motor and light dependent resistances. During the development of the undertaking as explained in the method subdivision of this study, at each and every measure of constructing hardware degree Celsius codification was written to look into the right operation of the device. All the trials yielded expected consequences and prototype circuit behaved expectedly.

Readings for some of the trials performed on the circuit are taken and are presented here.

4.1 Analogue to digital transition Trial

Analogue to digital transition of the Light dependent resistances was performed by changing the strength of light falling on LDR. A step of visible radiation was established by utilizing an array of LED visible radiations, the trial process was set in such a manner that one LED represents a little sum of light whereas 10 LED represents intense visible radiation.

As explained in the method subdivision of the study, signal conditioning circuit for LDR is established in such a manner that under high light strength high sum of electromotive force will be present on the parallel channel, whereas low electromotive force will be present in darkness. Table of consequences non merely give relevant electromotive force measured on the input pin of the microcontroller but besides shows the digital figure obtained by the microcontroller.


Input Voltage ( V )

Digital Number














































Table 1: Consequence of Analogue to Digital Conversion

4.2 Stepper Motor Motion Test

After executing parallel to digital transition trial, concluding trial was carried out by wholly constructing the circuit and look intoing the clock wise and counter clock wise gesture of the hoofer motor when changing sum of visible radiation was shine on the LDR ‘s.

Following tabular arraies show 5 different scenarios which are simulated by changing the sum of visible radiation on the LDRs

Scenario 1

Motor 1 Movement

Motor 2 Movement

Light strength is higher on the LDR connected at top right side of Solar Panel

Clock Wise ( 180 Degree )

Clock Wise ( 180 Degree )

Scenario 2

Motor 1 Movement

Motor 2 Movement

Light strength is higher on the LDR connected at Bottom left side of Solar Panel

Clock Wise ( 180 Degree )

Clock Wise ( 180 Degree )

Scenario 3

Motor 1 Movement

Motor 2 Movement

Light strength is higher on the LDR connected at Top right side of Solar Panel

Anti-Clock Wise ( -180 Degree )

Anti-Clock Wise ( -180 Degree )

Scenario 4

Motor 1 Movement

Motor 2 Movement

Light strength is higher on the LDR connected at Top left side of Solar Panel

Anti-Clock Wise ( -180 Degree )

Anti-Clock Wise ( -180 Degree )

Scenario 5

Motor 1 Movement

Motor 2 Movement

Light strength is higher on the LDR connected at Top left side of Solar Panel

90 Degree

90 Degree

All the consequences obtained are discussed in the following subdivision.

5 Discussion and Conclusion

Consequences obtained from the parallel to digital transition trial and hoofer motor motion trial are discussed in this portion of the study. Decision of the whole undertaking is besides given at the terminal of this subdivision.

5.1 Discussion

Successful completion of this paradigm development is achieved by exhaustively researching and analysing the demands in item. The development of this circuitry is started by edifice and imitating the system measure by measure in Proteus, at each measure complete working of the hardware and package was tested. At the terminal of the simulation procedure successful execution of the design was done in the hardware.

Software development was a major undertaking in this undertaking, different multitasking maps, such as Analogue to digital transition, averaging and stepper motor algorithm is written in a precise and efficient mode. Main control over motion of the hoofer motor is achieved by developing a province machine design. State machine design has proven to be really efficient because it gives more control over flow of the package.

In add-on to this, in order to turn out the correct hardware and package execution, parallel to digital transition trials were performed on the hardware circuit. Consequences of the ADC trials are really accurate as they exactly yield the digital figure which corresponds to the input electromotive force. By utilizing 5v as the mention electromotive force and sing PIC has 10 spot ADC, declaration of 4.83mv is achieved. It is noted that when the strength of visible radiation is increased on LDR, there will be more voltage nowadays on the input electromotive force, so a higher digital figure is obtained after parallel to digital transition, on the other manus, in dark low electromotive force is present on the ADC pin so lower digital figure is achieved after ADC transition. This relation between light strength, electromotive force and digital figure is proven by the consequences presented in Table 1.

Trial of the concluding paradigm circuit corresponds to the hoofer motor motion trial, this trial checks the dependability and right operation of every portion of the hardware and package. Five scenarios are simulated by reflecting changing strength of visible radiation on the different positioned LDRs measure by measure and so observing the motion of the stepper motor. It was noted that when the light strength was higher on the LDR nowadays on the right side, both the hoofer motor moved in clockwise way in order to acquire solar panel exposed to maximal sum of visible radiation. On the other manus, when light strength was high on the left positioned LDRs both the motors moved to the anti-clock wise way. In instance when visible radiation strength was high on the center positioned LDR, both the motors moved 90 grade either from the left or right place in order to aline the solar panel surface so that light strength is maximal.

5.2 Decision

In this undertaking, the Sun tracking system was implemented which is based on PIC microcontroller. After analyzing the consequences obtained, it can be said that the proposed Sun tracking solar array system is a executable method of maximising the energy received from solar radiation. The accountant circuit used to implement this system has been designed with a minimum figure of constituents which makes system integration really easily. The usage of hoofer motors enables accurate trailing of the Sun while maintaining path of the array ‘s current place in relation to its initial place. The solar tracker is an efficient system for solar energy aggregation.

This undertaking has been a great learning experience and has helped me a batch in developing my research, circuit edifice and package development accomplishments. Overall system public presentation and consequences are really satisfactory.

6 Future Work

The successful paradigm development of this circuit can take to the hereafter development of more enhanced and efficient circuitry for tracking Sun. Following recommendations are made to better on this circuit design:

1: Use of an actuator which is connected to the base of the solar panel will give more control over all right motion and control of solar panel.

2: Datas related to the Sun motion every hr depending on geographical place can be embedded inside the microcontroller, so that microcontroller moves the solar panel automatically by utilizing the Real clip clock. Using his attack, solar panel is ever faced to the Sun and able to acquire maximal light radiation.

7 Mentions

Stepper Motor Basics, [ accessed 5 July 2010 ]

Sun Tracking solar array system,, [ accessed 18 August 2010 ] .

Guide to utilize the PIC ( 2009 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: // , [ accessed 18 December 2010 ] .

Stepper motor interfacing sing microcontroller hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed 23 February 2011 ] .

Driving a Bipolar hoofer motor, hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed 22 March 2011 ] .

Motor Shield, hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ 12 February 2011 ] .

Inoue, Seiichi. Hardware of the PIC16F84A, 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed Jan 12, 2009 ]

Darling, D. The encyclopedia of alternate energy and sustainable life -Solar Tracker, Retrieved April 7, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //

Solar is the Solution, 2008, hypertext transfer protocol: //, [ accessed Dec 20, 2008 ] .

Wilmshurst, Tim, 2009, Planing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers: Principles and applications, 2nd Edition, Newnes

7.1 Bibliography

Bates, P, Martin, 2006, Interfacing PIC Microcontrollers: Embedded Design by Interactive Simulation, 1st Edition, Newnes

Jasio, Di, Lucido, 2007, Programing 16-Bit PIC Microcontrollers in C: Learning to wing the PIC24, 1st Edition, Newnes

Jasio, Di, Lucido, 2008, Programing 32 spot Microcontroller in C: Researching the PIC32 Embedded Technology, 1st Edition, Newnes