Financial Study On The National Grid Plc Finance Essay


National Grid plc ( National Grid ) is an international electric and gas company and besides is one of the largest investor owned Energy Company in the universe. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange ( LSE: NG ) and New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE: NGG ) .

Primary countries of operations are the ownership and operation of regulated electricity and gas substructure web in UK and the US, functioning more than 19 million consumers in a direct or indirect manner. In UK the company owns the high electromotive force electricity transmittal web, high force per unit area gas transmittal system and besides operates in related markets which include electricity interconnectors, metering services, Liquefied Natural Gas ( LNG ) installations, LNG storage and transit and land redress.

The company in US owns over 4,000 MW of contracted electricity coevals along with non-regulated gas transmittal grapevines.

National grid is headquartered in London, UK. The Company have more than 27,500 employees located in the UK and the US.

The transmittal of electricity and gas in the UK as proprietor and operator of high electromotive force electricity transmittal web in England and Wales, the gas national transmittal system in Great Britain, the electricity inter connection with France and storage installations for LNG.Operator of electricity transmittal webs in Scotland.

The operating net income border ratio indicates how much net income a company makes after paying for variable costs of production such as rewards, natural stuffs, etc. It is expressed as a per centum of gross revenues and shows the efficiency of a company commanding the costs and disbursals associated with concern operations.

Operating Net income Margin Formula

The operating net income border ratio expression is calculated merely utilizing:

[ Operating net income border = Operating income ? Total gross ]

Operating Net income Margin Meaning

Operating net income border ratio analysis measures a company ‘s operating efficiency and pricing efficiency with its successful cost controlling.

The higher the ratio, the better a company is. A higher operating net income border means that a company has lower fixed cost and a better gross border or increasing gross revenues faster than costs, which gives direction more flexibleness in finding monetary values.

It besides provides utile information for investors to find the quality of a company when looking at the tendency in runing border over clip and to compare with industry equals. Normally, it serves more as a general measuring than a concrete value.

The aim of border analysis is to observe consistence or positive/negative tendencies in a company ‘s net incomes. Positive net income border analysis translates into positive investing quality. To a big grade, it is the quality, and growing, of a company ‘s net incomes that drive its stock monetary value.

Fiscal statement in this operating net income border, in the twelvemonth of 31 March 2010 was 23.5 % and in the twelvemonth of 2009 it was 16.78 % . The entire OP of the income statement was 3293? in 2010 and 13064 in 2009 so the OP is best in the when comparing with 2009.

Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio:


Fixed Asset Turnover ratio is besides known as Gross saless to Fixed Asset Ratio. The fixed plus turnover ratio tends to mensurate the efficiency and net income earning capacity of the concern.

Higher the ratio, greater is the intensive use of fixed assets. Lower ratio agencies under use of fixed assets.

Formula of Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio:

Fixed assets turnover ratio is calculated by the undermentioned expression:

[ Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Gross saless / Fixed Assets ]

The fixed-asset turnover ratio measures a company ‘s ability to bring forth net gross revenues from fixed-asset investings -A specifically belongings, works and equipment ( PP & A ; E ) – netA of depreciation.

This ratio is frequently used as a step in fabrication industries, where major purchases are made for PP & A ; E to assist increase end product. When companies make these big purchases, prudent investors watch this ratio in following old ages to see how effectual the investing in the fixed assets was.

The fixed assets are worst in 2010. The Fixed ration is 0.3 times and in the 2009 it was 0.41. the steps of the fixed asssets was worst and as per the income statement in 2010 ?m 13988 and ?m 15624 in 2009.

If the fixed plus turnover ratio is low as compared to the industry or past old ages of informations for the house, it means that gross revenues are low or the investing in works and equipment is excessively much.

Inventory Turnover Ratio or Stock Turnover Ratio ( ITR ) :

Every Small or Large house needs to keep a specific degree of stock list of the finished goods which enables them to run into the demands of transporting out the concern. One demand to bear in head that degree of stock list should neither be excessively high nor excessively low.

A higher stock list means that there are higher transporting costs involved and besides higher is the hazard of stocks going obsolete. Besides if there is a low stock list than it suggests loss of concern chances. Thus it is of premier significance to maintain sufficient stock in concern.


Stock turnover ratio and stock list turnover ratio are the same. This ratio is a relationship between the cost of goods sold during a peculiar period of clip and the cost of mean stock list during a peculiar period. It is expressed in figure of times. Stock turnover ratio / Inventory turnover ratio indicates the figure of clip the stock has been turned over during the period and evaluates the efficiency with which a house is able to pull off its stock list.

Formula of Stock Turnover/Inventory Turnover Ratio:

The ratio is calculated by utilizing the undermentioned expression:

[ Stock Turnover Ratio: Stock x 365 / Cost of Gross saless ]

The stock list turnover ratio in the twelvemonth 2010 is 13.8 yearss and the value is 407 and in the twelvemonth 2009 it was 556 and turnover was 13064. So the consequence shows that the turnover ratio is best when comparing with twelvemonth 2009.

Significance of ITR:

Inventory turnover ratio measures the speed of transition of stock into gross revenues. Normally a high stock list turnover/stock speed indicates efficient direction of stock list because more often the stocks are sold ; the lesser sum of money is required to finance the stock list.

A low stock list turnover ratio indicates an inefficient direction of stock list. A low stock list turnover implies over-investment in stock lists, dull concern, hapless quality of goods, stock accretion, accretion of disused and slow traveling goods and low net incomes as compared to entire investing.

The stock list turnover ratio is besides an index of profitableness, where a high ratio signifies more net income ; a low ratio signifies low net income.

Current Ratio:

It is a step of general liquidness and is most widely used to do the analysis for short term fiscal place or liquidness of a house.


Current ratio may be defined as the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. This ratio is besides known as “ working capital ratio ” .


Following expression is used to cipher current ratio:

[ Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities ]

The current liabilities of this company in the twelvemonth 2010 is 6559 and 7026 in the twelvemonth 2009. The current assts was 5065 in the twelvemonth 2010 and 6755 in the yrear 2009 so the ratio in the twelvemonth 2010 was 0.77 times which is worst in the twelvemonth 2010 because in the twelvemonth 2009 it was 0.96 times.


This ratio is a general and speedy step of liquidness of a house. It represents the border of safety or shock absorber available to the creditors. It is an index of the house ‘s fiscal stableness. It is besides an index of proficient solvency and an index of the strength of working capital.

A comparatively high current ratio is an indicant that the house is liquid and has the ability to pay its current duties in clip and when they become due. On the other manus, a comparatively low current ratio represents that the liquidness place of the house is non good and the house shall non be able to pay its current liabilities in clip without confronting troubles.

An addition in the current ratio represents betterment in the liquidness place of the house while a lessening in the current ratio represents that there has been impairment in the liquidness place of the house.

A ratio equal to or near 2: 1 is considered as a criterion or normal or satisfactory. The thought of holding dual the current assets as compared to current liabilities is to supply for the holds and losingss in the realisation of current assets.

Restrictions of Current Ratio:

This ratio is step of liquidness and should be used really carefully because it suffers from many restrictions. It is, hence, suggested that it should non be used as the exclusive index of short term solvency.

It is rough ratio because it measures merely the measure and non the quality of the current assets.

Even if the ratio is favorable, the house may be in fiscal problem, because of more stock and work in procedure which is non easy exchangeable into hard currency, and, hence house may hold less hard currency to pay off current liabilities.

Quick Ratio or Acid Test:


Quick Ratio is besides termed as “ Liquidity Ratio ” or “ Acerb Test Ratio ” . It is the ratio of liquid assets to current liabilities. The true liquidness refers to the ability of a house to pay its short term duties as and when they become due.

Formula of Quick Ratio / Acid Test Ratio:

[ Quick Ratio: ( Current Assets – Stock ) / Current Liabilities ]

The Quick Ratio is besides known as Acid Ratio. The current assets of the National Grid in the twelvemonth 2010 is 43, 553 and in the twelvemonth 2009 is 44,467 and the stock is 407 in the twelvemonth 2010 and 556 in the twelvemonth 2009 and the current liabilities of both old ages are 6,559 and 7,026. The Quick Ratio of National Grid in the twelvemonth 2010 is 0.17 times and 0.88 in the twelvemonth 2009 as per the balance sheets of the both the companies.


The speedy ratio/acid trial ratio is really utile in mensurating the liquidness place of a house. It measures the house ‘s capacity to pay off current duties instantly and is more strict trial of liquidness than the current ratio. It is used as a complementary ratio to the current ratio.

By and large higher liquid ratios are an indicant of the liquidness of the house and its ability to run into the current liabilities on appropriate clip. On other manus a low liquidness ratio indicates that the house ‘s liquidness place is non good. As a convention, by and large, a speedy ratio of “ one to one ” ( 1:1 ) is considered to be satisfactory

Debt to Equity Ratio:


Debt-to-Equity ratio indicates the relationship between the external equities or foreigners financess and the internal equities or stockholders financess.

It is determined to determine soundness of the long term fiscal policies of the company.

Formula of Debt to Equity Ratio:

The expression for Debt to Equity ratio is as follows:

[ Debt to Equity Ratio: Debt / Equity ]

The debt to equity ratio in 2010 is 7.78 % and 8.39 % in the twelvemonth 2009.

Significance of Debt to Equity Ratio:

Debt to equity ratio indicates the proportionate claims of proprietors and the foreigners against the house ‘s assets. The intent is to acquire an thought of the shock absorber available to foreigners on the settlement of the house. However, the reading of the ratio depends upon the fiscal and concern policy of the company.

The proprietors want to make the concern with upper limit of foreigner ‘s financess in order to take lesser hazard of their investing and to increase their net incomes ( per portion ) by paying a lower fixed rate of involvement to foreigners. The foreigner creditors on the other manus, want that stockholders ( proprietors ) should put and put on the line their portion of proportionate investings.

A ratio of 1:1 is normally considered to be satisfactory ratio.

Theoretically if the proprietor ‘s involvements are greater than that of creditors, the fiscal place is extremely solvent.

Tax return on Equity Capital ( ROEC ) Ratio:

In existent sense, ordinary stockholders are the existent proprietors of the company. They assume the highest hazard in the company. ( Preference portion holders have a penchant over ordinary stockholders in the payment of dividend every bit good as capital.

The scope of steps used to analyze the return to equity investors is much greater than that applied to unsecured bonds, possibly because this category of investing carries a greater hazard, and ordinary stockholders are the most important group of investors.

Preference portion holders get a fixed rate of dividend irrespective of the quantum of net incomes of the company ) . The rate of dividends varies with the handiness of net incomes in instance of ordinary portions merely. Therefore ordinary stockholders are more interested in the profitableness of a company and the public presentation of a company should be judged on the footing of return on equity capital of the company. Return on equity capital which is the relationship between net incomes of a company and its equity.

Formula of return on equity capital or common stock:

Formula of return on equity capital ratio is:

[ Return On Equity: Net income after Tax / Equity ]

This ratio indicates how profitable a company is by comparing its net income to its mean stockholders ‘ equity. TheA return on equity ratio ( ROE ) measures how much the stockholders earned for their investing in the company. The higher the ratio per centum, the more efficient direction is in using its equity base and the better return is to investors.


This ratio is more meaningful to the equity stockholders who are interested to cognize net incomes earned by the company and those net incomes which can be made available to pay dividends to them. Interpretation of the ratio is similar to the reading of return on stockholder ‘s investings and higher the ratio better is.

Price Net incomes Ratio ( PE Ratio ) :


Price net incomes ratio ( P/E ratio ) is the ratio between market monetary value per equity portion and net incomes per portion.

The ratio is calculated to do an estimation of grasp in the value of a portion of a company and is widely used by investors to make up one’s mind whether or non to purchase portions in a peculiar company.

Formula of Price Net incomes Ratio:

Following expression is used to cipher monetary value net incomes ratio:

[ Price Net incomes Ratio = Market monetary value per equity portion / Net incomes per portion ]

The fiscal statement of the national grid company in the twelvemonth 2010 is 56.1p and in the twelvemonth 2009 it was 36.9p. The monetary value net incomes ratio in this was 10.58 times. In the twelvemonth 2009 was 18.67 times. The equity portion is 594 and 684 in 2009.

Significance of Price Net incomes Ratio:

Price net incomes ratio helps the investor in make up one’s minding whether to purchase or non to purchase the portions of a peculiar company at a peculiar market monetary value.

By and large, higher the monetary value net incomes ratio the better it is. If the P/E ratio falls, the direction should look into the causes that have resulted into the autumn of this ratio.

One of the grounds that a company ‘s net incomes may be expected to turn is if a big proportion of net incomes are retained and efficaciously invested back into the concern. This means that it is normally ( but non ever ) the instance that companies which retain net incomes instead than paying out high dividends will hold higher PE ratios than those with a high dividend payout.

undervalued comparative to bonds. A

Market-to-Book Ratio


Market-to-Book Ratio is the ratio of the current portion monetary value to the book value per portion. It measures the worth of the company at that minute in comparing with the sum of capital invested by current and past stockholders into it.

Formula of Market-to-Book Ratio:

Following expression is used to cipher market-to-book ratio:

[ Market-to-Book Ratio: PE Ratio * Return on Equity ]

The equity return in the twelvemonth 2010 is 0.32 % and 23 % in the twelvemonth 2009.

A ratio used to findA the value of aA company byA comparing the book value of a house to its market value.A Book value is calculated by looking at the firm’sA historicalA cost, or accounting value.

Significance of Market-to-Book Ratio:

The book-to-market ratio efforts to place undervaluedA or overvaluedA securities by taking the book value and spliting it by market value.A If your concern has a low market/book ratio, it ‘s considered a good investing chance.

In basic footings, if the ratio is above 1 so the stock is undervalued ; if it is less than 1, the stock is overvalued.

Operating Performance Ratio: Sales/Revenue per Employee

As a gage of forces productiveness, this index merely measures the sum of dollar gross revenues, or gross, generated per employee. The higher the dollars figure the better. Here once more, labor-intensive concerns ( ex. mass market retail merchants ) will be less productive in this metric than a hi-tech, high product-value maker.

Formula for Gross saless /Revenue per Employee:

Following expression is used to cipher Gross saless / Gross:

[ Gross saless /Revenue per Employee: Gross saless Revenue /Average Number of Employees ]

The operating public presentation ratio is beneath gross revenues and gross on employee. In the twelvemonth 2009 the company has cut down 200 employees from 28,208 which is entire figure of the employees. In the twelvemonth of 2010 the entire figure of the employee was 13988 alternatively of 15624. Which is 49 % in the twelvemonth of 2010?

Significance of Gross saless /Revenue per Employee:

The Higher the ratio better it is for the company. This ratio is a step of how expeditiously the company is doing net income by utilizing the entire assets of the company. Companies want this ratio to be higher as this ratio is straight dependent on net income. National Grid was able to accomplish a higher ratio for the twelvemonth 2009 than 2008 which would be of important consideration for everybody to understand that company is strongly footed even in tough economic period. Management is extremely efficient and so are the policies of the company.

Tax return on Assetss

This ratio indicates the profitableness of a company relation to its entire assets. The return on assets ( ROA ) ratio illustrates how expeditiously the direction is using the entire assets of company to do the net income. More higher the return, the more efficient direction is in using the plus base.

The ROA ratio is calculated by comparing net income to average entire assets, and is expressed in per centum.

Formula of Return on Assets Ratio:

Following expression is used to cipher Return on Asset Ratio:

[ Return on Asset: Net Income / Average Total Assets ]

The net income of the company in the 2010 is 2,193 and in the twelvemonth 2009 is 1,394 and the mean entire assets 43,553 in the twelvemonth 2010 and 44,464 in the twelvemonth 2009. The Return on Assetss of national grid in the twelvemonth 2010 is 5.03 % and 3.31 % in the twelvemonth 2009.

Significance of Return to Asset Ratio:

The demand for investing in current and non-current assets varies greatly among companies. Capital-intensive concerns ( with a big investing in fixed assets ) are traveling to be more plus heavy than engineering or service concerns. Return on assets measures how efficaciously a company has used the entire assets at its disposal to bring forth net incomes. Because the ROA expression reflects entire gross, entire cost, and assets deployed, the ratio itself reflects a direction ‘s ability to bring forth income during the class of a given period, normally a twelvemonth.

The possible fiscal public presentation

A mounting return on assets normally indicates a mounting stock monetary value, because it tells investors that a direction is skilled at bring forthing net incomes from the resources that a concern owns

The concern activities carried out by National Grid ‘s power and distribution web are about 95 % regulated, their grosss and hard currency flow are about predictable and the group henceforth do non happen themselves into troubled H2O of fluctuating monetary values. Henceforth the funding place is merely the most likely cause of its failing.

For the twelvemonth 2008-09 the net debt rose by 29 % to about ?23bn, which reflects big currency motions which follows the acquisition of US concern Keyspan in 2007 for ?3.8 bn.

There is besides a turn in the narrative as the grasp of dollar may hold increased the sterling value of National Grid ‘s net debt by ?4bn, but in return it has besides increased the sterling value of US assets by ?4.5 bn.

To add more, National Grid ‘s concern theoretical account is really robust and therefore it can back up such high sum of debts. The one-year investing of ?3bn is typically funded half by hard currency and half by debt, ensuing that debts are ever increasing invariably, but so the plus base besides grows at the same clip.

National Grid ‘s US subordinates have requested to their ain regulators bespeaking for higher authorized returns. If it would be allowed, than it would better net incomes and hard currency flow in the hereafter.

The Grid is really confident in lodging to its policy of increasing the dividend by 8 per centum every twelvemonth till 2012.But there are two little cautions – foremost of all the portion redemption programme has been suspended to salvage costs, and secondly, investors are being offered the option of taking payment as scrip dividend.


In the twelvemonth 2008 the company net incomes per portion was 122.3p and in the twelvemonth 2009 it was 38.5p in the twelvemonth 2009 the portion the company net incomes per portion value is acquire down to 47 % of portion value this was due to recession. In the twelvemonth 2010 the company net incomes per portion is 56.1p. so on the norm of the value is 21.5 % has increased. The cost of gross revenues in the twelvemonth 2009 was 8,534 and in the twelvemonth 2010 it was 10,714 so the net income after the revenue enhancement the company net income was 1,386 in 2010 and 947 in 2009. The National Grid is clearly on the right way after looking at the ratios calculated. These ratios are non the existent mirror to the public presentation of the company but it shows the tendency where it might head into the hereafter taking into considerations the competitory market and fluctuating market conditions.