Financial Analysis and Decision Making in Business

Fiscal analysis an appraisal of a houses effectivity with its financess ( investing and debt ) are employed, efficiency and profitableness of its operation and value and safety of debitors claims against the house ‘s assets.It provides techniques like financess flow analysis and fiscal ratios to understand the jobs and chances inherent in an investing or fiscal determination.It is the appraisal of stableness and profitableness of concern, particularly to steer of the pattern of investing.Financial analysis focus the points whether a company is healthy or non. “ Fiscal Analysis exists to assist determination shapers. It is concerned with the ways in which financess for a concern are raised and invested. ” ( Teoh 2009:3 ) .It besides compares concern between any houses on the footing of the company fiscal statements like income statement, balance sheet, hard currency flow statement, equity and retained net incomes. Fiscal analysis give a complete image of the company to the investors and helps investor to take right determination and put in right company what investor is looking for. Fiscal analysis explains the degree of hazard and return on the investing to the investor. Fiscal analysis besides makes company to measure their fiscal position and it helps company to look after and develop in which field they need to better to acquire better results.

Fiscal Ratios: Fiscal analysis frequently compares fiscal ratios.A “ Ratio “ is the relationship between a brace of figures, taken from the net income and loss history and/or the balance sheet, which is used to mensurate some facet of fiscal public presentation. There are five cardinal countries for fiscal analysis ;






We will analysis five of the cardinal countries of the fiscal analysis of the above mentioned companies viz. Hornby and by following the three chief stairss of ciphering ratios like-

Determining what we are traveling to make

Choice of appropriate figures to do our appraisal

Sing an appropriate benchmark to compare our ratio with the two companies.

Hornby and Games:

Basic information about these two companies.Farhad please finish this part


Tax return on Capital Employed – ( ROCE )

“ The return on capital employed ratio is a cardinal step of concern public presentation. ” ( Teoh 2009:187 ) .

It is calculated because this will give an thought to the investor whether the company is doing satisfactory net income or non as compared to the sum invested or resources used by the company.

Two common ways to cipher ROCE are:

ROCE = ( ( PBIT ) / ( Capital Employed ) ) * 100.


ROCE = ( Operating Profit ) / ( Non-current assets + ( Current plus – Current liability ) )

From the graph, we can see the ROCE of Hornby and Games Workshop for the last three old ages. In 2008, Hornby was better with 29.5 % but it went down in 2008 and 2009 ( i.e. 17.7 % and 12.7 % ) whereas Games has increased massively from 5.5 % to 28 % .The lessening in ROCE of Hornby is due to the investings in different fixed assets like intangible assets belongings, works, equipment and good will. This can be seen in the horizontal analysis of the last three old ages for the two companies. To reason, Games Workshop is taking but at the same clip Hornby is holding a growing in the past three old ages.


Group balance sheet




Horizontal analysis 2008-09

Horizontal analysis 2009-10

Non current assets

Good will




( 37.27 )


Intangible assets




( 136.65 )


Property, works & A ; equipment




( 25.87 )



Deferred revenue enhancement assets





( 108.96 )





( 43.7 )


Games s

Group balance sheet




Horizontal analysis 2008-09

Horizontal analysis 2009-10

Noncurrents assets

Good will



Other intangible assets





Property, works & A ; equipment





Investings subordinates

Trade and other receivables




( 27.2 )

( 241.59 )

Financial assets – derived function

fiscal instruments


Deferred revenue enhancement assets




( 56.5 )






( 1.92 )


Net income Margin – ( ROS )

“ A ratio widely used to measure a company ‘s operational efficiency. ROS is besides known as a house ‘s “ operating net income border ” . ( Teoh 2009:189 ) .

It is calculated as this tells the investor whether the cost of gross revenues has increased or decreased for every ?1 of gross revenues. A high ROS means there is lessening in cost of gross revenues and frailty versa.

It is calculated utilizing this expression:

Net income Margin = ( Operating Profit/ Gross saless ) * 100

From the above graph, in the twelvemonth 2008 the cost of gross revenues of Hornby has decreased for every ?1 of gross revenues in 2009 & A ; 2010, on the other manus Games Workshop Profit Margin has increased compared to 2008. The ratio of the two companies varies due to the different operating disbursal and the merchandising monetary value. The Games Workshop has invested less in their operating disbursals in the past three old ages compared to Hornby.

“ Factors such as industry competition and economic clime will act upon the operating net income border of a concern ” . ( Teoh 2009:189 ) .

Investing Ratio

Tax return on Shareholder ‘s Funds – ( ROSF )

“ The return on stockholder ‘s financess ratio compares the sum of net income for the period available to the proprietor ‘s mean interest in the concern during that same period ” ( Teoh 2009:186 )

It is calculated as it tells the investor whether the company is doing a satisfactory return on the stockholder ‘s fund or non

The ratio is as follows:

ROSF = ( Net income after revenue enhancement / Equity ) * 100 ”

From the graph, we can see that the ROSF for Hornby has decreased significantly from 55.1 % to 10.1 in the past three old ages i.e. 2008 to 2010.But the ROSF of Games Workshop has increased from 1.51 % to 13 % in 2008 to 2010.The ground for this is Games Workshop has invested less sum in their fixed plus compared to Hornby.

Price Net incomes Ratio

“ The Price Net incomes Ratio relates the market value of a portion to the net incomes per portion. ( Teoh 2009:210 )

It is calculated as it tells the investor the hereafter gaining capableness of the company.

It can be calculated as follows:

Price Net incomes = Share Ratio / Earnings per Share

From the graph we can see that for Hornby there is a autumn in monetary value net incomes from 2008 to 2009 but a little addition in 2010. In instance of Games Workshop we can see that a drastic falls in monetary value net incomes from 2008 to 2010. As high PE indicates high future growing or gaining power of the company, it means that Games Workshop has the capableness of more future growing than Hornby relatively.

Dividend Output

“ The Dividend Yield Ratio relates the hard currency return from a portion to its current market value ” ( Teoh 2009:209 )

This can assist investors to mensurate the income return if the company maintains the same degree of dividend as the last twelvemonth.

It is expressed as:

Dividend Yield = Dividend per portion / Share Price

The graph for Hornby shows a changeless growing in the dividend output whereas Games Workshop dividend output is nil for two back-to-back old ages i.e. 2008 and 2009 but there is a sudden rise in 2010 to 7.2 % . Taking note merely on the present values i.e. for the twelvemonth 2010, it can be concluded that the stockholders can anticipate the future dividend output to be increased for the two companies.

Dividend Cover

“ Dividend Cover ratio is expressed as the net income for the twelvemonth taken over dividend announced for the twelvemonth ” ( Teoh 2009:208 )

This ratio is calculated as it tells the investor to see whether the current dividend is safe or non.

. It can be expressed as:

Dividend Cover =Earnings per portion / Dividends per portion ”

The saloon graph shows us that the dividend screen increased from 2008 to 2009 and decreased from 2009 to 2010 for Hornby. In instance of Games it is eternity in the two back-to-back old ages i.e. 2008 and 2009 and in 2010 it is 0.4.So, overall Hornby is holding a safer dividend as compared to Games Workshop.

Dividend Payout Ratio

“ The Dividend Payout ratio measures the proportion of net incomes ( net income for the twelvemonth ) that a concern pays out to stockholders in the signifier of dividends ” ( Teoh 2009:208 )

It tells the investor that for every lb the company earns how much it should be paid to the stockholder. Therefore it gives a brief thought to the investor to put or non.

The ratio is calculated as follows:

Dividend Payout = ( Dividends per Share / Earnings per Share ) *100

The graph tells that both the companies pays less dividend payout to the stockholder and Games Workshop pays no dividend payout at all in 2008 and 2009 to their stockholder. The two companies can put their excess net income for the future growing. The capital addition will play a important portion of the entire return since there is low dividend payout.


Liquid assesses whether the company can pay its short term duties, that is the current liabilities.When we appraise a company ‘s fiscal place we are chiefly concerned with its ability to run into its external liabilities.In order to last, companies must besides watch their liquidness place, by which is meant maintaining adequate short term assets to pay short term debts.Company fails when it can non pay its liabilities. ( Mott,1991 ) .There are two chief ratios used to analyze the liquidness place of a company namely-

Current ratio

Liquidity ratio which is sometimes referred as speedy ratio or Acid trial Ratio

Current Ratio

“ The Current ratio compares the liquid assets of the concern with the current liabilities.It shows how many times the current assets cover the current liabilities.It besides shows how many current assets the company has for every ?1 of current liabilities.

We have chosen to cipher the current ratio because it will give an thought to the said investor which of the company between Games Workshop and Hornby could pay on twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing operation, run into its debts.This ratio computation will besides assist the investor to supply information like which company will fight to pay its current liabilities therefore consequence on the fixed plus of it to pay the liabilities.

The ratio is calculated as follows:

Current Ratio = Current assets / Current liabilities “ ( Teoh 2009:200 )

This ratio measures the company ‘s ability to pay back its short term liabilities with its short term assets. Therefore, the higher the current ratio, the more capable a company is in paying off its liabilities. From the graph we can see that in the twelvemonth 2008 both companies have had a twelvemonth on twelvemonth addition over the three twelvemonth period. A diminution in current ratios would be warning against addition in short term debts or lessening in assets. This is something that investors need to be cognizant of. In the twelvemonth 2009 the current ratio analysis shows that Hornby ‘s current liabilities paying off capablenesss was 1.48 which is less than the twelvemonth 2008 and 2010. In 2009 the current ratio of Games Workshop is higher than the Hornby. But if we compare with the two companies we will see that well the current ratio of Hornby is significantly higher than Games Workshop for the twelvemonth 2008 and 2010.After comparing of these two companies it shows that Hornby has got the higher capablenesss to pay off its current liabilities with the current assets.

Acid Test Ratio

“ The Acid trial ratio examines the ratio of liquid assets to current liabilities.Liquid assets are defined as all the current assets excepting stocks and work in advancement on the footing that these subsequently points can non usually be convert rapidly into hard currency.High liquidness ratio caused by high degrees of stock, debitors and hard currency, would connote a strong fiscal place.However they might besides signal hapless direction of the company ‘s short term assets.

We have decided to cipher this Acid trial ratio because it will demo the investor which company has adequate liquid assets to pay its current liabilities. Sometimes it happens that the company may hold adequate current assets but it may non hold equal liquid plus to pay its current liabilities, if it has non got plenty liquid plus it must be necessary to sell its fixed plus to pay its current liabilities.

The acerb trial ratio is calculated as follows:

Acid trial ratio = Current assets ( excepting stock lists ) / Current liabilities ” ( Teoh 2009:201 )

It is frequently considered that the Liquid ratio of a company must be greater than 1:0 to be in equal liquidness. However it is non unusual for the Acid trial to be below 1.0 without doing peculiar liquidness jobs. From the graph we can see that both Hornby & A ; Games Workshop show changeless growing in Liquid ratio. However, Games Workshop shows a relatively larger addition in the twelvemonth 2009 & A ; 2010 than that of Hornby. Specially if we compare in the twelvemonth 2009 the current ratio of Games Workshop was significantly higher than Hornby though in the twelvemonth 2008 Hornby ‘s current ratio was a spot higher than games.But overall comparing shows that evidently Games Workshop has better financess to pay their measures in comparing to Hornby.

Gearing Ratio

The Gearing Ratio assesses whether the company can serve its long term adoption, that is refund the loans when they are due and pay the involvement on them.

On the point of benchmarking excessively much adoption is hazardous as the higher the proportion of capita raised by loans the higher will be proportion traveling as involvement, the smaller the per centum so the less vulnerable the company will be to any reverse in net incomes or raise in involvement rates on variable rate loans. ( Mott,1991 )

We have chosen to cipher this ratio to supply the investor a clear image about the company ‘s geartrain position and to take the company which is less vulnerable to pay the involvements from the net income.

The geartrain ratio is given as follows:

Gearing Ratio = ( Long term liabilities / ( Share capital + Militias + Long term liabilities ) ) *100 ” ( Teoh 2009:204 )

“ The higher the geartrain ratio, the greater is the company exposure to fluctuation in money costs ” ( Wong C.L, n.d ) . From the graph it is clear that for Games Workshop the geartrain ratio has decreased significantly from 2008 to 2009.In the twelvemonth 2010 Games Workshop has no adoption which shows a big equity therefore a good border of net income of the company. In contrast, for Hornby it was low in the twelvemonth 2008 but it is increasing in the following old ages 2009 and 2010.In comparing with the present clip 2010 where Games Workshop has no adoption but Hornby has a important adoption i. e 22.81 % . In 2010 Hornby ‘s adoptions are really high and this could take to a possible job as in the hereafter there could be an issue with refunding the loan.

Interest Screen

“ The Interest Cover Ratio measures the sum of operating net income available to cover involvement collectible. It relates to the one-year sum of involvement payable to the sum of net income available for its payment.

This ratio has chosen to be calculated to give the thought which of the two companies will gain sufficient net income and will bring forth an operating hard currency flow that can satisfactory run into the involvement payments and any capital refunds.

The ratio may be calculated as follows:

Interest Cover Ratio=Operating Profit / Interest Payable ” ( Teoh 2009:205 )

“ The higher the involvement screen states that the safety border of the company to run into its involvement duties. ” (, n.d ) lower the operating net income coverage, greater hazard of involvement payments, will non be met & amp ; possible opportunities of recovery action would be taken by loaners against the company. From the above graph we can see that though Games Workshop had less involvement coverage comparison to Hornby in 2008 & A ; 2009 but it is on the significantly safe side in 2010 to pay its involvement whereas Hornby shows steady lessening in their involvement screen in the twelvemonth 2008 to 2010. It shows Hornby is on the hazard side comparison to Games Workshop to pay its involvement soon. “ An involvement screen more than seven times is normally regarded as safe, and more than three times is acceptable ” ( Watson and Head province ) In the point of benchmarking Interest screen ratio of Hornby was reasonably good in twelvemonth 2008 and in contrast to Games Workshop in the twelvemonth 2008 & A ; 2009 it was less than Hornby but the involvement screen ratio of Games Workshop in 2010 shows its extremely satisfactory place to run into the involvement payments.


Efficiency ratio examines the efficiency in the usage of capital.The strength of usage of any plus, fixed or current is measured by its relationship to gross revenues value. ( Mott,1991 ) .If assets are used more fruitfully in the coevals of gross so the ratio will increase.However the ratio will increase if gross revenues increase.Increasing current liabilities besides would besides better the efficiency ratio by detaining payment to supplies. Efficiency ratio can be calculated under different section of a company like

Fixed assets turnover

Asset turnover

Inventory turnover

Trade receivables turnover

Trade Payables payment period

Gross saless per employee

Here we will analysis three ratios of these two company.These are plus bend over stock turnover period, debitor turnover period. We have chosen to cipher this ratio to supply an thought to the investor which company is efficient in usage of capital and besides an information whether the company utilize its assets in a more productive manner to bring forth its gross or non.In general a concern privation and mark for low stock turnover periods An addition in either stock or debitors will diminish the company ‘s hard currency flow. If the company is overdrawn involvement will hence be higher and net income lower. We will analysis these two ratios besides because for the investor the information sing stock turnover period and debitor aggregation period is necessary to cognize the hard currency flow and net income border of the company.

Asset Turnover Ratio: The alternate definition of Efficiency ratio is plus turnover which is calculated in the undermentioned way-

Sales/ ( fixed assets +current assets – current liabilities )

The above graph shows the plus turnover ratio lessenings in the three back-to-back twelvemonth for Hornby in a steady manner on the other manus for Games Workshop though this ratio has decreased in the twelvemonth 2010 but in comparing with Hornby the plus turnover ratio is more improved.It shows that assets of Games Workshop is more expeditiously managed than Hornby which will finally bring forth more gross revenues therefore generate more gross of the company.

Stock Turnover Ratio

“ The Stock Turnover ratio measures the period for which the stock has been held by the house over the concern during the twelvemonth.

It is calculated by: –

Stock Turnover Ratio = ( Stocks * 365 ) / Cost of goods sold “ ( Teoh 2009:193 )

In the above graph it clearly shows that Games Workshop has a higher stock turnover period than Hornby. Games Workshop tends to keep sufficient stock list to keep client demands, therefore avoiding inordinate markdowns or carryover of out of season stock list. Hornby is somewhat in contrast as they have a smaller stock turnover period which could take to a possibility of supply deficits under certain fortunes. Stock turnover period of Games Workshop is higher than Hornby seemingly though they could hold different benchmarking but in the point of general benchmarking the stock turnover period should be every bit low as possible sing the issue that it will non interrupt the production or gross revenues.Because an unneeded addition in either stock or debitor will do capital employed to be higher than it need be and the company will accomplish a lower ROCE.

Debtors Collection Time period:

“ The Debtor ‘s aggregation period calculates how long on mean recognition clients take to pay the sums that they owe the concern. This should be compared with the recognition really given by the company.

The ratio is as follows:

Debtor ‘s aggregation period = ( Trade Receivables * 365 ) / Credit Gross saless ” ( Teoh 2009:194 )

From the above graph we can see that Hornby has a higher colony period in comparing to Games Workshop. A good concern will usually prefer a shorter span as it does n’t impact its hard currency flow instead than a longer one. Therefore Games Workshop has a good trade receivables period compared to Hornby.

Industry Analysis: Farhad delight complete this portion


Games Workshop and Hornby are two taking plaything companies in Europe. The concern schemes are rather alone in their ain ways but the aim for these companies is all about enlargement.

From the ratio analysis, we can see that both the companies pay fewer dividends to their stockholders due to adverse foreign exchange motion. At the same clip, return of stockholder ‘s fund of Games Workshop has increased to an extent as compared to Hornby. Harmonizing to Mark Wells ( 2010 ) , CEO of Games Workshop

“ Looking to the hereafter we will pay dividends out of hard currency which is genuinely excess to the concern, after doing allowance for the costs of new Hobby Centre ” . This clearly indicates that Games Workshop is demoing a consistence in its public presentation and can anticipate high dividend ratio. From this we can understand that Games Workshop has a good hereafter in the market and it will hold high involvement screen. With regard to Profit Earning ratio excessively, Games Workshop has more capableness of growing than Hornby.

The Gearing Ratio of Games Workshop has decreased from 32.21 % in 2008 to nil in 2010 but Hornby ‘s Gearing ratio is increasing as the twelvemonth passes from 1.2 % in 2008 to 22.21 % in 2010.Keeping this into consideration it is obvious that Games Workshop is less hazardous than Hornby in the old ages to come.

Games Workshop has invested ?1.9 million in tooling and has opened extra 45 new avocation Centres and this brings a net benefit which accordingly increased the net income border of Games Workshop 2.3 % in 2008 to 13 % in 2010, return on capital employment has increased from 5.5 % in 2008 to 28 % in 2010.This is an enhanced public presentation and has the ability to improved better in the old ages to come and be aftering to put more in Northern Europe, Continental Europe, North America and Australia.

In order to keep the profitableness Games Workshop has already started taking stairss by cut downing staffing degrees in both avocation Centres and regional direction functions and they maintain the mean capital employed by cut downing the plus and adding the liabilities in footings of hard currency, adoptions, revenue enhancement and dividends.

In the instance of Hornby, the fixed assets are high and therefore they can cover their liabilities in a more easy manner.The stock turnover of Hornby is low which means they can increase the gross revenues in a more effectual mode and cut down the capital employed therefore driving to more net incomes in the hereafter as high stock turnover leads to more capital. After a period of long economic battle in 2009, the gross revenues in 2010 has increased by 5 % and the net debt is reduced well due to strong hard currency coevals therefore Hornby can put more in future..

Hornby have secured broad scope of merchandises in relation with the London 2012 Olympic Games


Mr. Stephen Curryaˆ¦..You are screwed! If you want to salvage some money for your grandchildren to purchase toysaˆ¦aˆ¦please do n’t put your money in toysaˆ¦..thats all brother! … .and if u ebb truly travel with this, we will run into you in the streetsaˆ¦the pick is yours broaˆ¦.Cheers!

Mr.Curry has been our client for a piece and he needs to put his portions in one of these plaything companies. With Mr.Curry ‘s old successful experiences in portions, we wanted to give him the best possible solutions for him to put in toy retailing sector which he is non much familiar with.

After measuring the fiscal statements, portion monetary values, ratios like profitableness, investing, liquidness and efficiency and besides sing the facts and figures from the company ‘s one-year studies, we have an overall good image about the public presentation of both Hornby and Games Workshop. The analysis was done on the footing of the information for the past three old ages. This gives us an overview about the current scenario, short- and long-run hereafter.

We have come up with two options for Mr.Curry. It depends on the sort of investing he wishes to put on. If he is looking for a long-run investing, we advice him to put his money with Games Workshop as its public presentation in footings of profitableness, dividend portion, efficiency is better than Hornby. The Games Workshop has more capableness to pay the long-run liabilities and it has high monetary value net incomes ratio which indicates that it has high potency of growing. The return on stockholders fund is besides satisfactory and the colony period of debt is less which are good indexs for investor looking from long term facet. If he is a sort of investor looking from short-run position, Mr.Curry should put for Hornby as there are more current plus to pay its current liability faster than Games Workshop and the stock turnover period is less which means more gross revenues more net income.

The market value of Hornby is cut downing each twelvemonth demoing less growing for the investors and diminishing in the stockholders fund excessively. On the other manus, Games Workshop in 2008 and 2009, no dividends were given to the investors, but in 2010 the dividends given was really high when compared to Hornby. This is because of the excess net income they made in the twelvemonth 2010 and besides the fact that Games Workshop has no adoption which shows a big equity therefore a good border of net income can be expected in the long tally and it will be wise for Mr.Curry to put in Games Workshop.