Filing Time And Originator Engineering Essay

The Air Traffic Service flight program is needed to inform the ATC and the international air traffic service of the flight. The chief ground for doing an ATS flight program is to inform the Air Traffic control ( ATC ) units along the path. Another ground is the non-radar equipt parts, such as over the Atlantic, when an aircraft does non get at the ETA, the exigency services have a good thought where to look for the aircraft. The ATS contain the undermentioned points

1 filing clip and conceiver

2 Aircraft designation

3 Flight regulations and type of flight.

4Number and type of aircraft and wake turbulency class

5 Equipment

6 Departure Aerodrome and clip

7 Path

8 Destination Aerodrome and entire estimated elapsed clip, ALT. Aerodrome ( s )

9 Other information

10Supplementary information

1.6.1a filing clip and conceiver

The name of bureaus of which has an involvement with the path of flight have to be inserted in the available infinite. The filing clip, which is the twenty-four hours and clip on which the AFP is filed, has to be inserted. The conceiver is the individual or station who sends in the AFP and has to be filled in, in the available infinite

1.6.1b Aircraft designation

The codification of the aircraft designation consist with a upper limit of 7 characters. The codification inserted in the enrollment marker or the ICAO designator for the aircraft operating bureau followed by the flight designation.

1.6.1c Flight regulations and type of flight.

In this point two boxes need to be filled with one capital missive. The first box consists out of a missive for the sort of flight regulations which are used during the flight, for illustration an IFR flight. The 2nd box consists out of information about the sort of path which has to be flown.

1.6.1d Number and type of aircraft and wake turbulency class

This point consists of three Fieldss, the first field is the figure of aircraft, if there are more planes, this field must be filled with a upper limit of 2 characters. The 2nd field consists of 4 characters, this character is for the type of the aircraft. Besides the aftermath turbulency class has to be filled in with one character following with the aircraft its aftermath turbulency class. The last field is for the aftermath turbulency. There are three letters for the aftermath turbulency:

Letter ( L ) for An aircraft with maximal certificate take-off mass of 7,000 kilograms or less.

Letter ( H ) for an aircraft with maximal certificate take-off mass of 136,000 kilograms.

Letter ( M ) for an aircraft with maximal certificate take-off more than 7,000 kilograms and less than 136.000 kilogram.

1.6.1e Equipment

The aircraft communicating, pilotage and attack assistance equipment have to be inserted by make fulling in the right characters for each system. Letter ( N ) if there is no communicating ( COM ) / pilotage ( NAV ) / attack assistance equipment available and missive ( S ) if there is a standard COM/NAV/approach assistance available. The VHF, ADF, VOR and ILS autumn under the standard equipment.

1.6.1f Departure Aerodrome and clip

In this the three or four-letter ICAO location index of the going Aerodrome is inserted.

1.6.1g Path

The first or the whole cruising velocity and cruising degree has to be inserted. The cruising velocity has to be the TAS in kilometres per hr, knots or Mach figure. The planned cruising degree has to be in footings of flight degree, standard metric degree in 10s of metres or 100s of pess. Besides the designator of the first ATS path has to be included.

1.6.1h Destination Aerodrome and entire estimated elapsed clip, ALT. Aerodrome ( s )

The four-letter ICAO location index of the finish Aerodrome and the entire estimated elapsed clip, which is the estimated clip from the first point of the path to which the flight program applies, has to be inserted. Besides the ICAO location index of the alternate finish airports has to be included.

1.6.1i Other information

The necessary information for the flight has to be inserted in the signifier of the appropriate index. When there is no other information 0 ( nothing ) has to be filled in. For illustration the aircraft ‘s public presentation informations if prescribed by the ATS authorization.

1.6.1j Auxiliary information

The necessary information has to be filled in such as the fuel, endurance in clip, sum of individuals on board and the exigency and survival equipment.

1.6.2 Operational flight program

The operation flight program ( OFP ) is the program for the safe behavior of the flight, based on considerations of the aeroplane public presentation, other runing restrictions and relevant expected conditions on the path to be followed and at the aircraft concerned. An operational flight program shall be completed for every intended flight involved in public conveyance operation. The flight program does include the undermentioned parts:

1.6.2a Dispatch briefing

The despatch briefing includes the name of the starter and their phone Numberss are placed above. Further the ETOPS position is given with their en- path surrogates.

1.6.2b ATC clearance

The ATC clearances are required for operations in category A and B air space at all times. The flight program needs to be approved by ATC before the flight is permitted. In this subdivision, the clearance for going demand to be filled in. The flight program is handed in to the ATC and can be approved or denied.

1.6.2c Flight Summary

The day of the month and flight figure are recorded together with the type of aircraft and enrollment figure. The deliberate distance from air position and relation to the land must be included here every bit good. This distance depends on the air current which can be shown with either an H ( headwind ) or T ( tailwind ) , the temperature where M=minus and P=plus and the fuel flow factor.

1.6.2d Alternate sum-up

This subdivision contains information about the surrogate Aerodrome, such as distance, flight degree.

1.6.2e Waypoints

In the OFP, all the waypoint on the path are given get downing with the take-off track till the finish track. After each waypoint the minimal off-route height ( MORA ) , the path, distance to the following waypoint, land velocity, clip to no following waypoint, temperature, flight degree, entire flying clip, weave constituent and expected fuel on board, in per centums.

1.6.2f ETOPS program

The ETOPS subdivision is added during a twin-engine operation. An ETOPS flight program consists of information about ETOPS, topographic point and clip of finish and topographic point and clip of reaching. The ETOPS flight program begins with the critical points.

1.6.2g Fuel planning

Fuel is one of the most of import things in air power, every bit long as fuel is available, the aircraft can stay in the air. Equally shortly as the aircraft runs out of fuel, it starts floating down. The entire fuel sum must include:

Ad.1 Taxi fuel

Ad.2 Trip fuel

Ad.3 Contingency fuel

Ad.4 Alternate fuel

Ad.5 Additional fuel

Ad.6 Final modesty fuel

Ad.1 cab fuel

Cab fuel is defined as the sum of fuel expected to be used before take-off and should account local conditions at the going Aerodrome and fuel that may be required for the operation of the subsidiary power unit.

Ad.2 Trip fuel

Sometimes referred to as path fuel, trip fuel includes:

• Fuel for the take-off and ascent to the initial sail height, taking into history the expected going process and routing.

• Fuel used in the sail from the top of the ascent to the top of the descent, including any fuel that may be used for intermediate ascents during the sail.

• Fuel from the top of the descent to the initial attack hole, accounting the expected arrival process to that hole.

• Fuel for the attack and landing, including any fuel required for the terminal attack process.

Ad.3 Contingency fuel

This is the fuel carried to cover any divergence from the flight program, which may be height, path, velocity, meteoric conditions or single aeroplane fuel ingestion divergence.

Ad.4 Alternate fuel

Alternate fuel should be sufficient to touch and travel at the finish and so go on and set down at the specified surrogate, which requires the greatest sum of fuel.

Ad.5 Final modesty fuel

The concluding modesty fuel should be sufficient for 30 proceedingss flight for turbine powered airplanes, at the keeping velocity at 1500 foot ( 450 m ) in ISA conditions, and 45 proceedingss flight for airplanes with reciprocating engines.

Ad.6 Additional fuel

Extra fuel is merely needed if the minimal sum of fuel calculated from the amount of the trip, eventuality, surrogate and concluding modesty fuel is deficient to allow the followers: do an attack and landing, hold at that place in ISA conditions at 1500 foot ( 450 m ) above the Aerodrome lift for 15 proceedingss, when the flight is operated in IFR conditions, without a finish surrogate Aerodrome, keeping at 1500 foot ( 450 m ) above the finish Aerodrome lift for 15 proceedingss.

Ad.7 Extra fuel

This fuel may be carried at the discretion of the Commander.

1.6.2 H Surrogates

An surrogate is the airdrome, which can be used in the event of anything unexpected as an accident or malfunction in the aircraft. An include take-off surrogate ( Ad.1 ) , En-route surrogate ( Ad.2 ) and finish surrogate ( Ad.3 ) .

Take-off surrogate

The operator must choose a take-off surrogate for usage if an aircraft is unable to return to the Departure Aerodrome after takeoff because of meteoric or public presentation grounds. This aerodrome must located within two hr for a three of four engine aircraft, and one hr for Non-ETOPS twin-engined aircraft.

En-route surrogate

An en-route surrogate is an airdrome which an aircraft would be able to set down after an exigency status while en-route. The location of an acceptable en-route surrogate airport depends on the

method used to cipher the eventuality fuel for the flight. the En-route must be equipped with the necessary installations which are non available on the nearest surrogate airport. If 3 % of the trip

fuel is to be used as the eventuality fuel so the en-route surrogate airport must be located within a circle, radius equal to 20 % of the entire flight Plan distance, centred at a distance equal to 25 % of the entire path distance from the finish or 20 % + 50 nanometer, whichever is the greater.

finish surrogate

On all IFR flights at least one finish surrogate airport must be selected by the operator, unless the flight clip is six hours or less and the finish has two separate useable tracks available, at which the conditions studies or prognosiss, or any combination thereof, indicate that for the period Of the ETA ± 1 hr the cloud ceiling will be at least 2000 foot, or the circling tallness +500 foot, whichever is the higher, and the visibleness will be at least 5 kilometer. The exclusion to the regulation is when the finish is isolated and there is no equal surrogate airport available