Examining Violence In Titus Andronicus Film Studies Essay

Titus Andronicus is likely one of the most ill-famed and violent dramas that the poet and dramatist William Shakespeare has of all time written. But even if this certain retaliation drama is unheard-of, there is still a batch of room for reading, even more when it is compared to a movie version. One could for illustration remark on the several slayings, the cannibalism, the colza, the taking apart of human organic structures and so on.

Therefore, retaliation and force are an of import subject in this drama and that is why I will analyse the presentation of force in Julie Taymor s version of Titus Andronicus named Titus and released in 2000, and compare it to the representation of force in the primary beginning. What I would wish to show is that in the movie force is presented in a monstrous manner. So the inquiry is, whether the drama offers a monstrous footing for Taymor s movie or whether this is instead her ain reading.

In order to make that, I will foremost specify the construct of the grotesque, including its intensions and effects on the reader or the audience. Furthermore, I will pick out scenes that support my statement.

To show the grotesque in the movie I will picture and construe three cardinal scenes. The first scene will be Lavinia s colza, in which Lavinia is assaulted by Chiron and Demetrius and gets her custodies and lingua cut off afterwards. In add-on, I will show a scene, where a courier delivers Titus Andronicus his ain manus and his boies caputs. The last scene will cover with the state of affairs, where Titus dresses up as a cook and serves Tamora, his most awful enemy, and others her two boies that he killed and cooked earlier.

1.2. Information on the Play and the Film

In this subdivision I would wish to give information on the drama and on the movie in short footings. Titus Andronicus, which is a retaliation drama as already mentioned, was written by Shakespeare in the late 1580s and updated around 1593. Sw rdh claims that there are still critics who are non certain whether the drama was written by Shakespeare entirely, since it is really different from his other dramas.

Julie Taymor s movie Titus was released in 1999 and failed at the box office although it was extremely praised by critics. In her version the narrative is set in Ancient Rome but is assorted with modern elements, such as autos and pieces. In add-on, in Taymor s framing of the Shakespearean play the boundary between world and fiction is crossed several times.

This crossing of boundaries is a intimation that Taymor uses the filmic manner in her version. Harmonizing to Jorgens there are several manners that are used to mensurate the movies comparative distance from the linguistic communication and conventions of the theater. In Shakespeare on Film he introduces the theatrical, the realistic and the filmic manner.

The theatrical manner looks like a theatre public presentation and involves the audience. There are a batch of medium and long shootings used. The realistic manner, nevertheless, takes advantage of the camera s alone ability to demo us things [ … ] . This for illustration includes close-ups.

The filmic manner is the manner of the movie poet, whose plants bear the same relation to the surfaces of world that poems do to ordinary conversation. That means that world becomes undistinguished in the filmic manner and can be mixed up with elements of the unreal. In this manner many non-theatrical techniques which besides include close-ups, long shootings, several camera angle and motions. In Taymor s version the world is penetrated by dream sequences that Taymor herself calls Penny Arcade Nightmares or short P.A.N.s. Two illustrations of the P.A.N.s will be discussed subsequently in this paper.

Harmonizing to Jorgens, the filmic manner makes it possible for the managers non merely to show what Shakespeare literally has written in his dramas but besides the subtext, which reveals the character feelings and ideas between the lines of a drama. In this paper I will demo that the grotesque is what is hidden between the lines in Shakespeare s drama and what is made highly seeable in Taymor s movie.

2. The Grotesque

Harmonizing to Thomson the construct of the grotesque alterations from clip to clip and has gained importance merely since the 1950s. However, the construct of the grotesque is old and was already used by poets as Dante and Ovid. The modern manner to specify the grotesque is to see it as a basically ambivalent thing, as a violent clang of antonyms [ ]

Thomson argues that the grotesque is ever connected to the amusing and the terrifying at the same clip and that there is job to make up one’s mind whether something is amusing ( non merely in the sense of amusing but besides in the sense of strange ) or horror. This leads to an unsolved job and [ the ] particular impact of the grotesque will be missing if the struggle is resolved.Thus he offers the definition that the grotesque is the unsolved clang of incompatibles in work and response.

Something grotesque can besides be named eccentric, absurd and macabre, which I think is besides really common in both, the movie and the drama. One of the lines Titus says in the scene where he asks Aaron to cut off his manus is: Lend me thy manus and I will give thee mine ( 3.1.189 ) . He asks Aaron to assist him to cut off his manus and tells him that he will give him his manus when Aaron is done. This is a ghastly state of affairs because the fact that Titus is holding his manus lopped off is really ghastly, but the line he is stating is amusing ( in the sense of comedian ) and this evokes two opposite feelings viz. disgust and amusement which is, harmonizing to Thomson, the usual but unnatural reaction to the grotesque.

Harpham puts the definition of the grotesque in different words: when we use the word grotesque we record [ ] the sense that although our attending has been arrested, our apprehension is unsated. He besides explains that the grotesque has ever to make with the clang of two antonyms, such as the known and the unknown or the perceived and the unremarked. Although he agrees with Thomson refering the reaction towards the grotesque, he elaborates more on the fact that the grotesque besides depends on our ain perceptual experience and reading of a certain issue. He argues that these two points ( among others ) play a [ ] important function in making the sense of the grotesque.

Yates besides points out that in Greek mythology a monstrous animal was something that had human and animalistic organic structure parts. This could be a individual with the caput of a chiropteran, a works with the dentition of an carnal [ … ] and so on. In Taymor s movie, this definition of the grotesque is used several times. The most relentless image is that of Lavinia as a adult female with the caput of a Department of Energy. This comparing will be discussed subsequently.

In this paper, I will specify a scene as grotesque if it matches Thomson s definition. That means that I will analyze whether a scene is amusing and terrorizing at the same clip in order to be called grotesque.

3. The Original Titus Andronicus and Taymor s Adaptation

3.1. Scene 1: Lavinia s Rape

3.1.1. The Main Scene

The scene starts with Tamora s boies come ining with the ravished Lavinia in 2.4.1 in the drama and their hysteric laughter in 63:05 min in the movie, stoping at line 55 and at 66:19 min. This scene will be analyzed refering camera motions, angles and framing, because this is really of import for the reading of this scene.

This scene was chosen as one of the grotesque scenes because Lavinia is presented in a really monstrous manner. It is non merely her expressions but besides the usage of the camera and the music that create this feeling. All of these elements will be explained in this chapter.

The colza scene begins with an utmost long shooting of the two brothers express joying and traveling about Lavinia, who is merely shown from the dorsum, being evidently filmed after the colza and mutilation. It is filmed from a high angle and creates the image that the audience sees the scene from her point of position. There is besides a handheld camera used, which moves rapidly and follows the two work forces ( or instead male childs ) doing a jerked meat, ragged consequence, which is really frequently used in the horror genre. In add-on, the fact that Lavinia is merely seen from behind arouses the feeling that something really uncomfortable is following.

When Lavinia is eventually seen from front position, a atilt angle, suggest [ ing ] instability, and a long shooting are used, so that Lavinia s whole organic structure and her milieus can be recognized. She starts traveling, her face wreathing in hurting. This adds to the monstrous feeling of the whole scene. When Chiron and Demetrius leave we can see Marcus walking through the wood. As he sees Lavinia, he starts walking towards her. Here, a medium shooting is used and the scene is filmed on oculus degree. The camera motion can be described as a contrary dolly shot, which merely follows the character that is filmed easy and steadily. The camera starts whizzing closer to Lavinia and when she opens her oral cavity, there is a medium shooting demoing her upper portion of the organic structure, which is followed by a close-up at Marcus s face.

This whole 2nd portion of the scene with Marcus and Lavinia is shot at oculus degree. This is a contrast to the first portion where Lavinia is filmed with Tamora s boies. It creates the feeling that Marcus and Lavinia are at the same degree. Marcus is devastated and commiserations Lavinia and you can see how much he loves his niece, so there is no instability or force at all. Tamora s boies, nevertheless, hurt Lavinia and do merriment of her afterwards. Furthermore, the steady motions of the camera in the 2nd portion of the scene and the fast camera motions in the first portion of the scene besides aggravate this consequence.

In the movie version, a batch of lines from the drama have been left out in this scene. However, the words that Marcus says in the drama are shown by the histrions through facial looks and motions of the organic structure. In the drama he says: Alas, a red river of warm blood [ … ] Doth rise and autumn between thy rosed lips ( 2.3.22-2.3.24 ) . These lines and the undermentioned soliloquy are left out in the movie. But since Lavinia opens her oral cavity and the audience can really see the blood, it is non necessary for Marcus to reiterate that. The whole soliloquy where he regrets what happened to Lavinia is besides made otiose through the close-up at his face, which already has been described. At this minute, his facial look demonstrates his hurt and words are non necessary.

Another of import fact in this scene is that Lavinia is compared to a tree. Marcus says in the drama:

Speak soft niece, what stern ignoble custodies

Hath lopped and hewed and made thy organic structure bare

Of her two subdivisions, those sweet decorations [ ]

( 2.3.16-2.3.19 )

Here, Marcus uses a batch of looks that have to make with wood and wood processing, which are subdivisions, lopped and hewed, therefore comparing her organic structure to a tree. When he finds Lavinia in the movie version, subdivisions have been plugged into her stumps. This creates a really monstrous feeling. It is amusing in the sense of strange, because it is a really uncommon image and it is terrorizing at the same clip, if one thinks about the hurting that Lavinia must experience at this minute.

Although this is non explicitly mentioned in the primary beginning, one could state that the drama provides a footing for Taymor s reading because of the several comparings to wood. Taymor besides sets the scene that is described here in a topographic point that reminds of a dead wood, because there are dead, black trees and stubs everyplace, surrounded by a batch of clay. In this scene Lavinia is besides standing on a stub, which adds even more to Marcus s comparing of her as a tree, and her motions remind of a thin tree that is rocking in the air current.

What is besides deserving mentioning is that earlier in the movie, in the scene where Chiron and Demetrius kill Lavinia s hubby Bassanius in forepart of her, the scene is set in a verdant wood. But after her colza the wood is dead, which could besides be an allusion to the devastation of Lavinia and her celibacy.

Another intimation that Lavinia s colza should be presented in a monstrous manner is that fact that the incident that happened to her is frequently compared to Philomela s narrative. Harpham argues that the grotesque can besides be found in the work of the Roman poet Ovid. Interestingly plenty, Ovid s work is besides used really frequently as a metaphor in Shakespeare s drama. Marcus says subsequently in the scene about his niece:

A craftier Tereus, cousin, hast 1000 met,

And he hath cut those pretty fingers off,

That could hold better sewed than Philomel.

( 2.3.41-2.3.43 )

Here, he compares Lavinia to Ovid s Philomela who is raped by King Tereus of Thrace and gets her lingua chopped away, as good. That comparing establishes a connexion between the monstrous scene in Taymor s movie and Shakespeare s drama.

However, harmonizing to Cartelli and Rowe, Taymor does non present Lavinia as Philomela but as Daphne, who is besides one of the supporters of Ovid s verse forms. Daphne was like Lavinia a chaste virgin. She was persecuted by Apollo who was frantically in love with her and so she asked her male parent Peneus, a river God, to alter her form in order to halt Apollo. Consequently, her father turned Daphne into a tree. The image of Lavinia as Daphne is even more strengthened when Young Lucius brings her wooden custodies to replace hers.

Another of import statement is that Lavinia is invariably compared to an animate being. In the scene where Aaron talks Chiron and Demetrius into ravishing Lavinia she is really frequently referred to as a Department of Energy. Aaron even says: And strike her place by force, if non by words ( 1.1.618 ) . Harmonizing to the notes of this edition the word contact was used as a proficient term for killing or injuring a cervid. In Taymor s movie, there is a P.A.N. that reflects this allusion, which will be discussed subsequently in this chapter.

Therefore, Lavinia is frequently compared to animate beings and to trees, but she is ne’er regarded as a adult female. Hanson argues that female composite figures are seen as sexual animate beings in Greek mythology. Lavinia is reduced to a sex symbol ( as would be called today ) .

Finally, one could state that Lavinia s colza scene which is depicted in a really monstrous manner in the movie is non explicitly grotesque in the drama. However, Shakespeare provides a footing for the monstrous scene, by comparing Lavinia to a tree and to Philomela, whose narrative was perceived as grotesque, as good and by really holding her custodies and lingua lopped off.

3.2.2. Extra Scene: Lavinia as Department of Energy adult female

This scene can non be found explicitly in Shakespeare s drama. However, it is of import for the scene that was described above and adds important information for the image of Lavinia in the drama. This really short scene is besides one of the already mentioned Penny Arcade Nightmares. It starts at 93:25 min and terminal at 94:15 min.

Starks argues that [ t ] he P.A.N.s, which occur at strategic minutes throughout Titus, [ ] farther interrogate the act of sing horror. She adds that they are supposed to blend world and imaginativeness. Normally, in P.A.N. the characters try to recycle something that has happened to them. But there is besides ever a nightmare component in these P.A.N.s.

This P.A.N. happens parallel to the action in the drama. It is the minute where Lavinia writes down the names of Chiron and Demetrius in the sand. The phase waies tell us that [ s ] he takes [ a ] staff in her oral cavity, and ushers it with her stumps, and writes ( 4.1.76 ) . In the movie the staff reminds of a phallic symbol ( Lavinia is reduced to a sex symbol once more ) and the P.A.N. takes topographic point while she writes.

At the get downing she can be seen with the caput of a Department of Energy on her caput and with Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams leaping from both sides at her. There is a long shooting used and the whole scene is shown in slow gesture. The Department of Energy normally connected to innocence and failing and one must involuntarily believe of Walt Disney s Bambi. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams nevertheless are connected to strength and power. This shows that hapless Lavinia had no opportunity to protect herself from the two brothers. The music in the background sounds psychedelic and is accompanied by Lavinia s oinks. The colorss are chiefly bluish and black except for her white frock.

Suddenly Lavinia looks scared and there are close-ups of her face and the faces of Chiron and Demetrius. The last shooting shows Lavinia standing on a base in a zephyr in her white frock which reminds really much of Marilyn Monroe, who was a sex symbol in the 1950s. This comparing underlines the thought that Lavinia is reduced invariably to an object of desire in the drama and in the movie.

This P.A.N. shows us what can non be seen in the chief scene. We can see how much Lavinia must hold suffered and as Taymor puts it a bolt of electric daze seems to run through [ Lavinia s ] organic structure. However, the comparing to Marilyn Monroe in that state of affairs and the fast cuts that are put together in the P.A.N. make a really monstrous image.

Harmonizing to Cartelli and Rowe the agreements in this scene are the same as in all the other P.A.N.s. The victim stands in the center and is attacked from the left and the right side.

Stark besides connects the shooting where Lavinia can be seen standing on a base to the first shooting after her colza. The thought is fundamentally the same: Lavinia is standing on a stump, have oning a white frock in a zephyr. In this scene she seems to be the 1 who is put above all of the others but she is besides the 1 who is humiliated in the worst manner. However, the two shootings evoke wholly different feelings. After her colza the audiences is shocked by that shooting and we pity Lavinia. But in the 2nd shooting the audience looks at her as an appealing adult female, who is badgering with her motions, which adds a grotesque component to the whole Lavinia subject in the movie. But, from our point of position her representation in the whole drama is monstrous every bit good because of her constantly reduced function.

3.2. Scene 2: Titus and many severed organic structure parts

This scene will cover with Titus cutting off his manus with the assistance of Aaron in order to merchandise it for the live of his boies. But Aaron tricks him and so, Titus merely gets the caputs of his two boies and his ain manus at the terminal. In the drama this scene starts in 3.1.151 and terminals with line 206, traveling on from 3.1.235 until line 241. In the movie the scene starts at 75:19 min, goes on until 78:00 min and continues from 80:19 min to 84:21 min. The portion in between is non connected closely to the scene and will be left out.

In this scene hands drama once more an of import function. Lavinia loses her custodies after the colza and can non be an independent individual any longer. In this scene the significance of custodies becomes even more apparent. Harmonizing to Katherine Rowe the manus is perceived as a separate portion of the organic structure, which controls the material universe. She argues that the manus is [ ] the organic structure portion most frequently associated with knowing, effectual action [ ] . Even Aristotle discussed the importance of custodies and claimed that the manus is the instrument of instruments. Harmonizing to Rowe, the Greek philosopher Galen continued Aristotle s idea and asserted that the manus non merely is the supreme instrument but besides a tool that uses tools.

In the drama there are frequently allusions made to the manus and it is associated with many different adjectives and properties. It is called winning, baronial, idle and so on. What is besides interesting is that the manus is the 1 that gets credited for several workss. In this scene for illustration Lucius says to his male parent:

Stay father, for that baronial manus of thine

That hath thrown down so many enemies

Shall non be sent.

( 3.1.163-3.1.165 )

Therefore, it is the ultimate penalty to lose a manus and bend into a individual, who can non be independent any longer. But still, Titus does non waver to give his manus for his boies lives, even though the idea of cutting it off must be atrocious. This is the portion of the scene, which fulfils the standard of being terrorizing in order to be monstrous. The amusing portion ( this clip in the sense of comedian ) is fulfilled by what is said by Titus. He tells Aaron: Lend me thy manus and I will give thee mine ( 3.1.188 ) Titus is really doing a gag in this really serious, potentially dangerous state of affairs.

This creates an image of something grotesque and this is besides how Taymor presents the scene in her movie. This portion of the scene is set in a kitchen. Here, the grotesque is really expressed, because Titus enters the kitchen with Aaron, takes off the cook s carving board, which she merely used to chop veggies, lays down his manus and lets him cut it off with a chopper. It is a amusing state of affairs because the cut off manus looks unreal as if it is elastic and because there is no blood at all, but still the idea of the hurting that one must endure acquiring his manus lopped off and Titus s facial look, make a feeling of horror, which is supported by a close-up at Titus s face.

The usage of the camera and the cinematography techniques do non hold every bit much importance in this scene as in the scene discussed in chapter 3.1. However, it is noticeable that Aaron negotiations straight to the camera several times, which is called a face-on trailing shooting. This creates the consequence that he is straight turn toing the audience and he normally does that, when he is supposed to state something aside in the phase waies of the drama.

However, what is more of import is the usage of music in this scene. When Aaron and Titus walk to the kitchen to cut Titus s manus off, a batch of huntsman’s horns, horns and threading participants can be heard. The music sounds aggressive, scaring and loud and fits to the determined walk of the two characters and their velocity. When Aaron leaves the kitchen with the manus and starts speaking to the camera, the music alterations and jazzy sounds can be heard. This once more underlines the words that are said and helps turning the temper from scaring to comic.

The 2nd portion of the scene is even more grotesque, because Taymor one time once more mixes modern elements with those from the Roman Empire. Guneratne puts it in the undermentioned words:

[ ] a creaky biker-clown pulls a waggon operation as a nomadic arcade [ ] and, after dancing monstrously about and manically advancing his show like a brainsick carny barker, he unveils the cut off caputs of Titus s two boies and the manus Titus severed to redeem them.

This scene is described as a P.A.N. by Taymor herself. Harmonizing to Cartelli and Rowe

The penny arcade evokes the carnivalesque ambiance of a just or beachside amusement zone given over to insouciant meandering among games of opportunity, fortune Tellers, tattoo parlo [ U ] R, and overstuffed shows of inexpensive awards and ware.

This quotation mark implies that what you normally can see in such a circumstance is nonmeaningful and merely used as amusement, but seeing the caputs of one s ain two boies has really nil to make with amusement and inexpensive awards, which add to the grotesque consequence. Cartelli and Rowe continue that the P.A.N.s besides demonstrate incubus and allow the characters relive what has happened to them before. However, the P.A.N described here is different, since it reflects a state of affairs that is really traveling on and non merely a dream of one of the characters: This still life P.A.N. signals the bend in the drama where the incubuss are now world and lunacy can be confused with saneness [ … ] .

To underscore the monstrous image of the courier Taymor besides changes his character. In the drama he seems to be compassionate, speaking to Andronicus about his male parent s decease. But in the movie, he seems to be uninterested in what he is stating, as if he is citing something he, himself, has no interest in. The manner he delivers his massage supports the grotesque in the movie. However, in this short portion Taymor did non take the drama as a footing for her reading.

In this whole scene the amusing component is presented at first by the buffoon and the small miss. The music, that is played, sounds like circus music and stops suddenly as the buffoon pulls up the roller shutter. The consequence is that the audience is shocked and terrified, since the two caputs of the boies, which look reasonably unreal and disgusting, swimming in a ruddy fluid, put in a soiled glass screen, are eventually seeable for everyone.

This is already really monstrous but it becomes even more monstrous when Titus asks Lavinia to take his dead, cut off manus in her severely injured oral cavity. The image of the raped and mutilated miss with the disheveled hair and the manus in her oral cavity makes her look like a Canis familiaris, which is a really distressing idea.

Finally, one could state that this is besides a scene, where the drama offers a monstrous footing for Taymor s version. Marcus suggests that Titus should mouth off but alternatively of mouth offing Titus starts express joying. This is a reaction, which is non expected by the reader and turns the state of affairs into something uncommon. In add-on, the minute where Lavinia shall take her male parent s manus and carry it in her oral cavity is truly go oning in the drama and Taymor takes Titus s petition literally. The consequence of this scene is stronger in the movie than in the drama, because watching Lavinia taking the manus is much more distressing than reading it.

3.3. Scene 3: Titus, the Cook

The last scene that will be discussed in this paper starts in 5.3.26 and terminals with line 65. In the movie the scene goes from 138:30 min to 144:30 min. In this scene, the grotesque can be found everyplace. It is monstrous how the bars incorporating the two dead boies are presented. It is monstrous how Titus kills his ain girl and how all of the supporters are stabbed with a knife, a spoon and a candleholder. The music, the camera angles and shooting techniques everything in this scene seems grotesque.

This analysis will get down with the shooting techniques. Directly at the beginning of the scene there is a close-up at the two pies that Titus made out of Chiron s and Demetrius organic structures, chilling down on a windowsill. There is graphic, friendly, jazzy music playing in the background and the drapes are traveling easy because of the air current. This image evokes the feeling that some lovely homemaker who lives in a cozy place, made these delightful looking pies for her household.

But of class, this is non the instance and the cognition of the two dead human existences inside that pies cause feelings of disgust and agitation. Equally shortly as the invitees including Tamora, Saturnius, Lucius, Marcus and others are seated Titus brings in one of the pies and cuts it. The first peace is for Tamora and inside the pie looks bloody and natural, one time once more making disgust. The whole scene is shot at oculus degree and most often there are average shootings and close-ups used to demo the characters.

However, when everyone starts eating there are several utmost close-ups at their oral cavities masticating with pieces of the pie lodging between their dentitions. Wilson argues that these sorts of shootings are supposed to do dramatic consequence. Looking at these people masticating raises the feeling of disgust even more.

What is besides singular is the usage of the camera in the really last seconds of the scene. When Lucius puts a spoon in Saturnius oral cavity and feeds it into him until he suffocates, the scene is all of a sudden shown in slow gesture and eventually comes to a complete halt. Suddenly, Lucius is the lone 1 that can travel. He spits at Saturnius and shoots him afterwards.

Finally, the scene is over and the remainder of the characters are standing in the Coliseum. My suggestion is that these last seconds are used in order to indicate out Lucius s function. He is the lone kid of Titus who all in all lost one girl and 23 boies that is still alive. Lucius makes non merely an terminal to the scene but besides to the whole force and retaliation, and becomes the new Emperor afterwards.

Music and sounds in general are besides really of import in this scene. They underline the action in the movie and back up the usage of the camera. When the really attractively looking Lavinia enters the room the music alterations and there is a quite orchestra in the background. Equally shortly as Titus says that she must decease it starts acquiring louder and when he breaks her cervix, which is highlighted by a decrepit sound, the music gets really loud and dramatic. A few seconds subsequently there is once more a alteration. When Titus stabs Tamora the soft music alterations after a short minute and becomes aggressive. Now, stone music is used and is played until the terminals of the scene. The stone music underlines the pandemonium that is interrupting out at this minute and since everything goes really fast from at that place adds to the perplexity that the audience experiences after the terminal of the scene.

Here, Lavinia is one time more decreased to an animate being. The manner her male parent breaks her cervix reminds more of hurt sparrow so of a adult female or even a kid. Again, Lavinia is compared to a historical figure. Titus alludes to Virginius who killed his girl Virginia because she was deflowered ( 5.3.38 ) . What is flooring is that in this scene he kills Lavinia non because of her hurting or shame but because he can non bear looking at her and because he has already cried so much because of her hurting. As ever Lavinia is non regarded as a adult female but as something that is at that place to function work forces.

An interesting point in this scene is the connexion of the character Titus to Hopkins s function as Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs. In this movie Hopkins played a man-eater and in Titus he one time once more turns into one, when he serves the bars. This adds a amusing component and one time once more strengthens the monstrous feeling of the whole scene. Cartelli and Rowe besides observe that Hopkins suctions in his tongue before slicing Chiron and Demetrius s pharynxs, which is besides normally connected to his function a Lecter and which happens shortly before the scene described here.

Starks connects this last scene to the opening scene of the movie and calls it a monstrous lampoon of the gap frame of Young Lucius ( Osheen Jones ) playing with ketchup-blood on the kitchen tabular array [ … ] . In the first scene of the movie a male child can be seen playing with plaything soldiers and other figures in a kitchen, have oning a paper bag on his caput. Hinz describes the scene as a typical American kitchen of the 1950s and read the paper bag as a symbol for the thin wall between existent and imagined force. The image of the male child with the paper bag on his caput is amusing but upseting sing his violent game and therefore grotesque.

Young Lucius is a character who truly exists in the drama but in Taymor s version his function is taken by a male child who acts as the audience. He appears in every scene described in this paper and has influence on the movie. In this scene, or instead after this scene and after his male parent being elected as the new Emperor, Lucius leaves the Coliseum with Aaron s and Tamora s babe on his arm, which, harmonizing to Hinz, intimations at the terminal of force between the Romans and the Goths.

4. Decision

In this term paper it has been shown that force is treated as something grotesque in Taymor s versions of Titus Andronicus. First of wholly, the term the grotesque has been defined and afterwards three scenes were chosen from the movie and interpreted. Whether a scene is monstrous or non has been analysed harmonizing to Thomson s standards.

Finally the movie scenes have been compared to the corresponding scenes in the drama. Camera angles, camera motions, the gestures of the characters, the music and of class the text is what was taken into consideration during the analysis of the movie.

What has been pointed out in this paper is that the drama offers a monstrous footing for Taymor s reading. It was non merely presented really explicitly through the actions of the characters but besides hinted at by the phase waies, by the existent text ( e.g. through the usage of metaphors and allusions to Greek mythology ) and the text between the lines, which represents the characters emotions and is more hard to recognize.

It has besides been shown how force connects to the function of adult females with Lavinia as an illustration. Here, it was really of import for me to indicate out that Lavinia is ever reduced to an object of desire, which is the alibi for ravishing her or utilizing her as explicitly stated by Demetrius in the first scene of the first act:

She is a adult female, therefore may be wooed ;

She is a adult female, therefore may be won ;

She is Lavinia, hence must be loved.

( 1.1.582-1.1.584 )

In add-on Taymor s Penny Arcade Nightmares have been described and it has been explained what their map is and how they add to the monstrous feeling of the whole movie. In this context the Forth P.A.N. has been described and analysed closely because of its importance for Lavinia s function in the movie. It draws a connexion to all of the comparings that are drawn to Lavinia, as for illustration the cervid and Marilyn Monroe. The peculiarity of the P.A.N. described in the 2nd scene ( the courier ) has been pointed out and analysed.

Finally, the last scene has been regarded refering the cinematography techniques and its importance for the first scene of the movie has been pointed out. There was besides an reading of the usage of music.

As a decision 1 might state that Taymor offered us richly re-imagined representations of the already hideous capable affair lying in delay in the Shakespearean playtext and made a beautiful version out of what is a bloody, grotesque and shocking retaliation drama.