Environmental Health And Safety Problems Environmental Sciences Essay

Environmental wellness and safety jobs have become one of the most momentous issues confronting the planetary sphere as it finds a manner to hold on conceptual pattern of sustainable development. One of the most cited definitions of this construct is that of the Brundtland study ( WCED, 1987, p. 10 ) which states that a development is sustainable if it “ ( … ) meets the demands of the present coevals without compromising the ability of future coevalss to run into their ain demands ” .

Despite some advancement towards bettering and prolonging human population, industrialisation has accordingly caused significantly more pollution ( Choo et al. , 1996 ) . Developed and developing states such as Trinidad and Tobago are fighting to accomplish positive moves towards sustainability. The Government of Trinidad and Tobago, acknowledging that worlds influence and are influenced by their environment and that the natural and reinforced environments affect their wellbeing, adopted policies and steps with a position of accomplishing sustainability to bettering human wellness and the quality of life. Besides they acknowledge that basic environmental, wellness and development rules are mutualist and in harmoniousness with the Constitution of the Nation. Therefore the first National Environmental Policy ( NEP ) was laid in Parliament on September 2, 1998.

In acknowledgment of the rapid industrialisation of Trinidad and Tobago, and important enlargement and upgrading of substructure, the Government saw it suit to raise Section 18 ( 5 ) of the EM Act to revise the 1998 version of the NEP which is under the counsel of the Environmental Management Authority. Promulgated under the protections of the Environmental Management Authority, is the Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) edict which requires the readying of an EIA by industries set abouting undertakings that are likely to do serious environmental and societal impacts, in order to extenuate the possible inauspicious impacts of the undertaking activities.

It is defined as “ an activity designed to place and foretell the impact on the biophysical environment and on adult male ‘s wellness and wellbeing, of legislative proposals, policies, programmes, undertakings and operational processs, and to construe and pass on information sing the effects ” Munn ( 1979, p. 1 ) .Thus, the ultimate end of EIA is to advance sustainable development ( McDonald and Brown, 1995, Glasson, et Al. 2005 ; Jay, et Al. 2007 ) .

In Trinidad and Tobago ( Rule 10 ( vitamin E ) of the CEC Rules, 2001 provinces that the EIA is a survey which identifies the likely effects the undertaking as whole may hold on the environment and society. The Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules 2001 was generated from the Environmental Management Act Chapter 35:05. These Rules guide the appraisal of little and large-scale developmental undertakings which may hold both positive and negative environmental effects. The Certificate of Environmental Clearance ( Designated Activities ) Order, 2001, as amended defines the 44 ( 44 ) activities which require a CEC. One such is the development of an Energy Port. The procedure begins with a determination to continue with EIA and involves:

The execution of programs for public engagement and stakeholder engagement,

Documentation of intent and demand,

Scoping of of import issues and involvements in the proposed action every bit good as its options,

Development of baseline information on the natural and human environments,

Appraisal of impacts and development of a determination devising papers,

A program for the extenuation of impacts

Within the EIA, audience and public engagement are cardinal elements of forward planning and participatory environmental direction tools ( Jay et al. 2007 ) .Participation plays a function in raising public consciousness and consciousness with respect to environmental issues ( McDonald and Brown 1995 ) . It encompasses an component of Civic Science defined “ as a signifier of scientific discipline that is deliberative, inclusive, participatory, revelatory and designed to minimise also-rans by acknowledging the demand for engagement of groups in society, and do just and comprehensive determinations ” ( O’Riordan, 2000. P 9 ) .Public engagement in determination devising for environmental impacts is of import for both local undertaking issues and strategic planning ( Petts, 1999 ) .

Port development has complex kineticss and multiple effects on the natural and human landscapes that they influence. It is due to these procedures that people populating in close propinquity to such developments have to accommodate to alter. Unless local people are cognizant of the alterations, understand the procedures and can be helped to accommodate, there is ever the potency for struggle with the powers that want to speed up or enforce alterations that are non felt acceptable by the people populating in the country ( Guthrie et al, 2003 ) .

1.2 Background Information

The bing energy port at Galeota was established by Amoco as a sufferance Port in the early 1970 ‘s to back up their E seashore geographic expedition activities.However in the late 1990 ‘s British Petroleum Company of Trinidad and Tobago Bptt assume the rental for the Port when they took over AMOCO. Bptt maintained that port direction is non portion of their nucleus concern and uttered involvement in holding the port made available to other energy service suppliers.

In the age of globalisation, havens play a critical function in linking national supply ironss to the planetary market place. Bettering port operations has become a precedence for many states. As Trinidad and Tobago continues to seek foreign investors upgrade and enlargement of the Energy Port at Galeota on the southeasterly peninsula of the island becomes more evident. Therefore the National Energy Corporation of Trinidad and Tobago ( NEC ) proposes to develop a modernised port installation at Galeota in order to spread out the degree of service to the Atlantic offshore geographic expedition industry in the southeasterly seashore. The new Galeota Port installation will back up all companies in the oil and gas sector require in the service. One of the chief characteristics of the new port include deeper transportation channel. This is because the bill of exchange of the attack channel limits entree to the port for larger vass, which means that for these vass to derive entry it requires direction of attack and going based on the tide and burden considerations. Other characteristics are multi berthing installations, deep- bill of exchange majority lading managing installations and full graduated table port disposal.

The proposed Port development is expected to use land on the Galeota Peninsula and habour installations along the southern side of the Guayaguayare Bay. Together with the energy port development there is the building of a fish landing installation to complement the country ‘s fishing industry. Compared to other types of building this type of development involves dredging plants, land renewal and other complicated activities to supply longer berth lengths, wider ship turning circles and deeper entree channels for modern ships. These activities can impact upon the wellness safety and environment of the fenceline community in which such a undertaking is taking topographic point. Due to this, prior to major determinations and committednesss being made a Risk Assessment in the signifier of an EIA is done together with a SIA. The intent is to, supply information for decision-making on the environmental effects of proposed actions and advance environmentally sound and sustainable development through the designation of appropriate sweetening and extenuation steps for blessing of the undertaking. This is done in an effort to guarantee the protection and preservation of the environment and natural resources including the wellness and public assistance of adult male against uncontrolled development.

A human action such as port development activities at the same time affects both the natural and the societal environment, non merely displacing workss and fouling H2O but besides making occupations and relocating people. Clearly a comprehensive appraisal of port development impacts would hold to see wellness, safety and environmental impacts together with societal effects, and the higher order cumulative effects that result from their interaction ( Westman 1985 ) . Examination of the full societal and ecological impacts of a proposed action requires a “ holistic ” attack, in the sense that scrutiny of the effects on the natural and societal systems will non uncover the full range of synergistic effects. For this purpose one of the elements of the Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) is a Social Impact Assessment ( SIA ) .Promulgated under the protections of the Environmental Management Authority, the EIA edict requires the readying of EIA by industries set abouting undertakings that are likely to do serious environmental and societal impacts, in order to extenuate the possible inauspicious impacts of the undertaking activities. While the SIA attempts to happen replies to the community ‘s societal well being within the frame work of the EIA surveies.

1.3 Problem Statement

There is a sensed deficiency of public engagement in port development EIA procedure, because of the figure of individuals in attending at audiences. The public engagement is really big and diverse ; the concerns about all the societal, economic and physical environmental impacts will be taken intodiscussion. This will take to a good democratic environmental determination incorporating both human and environmental wellbeing. Therefore if the engagement is missing the EIA procedure, it can be the cause of struggle. The public engagement is really big and diverse, and there is changing grades of value placed on societal, economic and cultural worlds. Despite this, there is a inclination merely to run into the minimal demands of engagement in the EIA procedure, instead than to accomplish best pattern. In order for best pattern to happen there must be some kind of consensus as to how it can be achieved, since jobs may happen if disagreements exist. This is of import because conflicting positions between advisers and local occupants may do even a carefully thought out and inclusive public engagement programme to have a hapless response with local occupants. A delayed EIA procedure and increased jobs with local occupants would certainly follow.

1.4 Aims & A ; Aims

As communities continue to turn, authorities functionaries and community members are invariably challenged by the demand to equilibrate societal, economic, and environmental ends. One facet of this challenge is make up one’s minding how much and what types of new development the community can suit without compromising the daily quality of life for occupants. Therefore determination shapers must set about undertakings that promote long term sustainability, including economic prosperity, a healthy community, a safe community and environmental and societal well-being. For illustration, a proposed development may increase employment in the community while negatively impacting upon the physical environment of the community. However what is of extreme importance, is the community ‘s engagement in the determination devising procedure.

Therefore the intent of this survey is to:

1. Research into the theory of public engagement in environmental impact appraisal.

2. Probe into processs of public audience and engagement carried out in a instance survey of Galeota Port development

3. Recommend for a best pattern theoretical account for public engagement.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Renn et Al. ( 1995, ) proposed the definition of public engagement to be “ forums for exchange that are organized for the intent of easing communicating between authorities, citizens, stakeholders, involvement groups and concerns sing a specific determination or job. ” The deduction of a forum for exchange is that it enables the populace to be brought into the determination devising procedure. It could be argued that some transference of power has to take topographic point for engagement in determination devising to take topographic point. ( Roberts, 1995 ) .

There are cardinal ethical grounds why public engagement should be carried out. Rousseau ( 1755 ) stated that people learn democracy by being engaged in its workings and that it is an built-in manner towards popular sovereignty and political equity. Participation provides a flat playing field for single involvements and personal and societal development ( Webler et al. 1995 ) . These thoughts are indispensable for people to see the equity in determinations made and be involved in the procedure. Anyone should be allowed to take part, there is no individual populace ( Roberts, 1995 ) . The inquiry is whether they can, or will be allowed to be involved in determinations, in any practical sense. Assorted audience and engagement techniques can be employed to better equity in public engagement in environmental appraisal and planning. If it is accepted that the person has the right to take part through a moral and ethical belief in democracy, so he besides has duty towards the society in which he lives, by being a good citizen ( Petts, 1999 ) . The duty for determinations is hence bipartisan. Developers need to take into history the demands of stakeholders, but stakeholders besides have a duty to assist towards a balanced determination. The same bipartisan attack is needed for communicating between those doing determinations and those affected by the determination result. It is indispensable that people feel involved in the procedure for they are more likely to seek to halt developments if they are non good informed ( Clarke, 1994 ) .The people who are traveling to be largely affected by the development ought to be the 1s who are consulted. If they are expected to populate with the effects they can anticipate to hold a portion in the duty of doing the determinations ( Roberts, 1995 ) .

There are nevertheless perceived jobs with excessively much engagement. Some politicians and developers would see a loss of power and control to particular involvement groups and NGO ‘s as a menace. In the instance of politicians, who have been democratically elected, releasing power to non-democratically elective people would dispute the thought of elective and responsible representatives ( Petts, 1999 ) . Developers could experience the engagement procedure was doing the determination economically inefficient with holds and the result perchance technically unqualified ( Webler et al. 1995 ) .

Consultation in environmental impact appraisal is frequently from a top down attack, and largely entails go throughing on information ( Petts, 1999: Hickie and Wade, 1998 ) . Response can be sought or encouraged but it is frequently felt there is small feedback and hence engagement in the procedure. Canter, ( 1996 ) , proposes there should be feedback as opposed to feed frontward. Engagement by definition demands to affect more authorization.

Engagement was foremost advocated in the context of development mandate in the 1950 ‘s due to neglect development policies which were thought to miss integrating of public concerns throughout their planning. Therefore, participatory methods were encouraged as cardinal steps of development ( Rahnema, 1993 ) . ‘Participation ‘ has been widely used in the context of environmental direction to integrate public involvement in the environmental determination devising.

Trust, like communicating between stakeholders, is a two manner procedure. There can be much misgiving of authorities and statutory bureaus and developers. The manner the discourse is carried out between the developer or contriver and stakeholder public can really much affect the success of the engagement exercising. Communication must be felt to be without coercion. ( Habermas, 1987 ) .The participator may experience there is small point in taking portion if the cognition and information given by him is non used and valued ( Robinson et al. 2003 ) . Participators frequently have utile proficient cognition and must non be perceived as doing irrational determinations. Addressing these jobs will assist the participator to hold more assurance and thereby swear in the procedure. More trust should bring on less struggle between lay individual and expert and cut down the sensitivity to a NIMBY response ( Webler, 1995 ) .

Developers and politicians may non swear the populace to come to an acceptable determination. However they will necessitate public engagement to legalize their determinations, and so will necessitate to prosecute the populace. Democracy demands that establishments are antiphonal to the societal and psychological features of its citizens ( Renn, 1995 ) . Some elements of the populace may be more sure than others. A cardinal inquiry is, should public engagement merely be conducted through NGO ‘s or definable local involvement groups or efforts made to affect single members of communities? ( Petts, 1999 ) . The EU Directive proposal recommended that the populace should ‘include the populace affected or likely to be affected by or holding an involvement in, the development consent process ‘ ( EU, 2001 ) .

Other states besides have environmental involvement policies. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency ( 2003 ) , states that the public involved in engagement is non a individual entity but made up of, local occupants, communities, local and regional functionaries, community organisations like householders, senior citizen organisations, nines, preservation groups, professional and concern organisations, educational establishments, public involvement groups and the media. The engagement of as many stakeholders as possible is hence stressed.

Stakeholder designation should besides be carried out early in the procedure, ( EU, 2001 ) .Concerns and values are identified to cut down misinformation and rumour. Information should be exchanged at this phase in a duologue that maintains credibleness and can better determination devising. There is a demand to happen a common linguistic communication and a demand to listen and see the incorporation of thoughts. The procedure should be proactive non so reactive for greater success ( Roberts, 1995 ) .

Soneryd et Al. ( 2003 ) have suggested from their research that a greater concentration on bring forthing more engagement utilizing designs that are advanced should deter hapless ill thought out proposals. They besides felt that better determinations would construct trust for future determinations and do the procedure more accountable and crystalline. Public consciousness of environmental issues would besides be heightened.

Some other jobs that need solutions before successful public engagement can take topographic point are identified by Robinson et al. , ( 2003 ) . In their research on stakeholder positions of local occupant engagement in Environmental Impact Assessment, they felt some of the major jobs were: Developers did non desire early engagement for competition and breaches of confidentiality grounds ; the most vocal groups of the populace had the most influence and were non needfully representative of the full spectrum of public sentiment. Guidance for a best pattern theoretical account will necessitate to turn to the jobs of early engagement, the increased usage of counsel and trust in the populace consulted.

The decision of the literature reappraisal is that there would look to be several chief countries of concern that have to be addressed before improved public engagement can take topographic point. Issues of stakeholder designation and authorization are thought of import by Petts, ( 1999 ) , O’Riordan ( 1997 ) and Roberts, ( 1995 ) , determination doing associating to feedback ( Clarke,1994 ; Canter,1996 ) and timing ( Petts,1999 ; Robinson, 2003 ) , trust ( Renn, 1995 ) and struggle, ( Webler, 1995 ) were besides identified as important.

Figure 2.1: Location of Project Site

Venetian Causeway Bascule Bridge

2.2 Public Participation in Trinidad and Tobago

2.2.1 Certificate of Environmental Clearance

Since the first National Environmental Policy in 1998, certain enforcement instruments have been made available through passage of subordinate statute law, viz. the Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules. The CEC is a certification issued to an applier, which verifies that a undertaking is environmental acceptable provided that all things conditions stated in the CEC are fulfilled. One of the considerations behind the CEC application procedure is the impacts which can impact human and environmental wellness, and placing ways to forestall or minimise such.

2.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessment

The EIA is an priceless tool used as portion of the CEC depending on the proposed activity. The EIA is responsible for placing the possible environmental impacts of an activity and conveyance that information to the populace and members responsible for doing determinations. It facilitates the public engagement procedure, authorising stakeholders, including communities, to care for their ain environments by supplying chances to portion in pull offing their local resources and the right to take part in decision-making.

The procedure begins with a determination to continue with EIA and involves:

The execution of programs for public engagement and stakeholder engagement,

Documentation of intent and demand,

Scoping of of import issues and involvements in the proposed action every bit good as its options,

Development of baseline information on the natural and human environments,

Appraisal of impacts and development of a determination devising papers,

A program for the extenuation of impacts

The information contained in the EIA study will be used in the decision-making procedure to find whether or non a CEC will be granted for the proposed undertaking. If a CEC is granted, a Certificate will be issued which will incorporate appropriate extenuation and monitoring steps to guarantee conformity.

2.2.3 Phases of the EIA Process

Project design and option: It aids site choice, identifies possible options, and avoids holds due to holding to measure antecedently unidentified possible impacts.This includes bothA alternate sites and alternate techniques. This hunt must be echt, good documented and carried out before a pick has been made. It is normally the instance that alternate sites are available every bit good as practical although this is non ever the instance. Some undertakings are site specific such as excavation.

Screening: Determines whether the proposed undertaking, requires an EIA or non and if it does, concentrate resources on undertakings most likely to hold important impacts, those where impacts are unsure and those where environmental direction input is likely to be required.

Scoping: Key issues and impacts that should be farther investigated are identified. This phase besides defines the boundary and clip bound of the survey.

Baseline informations aggregation: A comparing of project-induced environmental alterations with the expected environmental alterations without proposed undertaking is assessed through baseline analysis. The quality of the baseline analysis establishes the viability of the assessment of the impacts, and hence of the EIA itself.

Prediction and Evaluation: This phase of EIA identifies and predicts the likely environmental and societal impact of the proposed undertaking and evaluates the significance. Once roll uping the relevant environmental information, effects of the undertaking are outlined. The anticipation analysis should calculate the nature and significance of the expected impacts, or explicate why no important impacts are anticipated.

Extenuation: Recommends the actions to cut down and avoid the possible inauspicious environmental effects of development activities. In an EIA, extenuation steps are proposed to avoid or cut down environmental and societal impacts.This reviews the action taken to forestall, avoid or understate the existent or possible inauspicious effects of a undertaking. The step could include the abandoning or modifying of a proposal, permutation of techniques utilizing.

Draft: Presents the consequence of EIA in a signifier of a study to the decision-making organic structure and other interested parties. A concise but comprehensive study is prepared. It summarizes the description of the undertaking, regional scenes, baseline conditions, impact anticipation and of import findings of the survey. Undertaking advocates engage advisers to transport out the EIA and readying of study for them.

Undertaking determination: It decides whether the undertaking is rejected, approved or needs farther alteration. The reappraisal and determination devising starts as the advocate files an application accompanied by the paperss i.e. , EIA, hazard appraisal and exigency readiness program, rehabilitation program, inside informations of public hearing, clearance from different governments and province wood sections, etc. The system provides an chance to affect affected people and vulnerable groups to develop footings of mentions for EIA therefore integrating their concerns into decision-making procedure.

Monitoring: This is indispensable to guarantee that extenuation and preventive actions are carried out decently and that the recommendations of the EIA and conditions of blessing are followed.

2.3 Requirements for Stakeholder Engagement

Trinidad and Tobago: Environmental Management Act Article 5 ( 2 ) The applicant shall, where appropriate, behavior audiences with relevant bureaus, non-governmental organisations and other members of the populace on the bill of exchange TOR [ Footings of Reference ] and may, within 28 yearss after presentment under bomber regulation ( 1 ) ( degree Celsius ) , submit written representations to the Authority requesting that the bill of exchange TOR be modified and puting out:

the mode in which he proposes that the TOR should be modified

a sound justification for the proposed alterations

a study of the audiences with relevant bureaus, non-governmental organisations and other members of the populace on the bill of exchange TOR Article 8 ( 1 ) .

The Authority shall set up a National Register of Certificates of Environmental Clearance aˆ¦ 9 ( 1 ) The Register shall be unfastened to examination by members of the populace at such topographic point or topographic points and during such times as the Authority may advise from clip to clip in the Gazette and in one or more day-to-day newspaper of general circulation. aˆ¦ ( 2 ) An infusion from the Register shall be supplied at the petition of any individual on payment of the prescribed fee.

2.4 International Bodies counsel for best pattern in public engagement.

The undermentioned research has suggested properties that could lend to recommendations for a best pattern theoretical account for public engagement. The UN, IFC and World Bank Guidance.

2.4.1 Guidance for a best pattern from the United Nations ( 1994 ) .

To assist effectual public engagement the United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) , has suggested five basic maps. These recommendations could decide some of the concerns about stakeholder designation and feedback in determination devising:

The first is to place stakeholders involved.

The 2nd is to outreach by supplying information that leads to,

Dialogue that has to,

Be assimilated and take history of what is said to,

Supply some feedback to participants. ( Clarke, 1994 )

2.4.2 Guidance for best pattern for public engagement from The World

Bank. ( 1999 )

Recommendations from the World Bank lays out a strategic attack for good pattern in public engagement that enables more efficient bringing of undertaking sustainability and protect the involvements of affected communities. ( World Bank, 1999 ) .

The benefits of public audience are stated to be:

Fewer struggles and holds

Greater transparence and answerability for Governments

An addition in credibleness and apprehension of public bureaus and NGO ‘s

Reduce inauspicious impacts and maximize benefits and compensation

Ensure vulnerable groups are given particular attending and equity

Environmental Management Plans utilizing the Environmental Assessment procedure are more efficaciously.

In the Environmental Assessment procedure it is noted that all members of the EA squad may non to the full appreciate the benefits of audience. ( The World Bank, 1999. p3 ) . Stairss must be taken to convert and include these people for successful audience. The composing of groups ever brings together people with diverse backgrounds and attitudes and it is a challenge to accommodate these towards agreed decisions. Designation of stakeholders could usefully reply the inquiries:

Who will be straight and indirectly affected?

Who might hold an involvement or feel they are affected?

When the people involved have been identified meaningful audience should takeplace.

It is suggested on three degrees:

Flat 1: Conveying information to the Public

Flat 2: Listening to the sentiments and penchants of the populace

Flat 3: Involving the populace in determination devising.

Once the audience has taken topographic point its effectivity should be evaluated to reply these cardinal inquiries.

Were stakeholders able to get the information they needed to take part meaningfully?

Were stakeholders given the chance to hold their positions heard?

Did stakeholders have a realistic chance to act upon the design and execution of the undertaking?

Where all stakeholder groups involved?

Were activities suitably phased to accomplish the intended consequences?

Did audience happen early plenty?

Were the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience of the procedure, that is was just?

2.4.3 Guidance for best pattern for public engagement from International Finance Corporation ( World Bank Group ( 2007 )

Stakeholder battle is an umbrella term embracing arange of activities and interactions over the life of a undertaking. The edifice blocks of this battle are divided into eight constituents:

Stakeholder Identification and Analysis

Information Disclosure

Stakeholder Consultation

Negotiation and Partnerships

Grievance Management

Stakeholder Involvement in Project Monitoring

Reporting to Stakeholders

Management Functions

Figure 2.2 Key Components of stakeholder battle

2.5 Techniques used in Consultation and Public Participation.

For a best pattern theoretical account to win there is no individual attack to audience or engagement that is of all time sufficient in itself. ( Petts, 1999 ) .There are many different methods of affecting the populace, the advantages and disadvantages of these are shown in Table 2.1. The pick of method depends on the phase of the EIA procedure, the populace engaged, the peculiar fortunes and the development in inquiry.

Table 2.1 Showing advantages and disadvantages of public engagement techniques

Chapter 3


3.1 Research Method

There are several considerations when make up one’s minding to follow a qualitative research methodological analysis. ( Strauss and Corbin 1990 ) claims that qualitative methods can be used to better understand any phenomenon about which small is yet known. They can besides be used to derive new positions on things about which much is already known, or derive more in-depth information that may be hard to convey quantitatively. Research inquiries are normally open-ended which will let for the find of new information. The ability of qualitative informations to more to the full depict a phenomenon is an of import consideration non merely from the research worker position, but from the reader every bit good. “ If you want people to understand better than they otherwise might, supply them information in the signifier in which they normally experience it ” ( Lincoln and Guba 1985 ) .

The research purpose is to find the perceptual experience occupants have about the port development undertakings and the public engagement process.A instance survey attack was used. The instance survey dictated that the research collected informations that were related to or supported the research inquiries. ( K.Yin 2003 ) .Interviews ( Focus Groups ) and questionnaires ( See Appendix 2 ) were utilized as aggregation techniques for primary informations. In add-on, secondary informations were collected through assorted beginnings including information gathered from old surveies. The questionnaires and interviews ( concentrate groups ) were used to garner informations from occupants from the fencing line communities.

3.2 Sampling Plan

The community five kilometres ( 5km ) radius from the undertaking site was identified as the community of involvement. Choice of this community took into consideration propinquity to the site ; population size, and community construction ( i.e. the socio-economic composing ) . A sample size for administering the questionnaires is about 30 ( 60 ) families. The families were selected through a combination of trying techniques. Purposive trying method was used. This technique involves the usage of judgement on the portion of the research worker. The research worker forms a sample by choosing specific groups within a population ( in the instance of this survey, the families selected were along the chief street since safety was a major concern. Systematic random sampling was besides used. This technique indiscriminately selects interviewees ( families ) based on standards which does non present any prejudices into the sample. In this instance the questionnaires were administered to every fifth ( 5th ) family along the chief street until the coveted sample size is reached. The members are given a brief lineation of the intent of the exercising after which the questionnaires were administered, one time completed the questionnaire was so collected. This method presented the chance for participants to clear up any misconstruing prior to replying inquiries. It besides offers the potency to minimise losing information. Information collected from this exercising will be used for analysis. A transcript of the study questionnaire is included in Appendix 1.

The choice of cardinal sources efforts to pull in a cross subdivision of the people involved.

Statutory Agencies: One representative from the EMA who worked on the undertaking

Adviser: The adviser who worked on the undertaking

Non-Governmental Agencies ( NGOs ) : Three representatives from NGO groups

Local Groups and Persons: Two representatives from local groups

3.3 Data Analysis

Data Generated will be analyzed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) since it is capable of happening forms from informations inputs. The package is capable of associating consequences so that it is easier to do comparing for the usage in this survey. It allows for in-depth informations entree and readying, analytical coverage, artworks and patterning. Statistical processs such as cross tabular matters will be used to analyse the baseline informations and graphical tools will be used to bring forth saloon and pie charts to visually stand for the baseline informations collected.

3.4 Restrictions

The limited budget and clip available for set abouting the community battle procedure reduced the effectivity of the procedure. Despite this, a sensible representation of positions from across the community positions was gathered.

Due to the present offense state of affairs safety was a major concern hence restricting the families to those along the chief street.

Mistrust, due to past experiences the occupants encountered with other individuals making research. They have seen instead small return for their inputs, and good justified incredulity and reluctance to prosecute farther has been the terminal consequence.

Community burnout, the occupants have been subjected to so much societal rating, they get fed-up and were non interested. They thought it was a waste of clip and had work to make.

Chapter 4

Survey Results

4.1 Introduction

Sixty ( 60 ) questionnaires were distributed to participants of the Guayaguayare community, who volunteered to take part in the survey. All the questionnaires were completed and analyzed ( overall response rate was 100 % ) . Figure 4.1 shows the gender of the respondents in per centum, information showed a comparatively equal spread of respondents between males and females, stand foring 55 % and 45 % severally with most of the respondents within the 41- 50yrs age group as represented by Table 4.1.

4.1.1 Gender Responses

Figure.4.1 Gender Responses

Table 4.1 Summary of age distribution among males and females

Age Group



Overall Percentage of Respondents

























4.1.2 Public Consultation Involvement

The occupants were asked of their engagement in public audience as portion of the EIA procedure. Eighty nine per centum of the respondents acknowledged that they participated in the procedure with 11 per centum holding no engagement. When asked of their engagement with specific mention to the Energy Port Project, of the 80 nine per centum who had antecedently been involved in the procedure, merely sixty four per centum acknowledged being involved as shown in figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2 Residents involved in the audience procedure

4.1.3 Resident non engagement in EIA

Judging from what occupants said on the questionnaires, they did non take part in the audience procedure for the Energy Port stemming from general experiences with other audiences they attended. Figure 4.3 show responses to the inquiry.

Figure 4.3 Summary of non-participation responses

4.1.4 Assessment of the audience procedure

Residents who attended the audiences were so asked to do an appraisal of the audiences. Table 4.2 shows the per centum of occupants and their appraisal of the audience.A big part of the occupants felt that the audience was a one manner procedure. Fewer occupants thought that the audience was synergistic, while the least sum of occupants were unable to measure the audience based on the preset standards.

Table 4.2 demoing occupants ‘ appraisal of audience

Appraisal Standards

Percentage %





One manner Communication


None of the above


4.1.5 Importance of local occupants engagement in EIA

Residents were so asked to province whether or non local occupant engagement is of import during an EIA. Eight per centum of the respondents believed that local occupants ‘ engagement was non of import to the EIA procedure while support was high for local occupants ‘ engagement in the procedure with 90 two per centum. Reasons for such an overpowering support of engagement are as follows:

Residents bring local cognition into the assessment procedure.

Local occupants could offer suggestions for alterations on the undertaking design or options to the undertaking since they are the 1s who would be impacted.

There is a better apprehension of the procedure and will they will be more likely to back up a undertaking in which they had input which will take to community buy-in, with the undertaking.

Meanss of placing public concerns and values and inform public about proposed actions and effects.

The occupants should hold a say in determinations about actions that could impact their lives.

4.1.6 Phase for local occupants engagement.

The occupants felt that engagement in the EIA procedure was of import. A high per centum of occupants ( 27.9 % ) felt that EIA showing was the most of import phase in the EIA, for local occupants ‘ engagement. Fewer occupants ( 1.6 % ) thought the undertaking ‘s baseline informations aggregation was a phase in the EIA procedure where local occupants ‘ engagement is most of import, while none ( 0 % ) of the occupants saw their engagement with the bill of exchange reappraisal as being of import. Table 4.3 shows the occupants positions in per centum.

Table 4.3 Ranked phases of the EIA considered being of import for occupants engagement

EIA Phase

Rank degree of importance to local occupants engagement ( Percentage % )










Project design and option






























Baseline informations aggregation










Prediction & A ; Evaluation










Extenuation steps










Draft reappraisal










Undertaking Decision




















4.1.7 Options for public engagement

Interviews, harmonizing to occupants, were the most feasible option for public engagement in the EIA procedure ; Seventy three per centum of the respondents were in understanding as shown in table 4.4

Table 4.4 Public engagement methods

Engagement Method

Percentage %



Public Consultation


Focus Group Meeting




Harmonizing to the occupants, the option of an interview was most favourable for the undermentioned grounds:

Ability to raise the issues she or he feels are of import and express thoughts in her or his ain words

The Interviewer can examine deeper into a response given by an interviewee

Interviewee may experience comfy and talk more openly and give more information, one on one interviews may supply a relaxing, less formal environment for the campaigner so they may experience less self-aware.

Not intimidated by holding others around.

When asked if they agreed that public engagement within the EIA procedure allows for look of representative public positions, as shown in figure 4.4, the occupants found that this component was so of import to the success of the EIA procedure.

Figure 4.4 Showing perceptual experience of look of public positions in EIA

Chapter 5


5.1 Introduction

The EMA Act No. 3 of the twelvemonth 2000 provides for direction of the environment within Trinidad and Tobago. Section 6 of the Act establishes the Environment Management Authority and Section 35 stipulates the demand for a CEC mechanism to be facilitated through this authorization, therefore supplying legislative model for the CEC procedure of which the EIA is part.The Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules 2001 was generated from the Environmental Management Act Chapter 35:05. These Rules guide the appraisal of little and large-scale developmental undertakings which may hold both positive and negative environmental effects. The Certificate of Environmental Clearance ( Designated Activities ) Order, 2001, as amended defines the 44 ( 44 ) activities which require a CEC.

During the appraisal of these applications, the Authority takes into consideration foreseeable impacts which may originate out of any new or significantly modified building, procedure, works or other activity as outlined by the Order. At the preliminary stage of the appraisal of the proposed undertaking, if possible important environmental and human wellness impacts have been identified, the applier may be asked to carry on an Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) .

The EIA is a survey which identifies the likely effects the undertaking as whole may hold on the environment and society ( Rule 10 ( vitamin E ) of the CEC Rules, 2001.The EIA is an priceless tool used in planning and environmental direction which may be used in the CEC procedure depending on the proposed activity. The EIA facilitates public engagement and seeks to turn to and minimise possible inauspicious impacts every bit good as contributes to environmental direction through monitoring.

This research has shown that there is an overpowering support for public engagement in the EIA procedure which suggests that the individuals are more cognizant of their map in the procedure. By promoting the populace and other stakeholders to portion their cognition with the regulative governments Fosters better-informed determinations and decreases the likeliness of environmental injury, whilst increasing undertaking viability. Harmonizing to Technical Document 1, 1996 of 25 abroad undertakings sponsored and evaluated by the World Bank, 13 failed chiefly through deficiency of local input. In its ‘Directory of Impact Assessment Guidelines ‘ ( Donnelly, A. , Dalal-Clayton, B. , Hughes, R. , 1998 ) the IIED ( International Institute for Environment and Development ) concludes that “ greater attending to stakeholder involvement leads to better environmental appraisal, and therefore to the preparation of undertakings that deliver more societal benefits, fewer environmental costs and greater economic and fiscal benefits ” .

However, even though the EIA procedure and by extension public engagement is embedded in statute law and occupants had a strong affirmatory response to the importance of their engagement in the EIA procedure, there was a important bead in the figure of occupants taking portion in the audiences for the port undertakings as compared to old audiences. One of the primary grounds given for this is Consultation “ burn out ” holding attended to many audiences without fruitful results resulted in deficiency of involvement to go to. Harmonizing to ( Hughes, 1998 ) there is a inclination for development practicians to presume that people are merely excessively willing to take part in research and analysis as an activity in itself. Reflecting on experience in Tanzania, one EIA practician remarked: ” Peoples have been subjected to so much societal rating ; people get fed-up. So people are non interested ; they think that we are blowing their clip and they have work to make… ” ( Mwalyosi, cited ( Hughes, 1998 ) ) .In some countries, local communities have been overburdened with functionaries, contrivers, societal scientists and research workers necessitating their inputs. This can be the instance with this community because of its location to the oil and gas sector. They have had within the past five old ages audiences and societal studies from a series of companies seeking blessings from the EMA for assorted undertakings.

Frequently, possibly normally, such communities have seen instead small in return for their inputs and well-justified incredulity which leads to reluctance to prosecute farther. In such instances, the potency for future stakeholder engagement is significantly constrained and will necessitate a drawn-out stage of trust-building and committedness if these attitudes are to be replaced by one of unfastened committedness ( Hughes, 1998 ) .

Trust was another factor highlighted as impacting occupants ‘ engagement in the procedure. Harmonizing to ( International Finance Corporation ( World Bank Group ) 2007 ) , good pattern involves taking stairss to increase transparence and answerability as a agency of advancing understanding about your undertaking and breeding public trust. Adopting a “ given in favour of revelation ” means being forthcoming with information whenever possible, particularly if there is no obliging ground non to portion it. ( International Finance Corporation ( World Bank Group ) 2007 ) , besides states that a deficiency of information can take to the spread of misinformation about a undertaking that can be both damaging to a company ‘s repute, and undermine attempts to prosecute in an informed duologue with stakeholders. This is an country where perceptual experience affairs. If companies are viewed as closed or close, consumer assurance and public trust can be affected. Sometimes stakeholders care less about the existent content of the information being disclosed than they do about the rule of openness and transparence. In some instances, this derives from past experience or conditioning ( Hughes, 1998 ) .

Location and clip restraints were factors identified as lending to occupants non take parting in the procedure. Locations for audience and duologue should be near to topographic points of abode or work. Meetings and visits should be scheduled at times that do non conflict with other duties of affected people, such as work or household committednesss ( Environment Division of the International Finance Corporation ( IFC ) , 1998 ) .

Harmonizing to ( “ Stakeholder Consultation Issue Paper, ” , 2004 ) in general, companies that choose a locale where stakeholders feel more comfy – most likely at a location within the community tend to hold more productive battle procedures, for the undermentioned grounds:

It lends transparence to the procedure. Community members can witness the procedure and remain informed about what is being discussed on their behalf, and what has been agreed at the stopping point of audience or dialogues.

It increases answerability of local leaders. Community members will cognize what they are entitled to demand, and they will be able to supervise its bringing and avoid corruptness.

It sends the message that companies value the input of communities plenty to go and pass clip at that place. It contributes to community members feeling of ownership over the engagement procedure. Community members say that the chance to hold input into public meetings gives them a sense of holding a function in the result of determinations.

Finally, it allows community members to place their ain representatives, forestalling illicit representatives from claiming that they speak for communities.

Dialogue can be effectual merely if audience is convenient and accessible to relevant stakeholders, peculiarly affected people ( Environment Division of the International Finance Corporation ( IFC ) , 1998 ) .

Based on research occupants view the Consultation procedure as being both enlightening and synergistic, nevertheless the bulk determined it was more of a one manner procedure. Research done by ( Environment Division of the International Finance Corporation ( IFC ) , 1998 ) has shown that in order to construct duologue and trust, develop bipartisan channels of communicating, sooner in the local linguistic communication, with project-affected groups and other relevant stakeholders. This will let the undertaking patron to go through on new information about the undertaking rapidly and receive information that may assist the company respond to altering concerns as the undertaking progresses. Particular attending should be given to seeking out less powerful and deprived groups ( e.g. , adult females ‘s groups and societal service groups helping the hapless ) .

The methods most appropriate to accomplish this harmonizing to the occupants are interviews and public audiences. Public audiences are frequently attended by the “ vocal few ” entirely. Many voices in the community are non heard at these hearings even when they have involvements at interest. Endeavoring for more inclusive engagement at public hearings will take to better determinations and more support for the determinations or policies that are finally adopted ( ; Amsler, 1955 ) .There is no 1 right manner of undertaking audience. Given its nature, the procedure will ever be context-specific. This means that techniques, methods, attacks and timetables will necessitate to be tailored for the local state of affairs and the assorted types of stakeholders being consulted ( Environment Division of the International Finance Corporation ( IFC ) , 1998 ) . For a best pattern theoretical account to win there is no individual attack to engagement that is sufficient in itself ( Petts, 1999 ) .

Table 5.1 Showing techniques used to portion information ( Participation, 2006 )





FOCUSGROUP: Message proving forum with indiscriminately selected members of mark audience. Can besides be used to obtain input on planning determinations

Behavior at least two Sessionss for a given mark. Use a skilled focal point group facilitator to carry on the session

Provides chance to prove cardinal messages prior to implementing plan. Works best for choice mark audience

Relatively expensive if conducted in focal point group proving installation

Interviews: One to one meetings with stakeholders to derive information for developing or polishing public engagement and consensus edifice plans

Where executable, interviews should be conducted in the flesh, peculiarly when sing campaigners for citizens commissions

Provides chance for in-depth information exchange in non-threatening forum. Provides chance to obtain feedback from all stakeholders. Can be used to measure possible citizen commission members

Scheduling multiple interviews can be clip devouring

Surveies: One-on-one “ focal point groups ” with standardised questionnaire or methodological analysis such as “ declared penchant ”

Make certain usage of consequence is clear before technique is designed.

Provides traceable informations. Reached wide populace


Consultation: An organized large-group meeting normally to do a presentation and give the populace an chance to inquire inquiries and give remarks. Public meetings are unfastened to the populace at big

Set up the meeting to be as welcoming and receptive as possible to thoughts and sentiments and to increase interaction between proficient staff and the populace. Review all stuffs and presentations in front of clip.

Participants hear relevant information and have an unfastened chance to inquire inquiries and remark. People learn more by hearing others ‘ inquiries and remarks. Legal demands are met

The meeting escalates out of control because emotions are high. Facilitators are non able to set up an unfastened and impersonal environment for all positions to be shared.

The engagement procedure is besides a larning one for all the stakeholders involved, particularly if there is a free flow of information between the parties. For the public it can frequently be the first experience of taking an active portion in the democratic procedure ‘Directory of Impact Assessment Guidelines ‘ ( Donnelly, A. , Dalal-Clayton, B. , Hughes, R. , 1998 ) the IIED ( International Institute for Environment and Development ) .Clark ( 1994 ) A suggests that public engagement in EIA has a critical function to play in assisting to incorporate economic, societal and environmental aims, i.e. travel towards more sustainable development by moving as a device to beef up and increase public consciousness of the delicate balance between economic and environmental tradeoffs. It besides safeguards against bad or politically motivated determinations. Public engagement is necessary for minimising or avoiding public contention, confrontation and hold, and can do a positive part to the EIA procedure. The general aims of affecting the populace at different phases in the EIA procedure were considered by a recent European Commission research undertaking ( Commission, 2001 ) .This research has shown that occupants felt that during the Screening phase of the EIA their engagement was most important. Harmonizing to ( World Bank, 1997-2000 ) showing is one of the most of import stages of the Environmental Assessment, for it determines what will most probably be the cardinal environmental issues and what attempt and expertness are required to turn to them. One of the chief end products from Screening is the Footings of Reference ( TOR ) . In the World Bank instance portfolio of Colombia Cartagena Water Supply, Sanitation, and Environmental Management Project the TOR was drafted in a participatory mode with a wide scope of workshop participants, this early engagement was appreciated by the stakeholders, who knew more about the undertaking from its origin and accordingly developed a stronger sense of undertaking ownership ( World Bank, 1997-2000 ) .

This research has shown that occupants are unfastened to take parting in the EIA procedure. However a best pattern theoretical account needs to be developed specifically for the community it is to be used for, in order to accomplish the coveted result, which is, meaningful public engagement. Cardinal factors to take into consideration are the phase in the EIA procedure occupants should be involved which will impact upon trust in the populace consulted and the methods used to acquire the occupants involved.

Chapter 6

Decision and Recommendation

6.1 Decision

The port development is welcomed by the authorities of Trinidad and Tobago but with all major projects there is cause for concern. These concerns are normally related to Health, Safety and Environment. Therefore before such a undertaking is approved it has to be granted a Certificate of Environmental Clearance ( CEC ) with a back uping Environmental Impact Assessment. These are all aimed at guaranting that the Health, Safety and Environment of the community is protected and the community is able to voice their concerns through participation.This research has shown that occupants are cognizant of their function in the EIA procedure through engagement. However, the undertaking squad failed to implement an effectual theoretical account to prosecute occupants in the determination devising procedure, which resulted in farther misgiving and exclusion among occupants and, may therefore lead to a continued diminution in future engagement. Hence a best pattern theoretical account is recommended to rectify this job and regain occupants trust and avidity to take part.

It is non merely better for public participants, but besides better for determination shapers. For case, the representativeness and transparence of public argument can do part to fair environmental determination which considers both the homo and environmental wellbeing. Furthermore, the early battle of public participants can take to deliberative environmental determination and better populace ‘s trust in the determination.

6.2 Recommendation

6.2.1 Best Practice Model

When Edward Deming in the 1950 ‘s proposed that concern procedures be analyzed and measured to place beginnings of lacks, he recommended that concern procedures be placed in a uninterrupted feedback cringle so that directors can place spreads, and do alterations to do procedures more efficient, and for this ground the Plan, DO, CHECK, ACT rhythm was developed. This research has identified lacks in public engagement procedure and for this intent will utilize elements of this theoretical account to make a best pattern theoretical account.

Plan: Design or revision concern procedure constituents to better consequences

Bashs: Implement the program and step its public presentation

Check: Assess the measurings and describe the consequences to determination shapers

Act: Decide on alterations needed to better the procedure

Measure 1 Plan of Action:

The stakeholders are identified: those instantly affected by developments, those with wider strategic involvements, and those involved by virtuousness of their statutory functions or political places. Legitimate stakeholder representatives could be, but are non limited to:

elected representatives of regional, local, and small town councils

leaders ( presidents, managers ) of local co-ops, other community-based organisations, local NGOs, and localwomen ‘s groups

politicians and local authorities functionaries

school instructors

spiritual leaders

local communities

The undermentioned inquiries normally help to happen the right people:

Who will be affected, positively or negatively, by the development?

Who supports or opposes the alterations thedevelopment will convey?

Who holds official places in the country probably to beaffected by the development?

Who is influential in the local community?

Who runs local organisations with economic, environmental or societal involvements?

Who has been involved in any similar issues in the yesteryear?

Who may non be affected by any immediate development, but may be if there are other similar developments in the country?

Stakeholder Analysis: Not all stakeholders in a peculiar group or sub-group will needfully portion the same concerns or have unified sentiments or precedences, hence an analysis will find how peculiar groups will be affected and to what grade, and what influence they could hold on your undertaking. The undertaking company can place distinguishable groups and from this prioritize stakeholder audience. This information can so be used to develop an battle scheme.

The analysis will place the followers:

Stakeholders straight and indirectly affected by the undertaking environmentally or soci-economically.

The assorted involvement of each stakeholder.

At which phase of undertaking development will stakeholders be most affected?

Who is it critical to prosecute with first, and why?

It is of import to besides include in the stakeholder analysis those groups or organisations that are non adversely affected, but whose involvements determine them as stakeholders. This is because these persons may be the most vocal and can impact the result of the undertaking. They are normally reached by public meetings, it is normally better to be proactive in seeking to pull off such hazards by offering chances for constructive duologue.

Stakeholder Interaction: Having identified stakeholders and their involvement, the purposes and aims of the interaction procedure should clearly be defined, it will find the followers:

Information Disclosure- Communicating information to stakeholders is the first and an un-going procedure in Stakeholder Engagement. In an attempt to be crystalline, advance an apprehension of the undertaking and breeding public trust.

By early revelation stakeholders can efficaciously take part in the determination devising procedure. The information disclosed should be nonsubjective and non exaggerated ; if this is done it will ensue in misgiving. For case ” at present, we estimate a demand for approximately 500 new short-run unskilled occupations and 20 new semi-skilled permanent occupations, ” instead than assuring that “ there will be tonss of occupations. ” Remember that a deficiency of or to much information can take to the spread of misinformation about a undertaking that can be both damaging to a company ‘s repute, and undermine attempts to prosecute in an informed duologue with stakeholders. The revelation information should be:

Disclosed early

Objective information

Meaningful information and,


The undertaking squad at some point must weigh the hazard and benefit of discloser before doing a concluding determination.

Stakeholder Consultation- The audience is about originating and prolonging constructive external relationships over clip. The engagement scheme is designed, which will include: communicating techniques to be used, timing of the event, l