Energy Security Challenges And Alternatives Of Mongolia Environmental Sciences Essay

Since the prostration of Soviet Union, and the terminal of cold war has brought important political and economic alterations to the Northeast Asiatic part. For case, the construct of security has switched to non-conventional factors such as energy security and enlarging economic mutuality to a great extent. In other words, Mongolia, Japan and China are seeking diversified, environmentally friendly and dependable supplies to back up their enlarging domestic demands of energy. Within this context, as a little participant of the part, Mongolia ever seeks to take part in the security mechanism of the Northeast Asia, peculiarly with its two elephantine neighbours Russia and China. To exemplify, Mongolia ‘s landlocked location between two ace powers requires Mongolia to guarantee its energy security through prosecuting favourable foreign policy and multi good dealingss with Russia and China by all diplomatic and economic agencies. Despite the energy security jobs associated with its geopolitical history, Mongolia has late discovered strategically of import U sedimentations that it can utilize with other ace powers such as Japan and the USA to cut down its high dependence on oil and gas imports from Russia and its energy supply committedness to China. This paper will concentrate on Mongolia ‘s renewed energy militias in relation to bettering its energy security as an independent participant in the Northeast Asia. Finally, essay is expected to reason that U is the a possible energy option for Mongolia to diminish its trust on energy from Russia.

For centuries, Mongolia has been a geographical buffer zone between Russia and China with its immense land, for that ground state ‘s national security has been dominantly influenced by its geographical location which is defined as landlocked developing state by the United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least developed states, Landlocked developing states and Small island developing provinces ( UN-OHRLLS ) . Harmonizing to the definition by the UN-OHRLLS:

“ Landlocked states, i.e. states without direct coastal entree to the sea and therefore besides to maritime trade, face really specific challenges as tranship through one or more state to make sea port ” ( UN-OHRLLS et Al, 2007 ) .

Furthermore, in order to turn to advantages and disadvantages of landlocked developing states, UN-OHRLLS lineations that the LLDC states have specific jobs which have much negative influence on their foreign trade, poorness decrease and economic security such as deficiency of territorial entree to sea, farness from major universe market, hapless substructure, unequal policy and high theodolite transit cost ( Millennium Project Report, 2005 ) . As an illustration, the huge bulk of LLDC states are the hapless states as a disadvantage of their geographical location. For case, the one-year economic growing of those states is expected to be 0.7 per centum less than coastal states ( Millennium Project Report, 2005 ) . As a landlocked developing state, the closest haven to Mongolia is 1724 kilometer to Tianjin, China or 3500 kilometer to Vladivostok, Russia ( ESCAP, 2003 ) , which can assist explicate that the foreign trade of Mongolia is to a great extent dependent on its theodolite neighbours as clip and cost consuming issue. On the whole, Mongolia ‘s foreign trade turnover is extremely limited within market scope, and the conveyance cost undermines the stableness of economic diplomatic negotiations in footings of external trade. Finally, Mongolia ‘s sandwiched and landlocked location decreases the return of capital to the state that makes state ‘s economic system weaken in footings of security.

To represent more specifically, Brenda Shaffer argues that energy ingestion of any states consequences mutuality in economic growing since energy demand affects monetary value and supply entree of oil for about all consumers. Correspondingly any states dependant on energy resource should enlarge their energy storage capacity or seek energy efficiency solution or energy variegation ( Brenda Shaffer, 2009 pp4-5 ) . Her thought supports my statement that any oil monetary value addition in the universe energy market could act upon greatly to landlocked states ‘ economic system through troubles faced by energy dependant landlocked states. For case, Russian Gazprom Company increased crude oil monetary value for 90 cents per litre consequences 8 % addition rising prices to the economic system of Mongolia. In short, troubles of landlocked state of affairs and high independency of fuel and gas from Russia make Mongolia as one of the weakest state in footings of economic system and energy security in the Northeast Asiatic part – presently Mongolian energy sector /electricity, heating etc./ consists of 45 per centum coal, 6 per centum of renewable energy beginnings and 45 per centum of gas crude oil which is about 100 percent dependant on Russian crude oil export ( O.Altansukh p5 ) .

As it has been pointed out above in the essay, the Northeast Asia is the place of largest economic systems in the universe such as Japan and China every bit good as India which expected to be the 2nd largest energy consumer after China by 2020 ( Ram Sachs et Al. pp3,6 ) , as it is shown below that due to economic roar energy demand of these states are likely to be increased by 4-5 times ( Jinwoo Kim, p22 ) by 2030. Mongolia ‘s most of import trading spouses in energy sector are its two elephantine neighbours, Russia and China, although the United States of America and Japan has late become a major export in freshly discovered uranium sedimentation. In this regard many-sided cooperation duologues between Mongolia, Japan, Russia and the United States has been escalating in recent old ages ( Bloomberg, May 17 ) .

Aforementioned paragraphs have discussed certain effects of landlocked and little province challenges in geographical and economical facet, therefore the below paragraph will reason that The Concept of National Security of Mongolia fails to modulate energy sector. In order to analyse the national security construct, illustration is taken from “ Energy Politicss ” by Brenda Shaffer ( 2009 ) which discusses:

“ Energy is both a factor that influences a province ‘s foreign policy results and a possible tool of foreign policy. Enhancing energy supply security is portion of the national security docket of energy-importing provinces, while the end of guaranting stable market is on the policy docket of exporting every bit good as importing provinces ” .

Given illustration shows that in order to escalate the energy security, it is extremely of import to follow national policy and strategic papers to modulate energy sector as presents, energy handiness is the primary portion of the national security of any states, particularly to little provinces like Mongolia. The National Security Concept of Mongolia has underlined the demands to guarantee the nuclear-weapon-free position of Mongolia at the international degree and do it an of import component of beef uping the state ‘s security by political agencies. But to be more critical, in the Concept of National security of Mongolia has overlooked to turn to agencies of guaranting energy security as a portion of national involvement. If excavation is the largest industry of Mongolia ( Ch.Khashchuluun p3 ) and the authorities gives significance to energy security, this issue needs to be addressed at the degree of National Security Council of Mongolia which led by the President of Mongolia as energy security is insurance for the hereafter.

As it has been discussed above, following the planetary inclination of green energy and energy variegation, Mongolia has to cover with dependance or independency quandary to procure its energy security in the twenty-first century. Since the excavation sector, particularly uranium and coke coal export is likely to be the pillar of Mongolian economic system, the state has to accomplish atomic power-based electricity coevals which could cut down the dependance on gas and oil imports and enhances energy security. Some people may reason that why non renewable energy options can be the best solution for Mongolia?

First of all, Mongolia has immense district with rich resources, mobile manner of life supports utilizing the biomass ( dried cow droppings etc. ) as a fuel, because of mobile manner has less troubles to develop an appropriate engineering to provide electricity in some part of the state, renewable energy resource is limited and investing to this alternate seems improbable to run into the domestic demands due to harsh clime etc. most significantly, production of renewable energy resource can non cut down the import dependance of Russian oil and gas. In the nearest 30 old ages, Mongolia does n’t hold capacity to bring forth renewable energy such as windmill, solar energy or bio-fuel and export to other states. For case, China and Japan are the taking states in the NEA part with its high engineering and know-how of renewable energy beginnings. In instance of windmill and other options, air current resource is available for merely 70 per centum of the state and 71 per centum of the state has capacity to bring forth solar energy ( Batryenchin, 2010 p12 ) , still above statistic shows renewable energy is non into history of the nearest hereafter of Mongolia to be a provider of Northeast Asian energy demands.

“ Every dollar in mining creates extra demand of 1.84 dollars in other sectors ”

( Ph.D Khashchuluun.Ch

National Development and Innovation Commission,

Government Agency of Mongolia

2010 )

In decision, since import substituted, export oriented economic development theoretical account will doubtless back up Mongolia to construct a little or average size atomic power works could decide most of the state ‘s energy demands furthermore, developing the atomic energy sector will lend tremendously to cut down the mutuality from Russian oil gas import and back up the economic system to export U to the regional economic spouses. If Mongolia decides to develop atomic energy, the IAEA could supply appropriate aid through its legislative act every bit good as by Article IV of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons ( NPT ) every bit good as Mongolia has adopted new, competitory excavation jurisprudence /Law on Nuclear Energy, Law on Nuclear Free Zone etc/ provides security of term of office, transferability of rubric, clear and crystalline processs, complete entree to mineral resources. to prosecute atomic energy plan. Meanwhile the remainder of Toson Uul ‘s 29 blocks is believed to keep 4 billion 692 million three-dimensional metres of natural gas. This puts Mongolia in the 9th topographic point among the 97 states keeping natural gas militias. The Professional Council on minerals has registered the sedimentation in the general province modesty. With spread outing involvements in Mongolian U is shortly to be viewed as strategic of import location to Moscow and Beijing as a possibility of new race between Russia and China.

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Despite considerable uranium sedimentations discovered in Mongolia, no survey on building of a atomic power works has been carried out. Construction of a atomic power works needs international credence and license ; hence, doing atomic coevals as one of the dependable coevals beginning reflecting developed states ‘ experiences will be a tendency to be considered.

Established participants such as

France and Russia are poised to procure fuel resources from around the universe, but the

most of demand will be China and India. Therefore, this paper focuses on China and

India as primary objects of survey and link Mongolia ‘s growing with these markets.

Fueling the Future: Mongolian Uranium and Nuclear Power Plant Growth in China and India, Ram Sachs and Undraa Agvaanluvsan

MonAme Scientific Research Center, P.O.Box 24-603, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

and

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, 94305 USA

September 01, 2009

Mongolia ‘s part in the atomic sphere has therefore far been limited to

supplying U for military and civilian intents. Conventional estimates topographic point

Mongolia ‘s uranium militias at 62,000 tons1, but unseasoned militias may raise the estimation

to 1.39 million dozenss, representing the largest militias in the world.2 Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand, at $ 130/ kilogram U.

2 “ Japan, Mongolia meet on U. ” UPI, 14 Oct. 2008. Web. 25 Aug. 2009.

While Mongolian-Russian joint ventures are presently deriving much attending,

Mongolia is truly diversifying investings spouses in its atomic industry sector to

avoid over trust on any individual party. Such variegation can take topographic point through direct

investing from foreign corporations, the development of local excavation groups, and /marubeni, areva, America etc./

Presently, state-owned corporations from abroad are showing the greatest involvement in

developing Mongolia ‘s uranium resources. These groups consider uranium as a strategic

resource, and are therefore willing to do investings even at a loss.

Massive sums of investing in electricity production through atomic power workss

( NPPs ) are presently being undertaken in both India and China due to human wellness,

clime alteration, and energy security concerns. India plans to increase its atomic energy

production from 3667 Mwe to 20,000 Mwe by 2020 and 63,000 Mwe by 2032, which

will consist 25 % of entire electricity production5. Meanwhile, China is constructing

advanced reactors that will increase its capacity from the current 8587 Mwe to at least 60

Gwe by 2020 and 120 – 160 Mwe by 2030, taking to bring forth 4 % of its entire electricity

production from atomic sources6. In footings of the international legal environment, India has late acceded to the Nuclear Suppliers Group, heightening chances for growing

and international connexions to build add-ons NPPs. China, meanwhile, has

embraced foreign engineering, taking even the extremely protective U.S. Congress to

O.K. atomic trade with the mainland through the US – China Nuclear Cooperation

Agreement. As a consequence, China and India are going the fastest turning participants in the

universe atomic power market. / 5 “ Nuclear Power in India. ” World Nuclear Association. July 2009. Web. 26 Aug. 2009.

& lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf53.html & gt ; .

6 “ Nuclear Power in China. ” World Nuclear Association. 19 Aug 2009. Web. 26 Aug. 2009./

After its old trust on coal, which

has extended human wellness and clime alteration impacts, China is looking to diversify its

energy beginnings. Chinese electricity demand is expected to turn 110-190 % by 20207.

Much of this growing will happen in the southeast coastal parts of China, where there is a

dearth of coal militias.

The Indian atomic industry is presently spread outing quickly in order to better

energy security and environmental concerns. Indian electricity demand is projected to

about double by 202010, and atomic power is emerging as a cardinal agencies of supplying for

10 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.companiesandmarkets.com/Summary-Market-Report/india-power-report-q3-2009-

154345.asp

5

India ‘s rapid economic development.

Harmonizing to the 2007 Red Book, Mongolia has 49,000 tU in Reasonably Assured Resources plus

Inferred Resources, to US $ 130/kg U. The excavation sector is Mongolia ‘s individual largest industry,

accounting for 55 % of industrial end product and more than 40 % of export net incomes.

Coal provides 80 % of its electricity, from less than 1 GWe capacity, and air pollution is a major

job in Ulaan Baatar. There are probationary programs for developing atomic power, utilizing either

Korean Smart reactors or Toshiba 4S types, from 2021. /World Nuclear association-Uranium in Mongolia study p1 hypertext transfer protocol: //www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf125-mongolia.htmlHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf125-mongolia.html/ ” /

Non-ProliferationA

Mongolia joined the IAEA in 1993, A and the Additional Protocol to its precautions understanding with IAEA has been in force since May 2003.

Besides Russia, Japanese, Canadian, Kazakh and Gallic companies have expressed involvement in Mongolia ‘s U, but Putin ‘s largesse definitively seems to hold clinched the trade. Last twelvemonth, Enkhbayar used the fact that the state ‘s excavation jurisprudence, which has yet to be finalized, was obscure about U to play for clip in dialogues with the assorted companies, noticing last July, “ Mongolia at nowadays has no clear legal guidelines on the extraction of atomic fuel. Partnership proposals can be earnestly discussed merely after a proper legal model is set up. ”

Left out in the cold by the Russian-Mongolian Concord is France ‘s Areva atomic concern, which three old ages ago signed a memoranda of understanding refering Mongolia ‘s Mardai and Sainshand uranium mines. France was unable to clinch the trade, despite Enkhbayar sing Paris in February 2007. Nor will Russia hold to vie with China, as China National Nuclear Corp. late reported that Inner Mongolia ‘s Ordos Basin has adequate U to run into China ‘s current demands. / Analysis: Russia wins Mongolian U excavation grants hypertext transfer protocol: //www.upi.com/Science_News/Resource-Wars/2009/05/18/Analysis-Russia-wins-Mongolian-uranium-mining-concessions/UPI-84271242688804/ /

“ It is peculiarly of import that new U sedimentations are brought on watercourse because militias at sedimentations presently in production are traveling to run down by 2020, ” one of the Nipponese advisers told Unuudur.

Mongolia ‘s uranium resources are estimated at 62,000 dozenss, or about 1 per centum of the universe ‘s militias, though Mongolia still besides has mineral sedimentations that have ne’er been assessed. Including those unseasoned militias, research workers estimate Mongolia ‘s uranium militias could be every bit much as 1.39 million dozenss, which would be the biggest in the universe.

A trade would profit both Mongolia and Japan as the Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan estimates the state ‘s one-year U imports are more than 9,000 dozenss. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.upi.com/Science_News/Resource-Wars/2008/10/14/Japan-Mongolia-meet-on-uranium/UPI-37711224009074/

Overview

The U bring forthing states of Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan,

China and Mongolia make up a big geographic country runing from eastern Europe through

much of Continental Asia ( excepting the Indian sub-continent and southeast Asia ) . Together they

comprise about 28 million km2, or about 20 % of the Earth ‘s land surface ( Table 1 ) . It should be

noted that although the CIS Republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan both have U Millss,

and have mined and milled U in the yesteryear, neither state has known uranium resources

nor has announced programs to re-start production. Together uranium production meets 19 % of universe U ingestion /Developments in U

resources, production, demand

and the environment

Proceedings of a proficient commission meeting

held in Vienna, 15-18 June 1999/ IAEA

Mongolia is mark for: China, Japan, india, Russia, and France

When Old Is New Again:

Utility Ownership Of Uranium Mining Assetss

NEI International Uranium Fuel Seminar

October 19, 2009

Austin, Texas

Renewable energy:

Disadvantages of Sun: govi tsoliin ecosystem aldagdna, burheg ued narnii energiig ih hemjeegeer urimtluuah tohooromj ihtei

Buteemj baga, ortog ondor, usnii: dalan barihad zagasnii excessively tolgoi tsoorno, humuusiig nuulgen shiljuuleh shaardalagatai

Baingiin salhitai baih shaardlagatai, gargasan energiig nuutsluh engineering heregtei-maltmal tulshnii heregleeg 2020 on gehed 50 % buuruulah /NUM-School of GEOlogical study-lecture-energy ingestion, its impact on environment 2009/

Besides Russia ‘s atomic-energy bureau Rosatom, U.S. , Japanese, Canadian, Kazakh and Gallic companies have all expressed involvement in

developing Mongolia ‘s uranium militias, which consist of six major sedimentations and more than 100 smaller sites. The Mongolian authorities

estimations the militias contain 62,000 dozenss of U. Russian geologists have much higher estimations of Mongolia ‘s U sedimentations,

gauging that they consist of 120,000 to 150,000 dozenss. Worldwide, merely 35 states possess reported uranium militias, and the Russian

estimations, if accurate, would give Mongolia the universe ‘s eighth-largest U militias, after Kazakhstan, Australia, South Africa, the

United States, Canada, Brazil and Namibia.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fidp-funds.com/2009/images/stories/data/related_press/mongolia_20emerges_20as_20energy_20powerhouse.pdf UPI report- Mongolia emerges as energy human dynamo

Francais

Expansion OF NUCLEAR ENERGY IS A KEY CONTRIBUTOR

TO COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf75.html – mongold delhiin uranii ordain batlagdsan nuutsiin 1 % bii.

solar — panels are expensive. Governments are non wholly willing to purchase place generated electricity. Not all climes are suited for solar panels.A

air current — turbines are expensive. Wind does n’t blow all the clip, so they have to be portion of a larger plan.A

moving ridges — different engineerings are being tried around the universe. Scientists are still waiting for the ultimate development.A

tides — bombardments ( dikes ) across river oral cavities are expensive to construct and interrupt transportation. Smaller turbines are cheaper and easier to install.A

rivers — Dams are expensive to construct and interrupt the environment. Smaller turbines are cheaper and easier to put in.

geothermal — Difficult to bore two or three kilometres down into the Earth.

biofuel — frequently uses harvest land or harvests ( like maize ) to bring forth biofuel so the monetary value of inexpensive nutrient goes up.

However, renewable resources rely on the environment. If there is no sunshine or air current, energy can non be produced. Tonss of money have been put into research, engineering and edifice of the appliances, doing it highly expensive and unaffordable for a few hapless countries.A

If you look at the disadvantages of renewable energy, they are rather less than the advantages ; however, here are the disadvantages. One of the best beginnings of renewable energy is solar energy. There is no inquiry of solar energy of all time running out like non-renewable beginnings like natural fuels.A

One twenty-four hours the natural fuels of the universe are traveling to complete, possibly a twosome of centuries from now, possibly earlier, but they will non be renewed once more. But the Sun, the air current, the Tides and the moving ridges every bit good as geothermic energy are ever traveling to be at that place. Therefore, is the biomass energy traveling to be at that place forever.A

However, they have their ain disadvantages. Solar energy is the most of import beginning of energy to us. In fact, fossil fuels would non hold been at that place if there were non for the procedure of photosynthesis, which made those workss stay alive, all those millenaries ago.A

The advantage of solar energy is that it can be collected with the aid of solar panels. The disadvantage is that how are you would roll up all this energy if you are populating in the Polar part, where the Sun does non non look for six months of the twelvemonth. And if you ‘re populating in a topographic point which is perpetually covered with clouds, sorry, it is traveling to be really hard to roll up solar energy. Unless a cheaper replacement for photovoltaic cells is found, they are traveling to be expensive agencies of roll uping solar energy.A

Geothermal energy harnesses the energy, which is collected below the surface of the Earth. Hot H2O from this country is pumped up so that edifices can be heated. The disadvantage of this system is that geothermic energy can be harnessed merely in topographic points where they are vents and the hot stones, which produce heat, are easy accessible under the surface. The H2O pumped up, may sometimes incorporate unsafe hint elements like sulphur.A

Harnessing the energy of the air current might be reasonable, but to tackle that energy, you have to associate together a figure of turbines that are highly noisy.

In a universe where the menace of planetary heating is looming over the hereafter of our planet, it is going more and more of import to look into renewable, alternate signifiers of energy. With energy usage turning at a rate of 3 % per twelvemonth, shortly it will be inevitable to research our options. Though it has been under much examination in the yesteryear, the advantages of atomic energy make it one signifier of powering our planet that should strongly be considered. By cut downing emanations, the production of atomic energy would in bend cut down the effects of planetary heating. In comparing with gas and coal discharged power workss, atomic energy workss create less than 1/100th of the CO2 created by the traditional power workss.

There are 2 procedures in bring forthing atomic energy- fission and merger. Fission, which is the splitting of karyon, creates more than 10 million times the energy that is created in the combustion of fossil fuels. Fusion, which is the procedure of fall ining karyon, happens of course in stars and the Sun, and though the procedure has been recreated by adult male, it has non yet been safely controlled. When the ability to safely tackle the energy from the merger procedure has been developed, the sums of useable atomic energy will dramatically increase.

Nuclear energy can be renewable depending on the type of reactor that is being used. Presently, there are 442 reactors runing in the universe, 130 of which are in the United States. Another 12 are being built in foreign states. With the current engineering, merely 1 % of the energy available in U is able to be captured by thermic reactors. This energy makes up between 11 % and 18 % of the entire energy available in the universe. Developing engineerings that would let us to capture more of this available energy, is at least 15 old ages off, but with inducements, these progresss could be a realistic portion of our hereafter. The potency is non the lone portion of the advantages of atomic energy.

Uranium, the beginning of atomic energy, is available in big measures in Australia. The U is moderately inexpensive to mine, and easy to transport to reactors around the Earth, doing atomic energy comparatively cheap to bring forth when compared to conventional methods of energy production. The mean finished cost of atomic energy is between 3 and 5 cents per kW, and the cost has dropped over the last 26 old ages, while the cost of other signifiers of energy has risen steadily over the same period of clip.

When sing the advantages of atomic energy, it is besides of import to maintain in head the challenges that the procedure besides comes with. Radiation accidents are at the top of the list. Since the 1950 ‘s, 17 accidents have been reported throughout the universe, with merely a few doing serious unwellness and decease. While wellness and public safety are of extreme concern, we must see the comparatively low accident rates, and how farther progresss in engineering could assist forestall other accidents from happening.

Mining Mongolia, Uranium

At the enterprise of Asiatic foundation and with coaction of NGO Responsible mining consecutive treatments on usage of natural resources are held each month. Dr.David Mallighan, Ph.D. N.Norov, Director of Atomic surveies centre of NUM, and others attended the treatment, sharing positions on how effectual and utile would uranium ore excavation be. What is uranium? What can we profit from it?

Mongolia negotiations about excavation, concentrating and utilizing uranium ore recently. Currently American, Gallic and Canadian companies started researching U in several topographic points in Mongolia. There are uranium happening venas south from Mardai sedimentation in Dornod aimag to Dornogobi aimag. It contains non merely uranium ore but besides coal incorporating U. In add-on there is uranium happening in Bumbat coal sedimentation in Suhbaatar aimag. Generally, Mongolia is rich in U.

Uranium is a chemical component and is distinguished by its radiation. Uranium ore is a mineral similar to char, crude oil, Cu and Mo. As we know uranium is used for atomic arms but after being treated with high degree concentration. We have no hi-tech for uranium concentration. We could utilize uranium as fuel in atomic works, bring forthing 1 gram U with energy that could be extracted from 6 dozenss coal combustion. This is really economical.A

Professor N.Norov remarks on whether atomic works could be established in Mongolia, “ Atomic works would be utile for Mongolian economic system, ecology and engineering. In instance we engage in U excavation, we could utilize 2 times inexpensive atomic arm. Since U is radioactive component control must be tight and it could be regulated via province policies. Investings will be in conformity with market regulations. If we do n’t hold money foreign companies could come and negociate efficiencies. Uranium is useless and priceless when it ‘s belowground. An atomic works with 2 reactors of 500 megawatt each is sufficient ” .

It should be used before uranium monetary value goes down

Establishing atomic power works, utilizing uranium domestically and trading at the universe market would be good. Uranium monetary value which was USD10 in 1990 reached USD 90 now. However major companies warned that uranium monetary value would travel down by 2018 due to diminishing uranium ingestion. Thus bookmans urged the excavation of U since the hazard is we could n’t acquire its benefits.

What method is utile in Mongolia for mining U?

Uranium ore in Mongolia contains mean uranium and there are 3 ways for mining U, including belowground gravity and surface gravitation.A

These methods are suited for Mongolia. Foreign invested companies tested uranium extraction in Saihandulaan Mountain in Dornogobi aimag and in Haraathairhan sedimentations in Dundgobi aimag. This method is eco-friendly, cost-saving and it does n’t delve holes.

So far no Mongolian company mines U. They all have geographic expedition licences merely. Gobi Gurvan Saihan US invested company tried to concentrate U in Dundgobi. Besides Emeelt mines company keeping licences in Gurvan bulag sedimentations in Mardai merely finished its U excavation works. It is waiting for minerals jurisprudence passed.

How much uranium resource we have? Uranium resource in our state could provide 1 twelvemonth demands of 430 atomic workss runing in the universe as of 1998. However it is n’t a little figure. Many companies started to prosecute in uranium geographic expedition. As consequences, uranium resort additions. Scholars guesstimate that uranium resources of Mongolia do non transcend 10 per centum of planetary resources. Many states including Korea and Japan, which has no uranium resources at all, are interested in importing U from Mongolia. Recently Japan proposed to purchase power works ash but the Government refused because ash contains uranium. It shows that Mongolia is really tight and rigorous on U usage and export.

Global control on U usage With relevancy to uranium excavation and usage, the issue of control is really of import. Since U is the radioactive component which is used for atomic arm production, it is under international concern. As we run merely uranium geographic expeditions there is less control. INO controls and informs on how much U is used for and how much Pu is produced when atomic works is formed in a state which started mining U.