Effect Of Carbon Emission Engineering Essay



As ware of consequence of C emanation on our planet Research and development is in full swing to minimise the gas and other fuel burning by utilizing the sustainable energy beginnings. Many environmental jobs that are both sensitive and existent community issue steam from the usage of conveyance substructure by cargo vehicle and rider. Car are major beginning of local pollutants such as C monoxide. Traffic congestion exacerbates these jobs and besides imposes direct wellness and economic cost of user in the signifier of waste clip, money and emphasis. Transport system makes a important part to a planetary heating through the emanation of C dioxide. The chief environmental issue associated in conveyance sector in air quality enhance green house gas emanation ( chiefly Carbon dioxide ) , noise, impact on biodiversity. Twenty two per centum of C emanation from C dioxide emanation are from the conveyance sector are this 80 % emanation arise from the route conveyance with more than 55 % from private auto entirely. Rapid urbanization, increasing figure of vehicle, plus peculiar pollution -intensive character of most vehicle in developing state mentioned sing grown of air pollution experienced in yesteryear in what are now advanced state every bit good as fast turning metropoliss are besides enduring from the existent base vehicle base air pollution. One of the best manner people can authorise to contend planetary warming through their pick of vehicle.

This thing is done in secondary degree like innovation of vehicle which is powered by electric current and pneumatic turbines. To understand and work out the issue authorities concerned and set up a figure of enterprises ( publicity of bike for transit by Major Boris Johnson in London ) zero pollution. This undertaking developed an Air engine which can be used to drive the bike for longer journey. Due to research and pneumatic system understand the design brief and basic job created to present the engine which could be easy to run, more sufficient, inexpensive and dependable. The purpose of the undertaking was utilizing working substance air for machine to give a smooth vehicle motion and smooth operation. We concludes that in car industry can be turning minute in history from efficient, inexpensive and easy for operation of air engine.


Due to probe of different types of engine required input and achieved end product with the byproduct and their consequence on wellness of life system and environment it was found that alternate engine utilizing the energy beginnings which is none fouling. At first phase assorted phase of engine was investigated and these restrictions were studied along with complicity of operation. The other factors and cost besides considered. It was fond that there was user demand and market for new sort of engine product..Proposal of bring forthing Air engine for bike used to run the bike used to run the bike which give smooth vehicle motion, safe to utilize and economic every bit good. Using applied manual action which creates the mechanical reaction is construct of undertaking.This undertaking accent a planetary heating, raise the involvement and wonder in pneumatics. This undertaking shows that how we can cut down our going cost and none fouling it every bit good.

There was some challenge to drive the mechanism as initial construct which suggest that construct the bike without bicycling which made for the bike an automatic engine merely operated through the control unit manually, therefore person want to utilize it for cycling such as leisure or fittingness intent it was tough to make, therefore new construct of bike run on air engine every bit good as manually it multiuse harmonizing to user demand.

The undertaking is about manufacturing Air engine theoretical account which operated by utilizing the air. We are utilizing the pneumatic rotor to run the bike theoretical account with the usage of air Pressurised air which come from the air compressor is pass into the control unit with the aid of air hosiery which is connected to the control unit. Control unit is operated manually.when the control unit pass the pressurised air who gave the signal to run the pneumatic rotor. Pneumatic rotor is operated the cogwheel which is fixed the underside of bike.the pneumatic rotor end product shaft is connected to warm cogwheel which next connected to the goad cogwheel. The shaft of spur cogwheel is connect to wheel revolving roller which aid for the gesture of bike. This all operation is controlled by control unit manually.

This is new invention construct to drive the bike without bicycling with the aid of tight Air due to exchange on pneumatic rotor for run the bike.

Purpose: To look into and develop a construct of air pressured bike.


To understand the rule of air compressor.

To look into the visibleness of construct.

To supply the recommendation of construct.








3D theoretical account

Draft design

Parametric design

Choose bike, air compressor, cogwheels and pneumatic rotor.





Reading: garnering the information about pneumatics. To find how to change over tight air energy beginning into the mechanical work and which mechanical constituent demand run the bike.

Research: for the motion of bike how much compressed air demands to the air armored combat vehicle so that which compressor demands to take for the undertaking as weight of compressor demand to find for the motion of bike. To cipher the motion of bike which gears demands for the motion of bike as motion of will be calculated with the aid of cogwheels.

Patent: choosing the cheap and efficient pressurised bike make the economical and efficient bike for the people.

Parametric design: With the aid of parametric design we can plan the theoretical account in 3D CAD package.

Draft design: This thought generated entire dimension of design facets so controlled during the development procedure through a every constituent.

3D theoretical account:


Most people do non recognize it but everyone has experienced compressed air. Our lungs are low air compressor.when we take breath we expand our lung and make negative internal force per unit area which draws in outside air. For throw outing the air we contract our lungs who create the positive force per unit area and air flow out. Neanderthal adult male utilize his lungs as compressor to glow air for glowing coal in order to construct up his fires. Tribes in Africa and South Africa used their lungs as a tight air beginning to power their blow guns. German physicists Otto Von Guericke invent and recognized foremost air pump. He can used that device to carry on surveies on vacuity, force per unit area, reciprocating and burning. In late 1700 s blower was normally usage for providing air airing of a big excavation operation and metal furnace. In late 1800 s applied scientist was consider compress air was a feasible energy beginning.

In early portion of 1800 s compressed air was start to use in burrowing and excavation operation. To power lightweight stone drills and cock. On velocity at which compressed air was allowed subterraneous workers to travel through were unprecedented. Air compressor Can be set up at the surface piping and hosiery and hose can be easy rotated.

By the mid 1800s applied scientists were at odds with one another over whether it compressed air or electricity is the power beginning of future. In 1988, Viktor Top ( Austrian applied scientist ) installed in Paris 1500 K-W compaction system. Existing cloacas was used as a distribution system and so Paris became the first metropolis offered tight air as public public-service corporation. Paris compressor had been increased in 1891 up to 18000 K-W.the compressed air was used to trip about about 4000 lifts and 58,000 redstem storksbills every bit good as provide power to all kind of industrial equipment.

In 1845 Robert Thompson invented an pneumatic tyre and granted patent on his thought. However the design was non become successful and dearly-won. In 1988 John Dunlop granted for the first pneumatic tyre and his design had great successful market in tyre industry. Today pneumatic tyre became standard equipment on autos, bike, trucks and there was 1000000s of manus operated pumps under place in garages, short pantss and gas station.

In ulterior portion of 1800 s compressed air was limited to big operation and companies. This is because power pumps which requires power beginning in the signifier of engine and steam boiler. Smaller concern does n’t afford the power beginning because it is expensive as steam engine, so they were forced to make without it. The advantage of compact electric and motors transformed the industry in 1990. In early 1900 fabrication equipment non longer relied on cardinal engine. For the power equipment had the compact electric motor power and motor which delivered it in the signifier of electricity. Air compressors are besides transformed by this development. In 1900 little companies started industry the little air compressor. Manufacture a little air compressor specifically aim for little concern.

Due to little and low cost air compressor low cost pneumatic tool come in the concern. Small concern could n’t take the advantage of new invention because they ca n’t afford the air tools which are available in the market. Manufacturer started to present personal size, low cost air tools for a broad assortment of application. Compressed air rapidly becomes popular in the industry industry.

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Development in air compaction:

The first air compressor was metallurgy as far back 2000 B.C. This low force per unit area device was powered by pes manus and subsequently by H2O wheel. These are chiefly use for fan fires hot plenty to smelt and hammer metal ores.

Bellowss are still utilizing presents, frequently hung around English hearth. They are besides used to supply tight air to instrumental as squeeze box.

In 3rd century B.C dual Piston moving normally used by Han Rulers in ancient China.

During the eighteenth century discoverers create big measure of gas doing solid container for explode, boiling H2O. Development of steam power into useable energy beginning acknowledged by James Watt.

It was n’t up to 19th century that compressed air seen to be method of transporting energy.

In 1801-1862 Numberss of Cornish mine grew four crease. This detonation led through Holman brother developing their compressed air projectile drill. The Holman brother based in Camborne was internationally acclaimed for production of high quality compressed air tool.

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In 1857-1870 projectile drill was used to link Italy and France with mile tunnel under the saddle horse Cenis. In projectile drills compress air convey to little cylinder which work as Piston. Via rod Piston is connect to the jumper. When air force from behind the Piston impel jumper against the stone so brought back by opening valve which let air through forepart of piston piece of equipment thumping the stone up to five flexible joint per second

In late nineteenth century some metropoliss like Birmingham, Paris and Buena ‘s Aires has compressed air greed system in topographic point to run the power redstem storksbills by supplying pulsation of air every minute this will give deliver power to industry and place.

In 1986 Paris had 30 mile broad 80psi compressed air system power by 3000hp equipment of tight air. It was good dominated tonss of people suspect that compressed air will be taking over from electricity as clean energy beginning.

In early twentieth century for power projectile compressed air assorted with gasolene.

Piston compressor used for power in many industrial applications. Powers through the electric motors were plan a steam engine in rearward Piston pump used for the transporting H2O as far back as 250 B.C. by Romans.

In 1930 bought about prison guard compressor. This engineering foremost patent by Heinrich Krieger ( GERMANY ) in 1878.this offered more efficient beginning of air compressed.

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Compressed air uses carry turning in twentieth century with tight air with tight air being usage saccharides, jet engine and whole scope of other application.

A major interruption through late in twentieth century was speed thrust compressor which allowed for industry application to cut down the energy ingestion which require for the tight air.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.airpowered.co.uk/history-of-compressed-air.htm


Pneumaticss derived from the Greek word “ pneumos ” intending breath trades with behavior of gases and chiefly concerned with the usage of gases for the conveying power.

All gases are readily compressible and it is that belongings which differentiates them most from liquid as power transmittal medium. The behavior of gas when conveying the power can easy see in bike pump.

The squeezability of gas foremost investigated by the Robert Boyles in 1962 and he found that green goods of force per unit area and volume of peculiar measure of gas was changeless, supplying the temperature did non vary which is normally written as:

PV = C

In this equation the force per unit area is absolute force per unit area, which for free for air is about 14.7 pounds per square inchs.

Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but air is the most usual for obvious ground exclusion are most likely to happen on aircraft and infinite vehicles where an inert gas such as N is preferred or the gas is on which generated on board.

Energy is expanded in compacting a gas proportion of which appears heat and normally execute no utile aim it may necessitate dearly-won works for remove-whilst reminder every bit available as possible energy. Compressed air conducted through the pipe to the point of application where it performs utile work, either by direct forces or by enlargement. Then it is exhausted to the ambiance.

Air compactions are extremely developed machine but their no agencies finalized. For many old ages piston compressors were in huge assortment but their prevailing place is being earnestly threatened by vane and screw types in 100 psi field. All have the same basic rule and their difference because of heat transportation and mechanical consideration.

Development in pneumatics:

Faced with the necessity of bettering productiveness in the modern industrial universe, pneumatic engineering is supplying an efficient and competitory part to the building of automated production equipment.

Pneumatic machine constituent if they are to to the full run into the demands of assorted user industries, must non merely integrate, at the design phase, consideration related to their techniques and economic public presentation but besides designed to merely operation and cut down care demands.

Present phase in development of pneumatics engineering covers several complementary facets runing from the merchandise building to runing the care inquiry.

Pneumatic bike theoretical account by FESTO ( Germany )

Degree centigrades: UsersmacDesktopFesto pneumatic bicycle.jpg

In Germany this month at Hannover Festo unveiled uneven looking pneumatic motor ( bike ) which based on unstable musculus engineering. This new musculus motor is high torsion machine, decelerate running which had several possible advantages over a conventional motor based on cylinder. The unstable musculus at the bosom of motor formed from supply with the tight air and elastomeric membrane. A Cam and drifting bearing transmit the motion to shaft and it change overing to rotary gesture. The cathartic force per unit area musculus return to its original, linear form but free wheel bearing this motion is non transmitted to shaft. Several musculuss connect at the same time and operated in sequence to supply slow, smooth revolving motion. The force which delivers from musculus motor is 10 times greater than possible from convectional compressed air subdivision drive the same cross subdivision. This motion is smooth without any stick slumber effects. The presentation for its base Festo was used two cylinder version of motor for power a bike ( as shown in above diagram ) . Company suggest that such system can be help cyclist to mount hills. It estimates that compressed air 200 saloon used for presentation it can power the bike for 22 proceedingss. Festo says that motion of motor would do it ideal for application such as gap and shutting of adjustment. This engineering resists wet, need small care, soil and dust and does non utilize the much energy. One application would as quiet aide on manus wheels which are used for the control fluid, light weight. The slow motor velocity allows continues accommodation to let difference in viscousness.

Tuesday, August 22, 2006

Pneumatic bike

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Present twenty-four hours Design and Technology use different types of Compressor

Background of compressor:

Compressor is mechanical device that increase the force per unit area of gas by cut downing the volume. Compressors are tantamount to the pump ; both can reassign fluid through the pipe and force per unit area on the fluid. As gases are compressible compressor besides cut down the volume of the gas. Liquids are comparatively incompressible so the chief action of pump is conveyance of the liquids.

A cardinal portion of any installation supply of a tight air is by average utilizing the reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that take air gas at certain force per unit area and present air at high force per unit area.

Compressor capacity is existent measure of air compressed and present the volume expressed is that of air intake status viz. at normal ambient temperature and atmospheric force per unit area.

Clean status of suction of air which decides the life of compressor moist and worm suction of air will ensue increased precipitation of condense from compressed air.

Compressor by and large classified in two parts:

Positive supplanting compressor

Turbo compressor

Positive supplanting compressor most often used for tight air works and turn out high successful supply for pneumatic control application

Reciprocating type compressor

Rotary type compressor

Turbo compressor used when big air required at low discharge force per unit area. Turbo compressor can non attach force per unit area for pneumatic control application unless built in multistage design and they are and they are rarely encountered in pneumatic service.

Dynamite compressor in which the compaction is achieved by change overing air recess into a force per unit area.

Accessory equipments

Compressor includes a assorted constituents from recess filter to the control cabinet with monitoring system. Depending on the air quality certain accessory equipments is necessary which signifiers sophisticated cardinal compressed air production units. Air service equipment at the compressor mercantile establishment is indispensable to take H2O vapor and oil condensates when equipment used is of the greased type.

Chapter 4

Concept phase of design about the solution to run into the demand and merchandise design specification. This thought generate stage were based on entire design facet where strategy produced on foundation of design brief and controlled during the development procedure by every component listed in the merchandise design.

First feeling of bike will the costumier hopefully will trip exhilaration with the simple and alone resemblance ; will make involvement in techno manner image.

These initial designs consist of air hosiery, air compressor, control unit, solenoid valve pneumatic rotor and cogwheels. It did n’t impart itself to be adaptable for experimental application and made quit hard to accomplish any consequence in one shot therefore the design of the split and alteration where ready to utilize constituent from the market where the first assemble provide cogwheel agreement and initial input to acquire coveted consequence.

Two chief map of assembly is every bit follow:

Ready to utilize the constituent available from market ( air hose, air compressor, control unit, pneumatic rotor ) act as demand for mechanism of gear demand to bring forth smooth motion of conveyance.

The gear agreement gives a velocity demand for bike to successful in market.

The thought generated found in two dimensional ( 2D ) some of theoretical account from in 3D utilizing computing machine aided design ( CAD ) like solid plants. Each constituent drawn separately harmonizing to demand standards, working with the merchandise design was guide design brief. utilizing the assembly techniques single constituent were constrained to each other.

When theoretical account was constructed uninterrupted consciousness requires to equilibrate all facet with the merchandise design.

Degree centigrades: UsersmacDesktopicycle dim.png

Determining the factor for pick of stuff

There are some factors which determine the pick of stuff is as follow:

Properties: for the proposed application stuff selected posses the necessary belongingss. Assorted demands need be satisfied can be surface finish, weight, service life, dependability, rigidness.

Four types of rule belongingss of stuff affect the choice.




From the fabricating point of position

Mechanical belongingss concerned such as strength in tensile, compressive portion, clasping and tortuosity burden, bending, hardness, elastic bound, fatigue opposition, opposition and skiding belongingss etc.

Physical belongingss concerned with the runing point, specific heat, thermic conduction, electrical conduction, coefficient of thermic enlargement etc.

Manufacture point of position concerned with:

Cast ability

Weld ability


Surface belongingss

Deep drawing

Manufacturing instance: sometimes demand for lowest fabrication cost or surface quality obtain by application of suited surfacing substance may demand usage of particular stuff.

Required quality: by and large affect the fabrication procedure and finally the stuff. For eg- it would ne’er desirable to travel cost of less figure of constituent which much more economically by manus hammering steel or welding.

Consideration of infinite: sometimes high strength stuff select because force involved high and restriction of infinite is at that place.

Cost: stuff of cost play an of import function and should non be ignored.

Sometimes factors like visual aspect, scrap use and non care of design portion are involved in choice of proper stuff.

Working and equipment usage to bring forth pressurised bike:

It consist in two parts

The first is consist of air compressor which is attached to air armored combat vehicle, air hose and control unit

The 2nd subdivision of pneumatic rotor, spur cogwheel, worm cogwheel and wheel rotating rotor

The working is simple from the air compressor compressed air passed into the control unit with aid of air hose. Control unit operate manually when the control unit is passed the pressurized air who gives the signal to run pneumatic rotor. Pneumatic rotor operates the cogwheel which fixes the underside of bike. Pneumatic motor end product shaft is connected to the worm cogwheel which is following connect to the goad cogwheel. The end product shaft of spur cogwheel is connected to wheel revolving rollers which help for the gesture of bike. This all operation is controlled by the control unit manually.

This is the advanced construct to drive the bike without bicycling with the aid of tight air.

( Note: normal force per unit area required the bike 2- 6 saloon )

Weight opposition norm is 60-80 KG

Two types of interruption installed in for the bike both interruptions are normal. When running the bike on tight air interruptions are applied to halt the pneumatic rotor while bicycling interruptions normal interruptions are applied.

Working equipment for the bike:

Reciprocating compressor is used for the undertaking: reciprocating compressor is by far most common type compressor. Reciprocating compressor had little capacity deliver more than 500m3/min. In a individual phase 6 saloon machine discharge force per unit area up to 15 bars. In scope of 250 bars saloon discharge scope obtain by high force per unit area reciprocating compressor that of four and three phase, 1200 phase theoretical account and individual phase are peculiar suited.

Compressibility of air investigated by Robert Boyles in 1962. Merchandise of force per unit area and volume of peculiar measure of gas

PV = degree Celsius

Absolute force per unit area is free about 14.7 pounds per square inchs

Requirement air compressor can be charged by sucking the atmospheric force per unit area through the rotor blade coupled on compressor. Blade has been rotate by AC power of 230 V. Compressor bear downing clip is 9 min 4 second. Air force per unit area inside the compressor is 10 bars.

Harmonizing to demand following air compressor was selected.

Capacity of Air Tank: 15-20 saloon force per unit area.

1/3HP 3-gallon Air Compressor

Brief Description:

120-volt/60Hz air compressor

3-gallon air armored combat vehicle for usage with car tools and other intents

Compressor with 9 CFM at 40PSI, 6 CFM at 90PSI

100PSI maximal force per unit area

Air chuck

Blow gun tip


MPT arranger

Air needle


Blow gun

Dimensions: 17.5 in. D x 9.75 in. W x 19 in. H

Materials: Metallic element, plastic.

Detail working of air compressor: Air compressor is really important constituent as working substance ( air ) is pressurised storage in apart. Compressor charged on AC power 230 V for a period about 9 min and 40 2nd. Compressed air passed to the control unit with the aid of air hosiery for farther mechanism.

Air hosiery: air hosiery is hollow tubing which is used to transport pressurized air from one location to another. In industries air hose used to run flexible machinery and feasible tool such as pneumatic prison guard drivers, basic and bombers.

Specification of air hosiery:

Recoil air self-praise strong nylon tubing which resist the bending and crimping

0.25 inch to utilize with all air tool and related equipment.

Working: in first subdivision air hose carry compressed air from the compressor to the control unit.and in 2nd subdivision compressed air from the control unit to pneumatic rotor for to bring forth gear agreement.

Control unit: This undertaking control unit contains electrical device which has merely ball cheque valve. We can easy run the bike by close/open valve ( fitted on the top of bike grip ) .

Working: control unit is nil particular in this undertaking ball valve usage to command tight air flow from the compressor to air hose. command unit is operated manually to command the flow of tight air and do bike operation easy and safe.

Pneumatic rotor:

Background of pneumatic rotor- pneumatic rotor is component which is used to change over tight air energy in to mechanical work. Pneumatic rotor converts compressed air into mechanical work with the aid of rotary gesture. Pneumatic rotor was foremost used in field of transit in mid 1800 s small known as recorded compressed air vehicle. Frenchmen Tessi of motay and Andraud ran a auto which is powered by pneumatic rotor in France path chailot on July 9, 1840. Car was successful reported but the brace did n’t research farther enlargement of design.

Specification of pneumatic rotor for bike:

Maximum velocity of tool: 2100 revolutions per minute

Maximal burden obtain to the work piece through pneumatic cylinder: 90 pounds per square inch

Pneumatic rotor

Capacity chunk – 3/8 HP 0.33

Free velocity – 2100 revolutions per minute

Average CFM 6.0

Pressure necessitate – 90 pounds per square inch

Air recess NPT A? In

Minimum hose 3/8 In

Length 6 1 /8 In

Working of pneumatic rotor: pneumatic rotor usage air to bring forth rotational gesture to shaft like air current turbine. When tight air fluxing through the control unit with the aid of air hose pushes on valves of pneumatic rotor set into the rotational gesture. As end product shaft connect to cogwheels ( worm and goad ) aid for the gesture of bike.

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Gear agreements:

Background of worm cogwheel: A worm thrust consist of big figure of wheel ( this undertaking we are utilizing spur cogwheel as worm wheel ) with the worm prison guard ( really gear piece ) .meshing of the dentitions on a peripheral of a warm wheel. worm wheel is similar to the subdivision of nut and worm is similar as prison guard. As worm is rotated wheel is caused for rotary motion due to sleep together like action of worm. Worm cogwheel set size based on cardinal distance between worm wheel and worm.

Background of spur cogwheel: goad cogwheel is the simple and common type of cogwheel. They by and large look similar disc or cylinder. The dentition of the cogwheel undertaking readily, taking border of the dentitions aligned parallel to axial rotary motion and these are consecutive cut cogwheels. this cogwheels can merely engage correct when they are fitted to parallel axis.

Depending on the agreement and building of cogwheels device transmit the forces at different velocity, different waies, torsions from the power beginning. Gears are really utile constituent for the simple machine. Common state of affairs of cogwheel can be mesh with any device holding compatible dentitions like additive working paths.

Specification of cogwheels for bike

Worm cogwheel:

Number of dentitions: 10

Material: dramatis personae Fe

Input diameter if shaft – 15 millimeter

Output diameter of shaft -19 millimeter

Spur cogwheel:

Formula usage for the gear choice size

M = faculty

D = pitch diameter hence M= D / T

P= pitch circle

T =number of dentitions

Specification of spur cogwheel:

Number of dentitions: 68

Material: dramatis personae Fe

Thickness: 12 millimeter

Outside circle diameter: 82mm

Working of cogwheels is shown in following diagram: