Drinking Water From Sea Water Engineering Essay

Abstraction

This paper evaluates the usage of energy recovery devices in sea H2O rearward osmosis peculiarly a force per unit area money changer constellation. A Pressure money changer is theoretically compared to other energy recovery constellations ensuing in an energy recovery of around 95 % . Future work includes carry oning experimentation on a trial rig built. This was implemented by first making a CAD theoretical account of a force per unit area money changer on solid border, fabricating it and implementing it in a little graduated table contrary osmosis system.

Cardinal Wordss: Reverse Osmosis, Energy Recovery, Pressure Exchanger

1. Introduction

Fresh H2O is defined as incorporating less than 1000 mg/L of salts or entire dissolved solids ( TDS ) . Above 1000 mg/L, belongingss such as gustatory sensation, colour, corrosion leaning, and olfactory property can be adversely affected. [ 1 ]

Fig. 1: Distribution of the Earth ‘s Water [ 1 ]

With mention to fig. 1, The U.S. Geological Survey found that 97 % of Earth ‘s H2O is located in the ocean, the staying 3 % makes up for the fresh H2O composing. Out of this 3 % , around 2 % of it is located in the ice caps and glaciers ; the staying 1 % includes surface H2O which comprises of swamps, lake and profligates. The staying per centum is made up of brackish H2O, somewhat piquant H2O found as surface H2O in estuaries and as groundwater in salty aquifers. [ 1 ]

Global Water Crisis

Today, the production of drinkable H2O has become a planetary challenge. With mention to fig. 2 jutting population growing and demand exceed conventional available H2O resources. At present, around 1 billion people are without entree to clean imbibing H2O and about 40 % of the universe population lives in H2O deficit parts. [ 2 ]

Increasing demand & A ; diminishing supply of H2O has led to thoughts such as H2O preservation and H2O transportation or dike building being implemented although they are still non sufficient to get by up with the population growing. Misuse or overexploitation of traditional fresh H2O resources such as lakes, rivers, and groundwater consequence in them either diminishing or going saline. At present due to planetary development, the debut of few new H2O resources are available to back up day-to-day clean imbibing H2O demands. The facts indicated above clearly show us that salt H2O desalinization has emerged as the premier campaigner to supply fresh imbibing H2O to prolong future coevalss across the Earth. Harmonizing to a recent graph by ERI Inc. , by 2016 capital outgos for desalinization will transcend 16 billion $ out of which more than 13 $ is expected to be targeted for SWRO. This monolithic injection of fundss will successfully integrate extra clean imbibing H2O production for all kinds of communities utilizing conventional H2O intervention and fresh H2O resources. [ 3 ] , [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [ 7 ] , [ 8 ]

Fig. 2: Population growing and H2O backdowns statistics ( GWI, 2006 )

Rearward Osmosis Desalination

1.2.1 Osmosis

Motion of a dissolver from an country of low solute concentration to an country of high solute concentration takes topographic point done osmosis as it passes through a semi permeable membrane. The force per unit area generated is known as the “ osmotic force per unit area. ” With mention to fig 3. Using an external force per unit area to change by reversal the natural flow of pure dissolver, therefore, is rearward osmosis. [ 10 ]

Fig 3. Change by reversal Osmosis conventional

12.2 Rearward Osmosis

Fig. 4 represents a typical contrary osmosis system which comprises of a high force per unit area pump and a membrane. The High force per unit area pump pressurizes sea H2O through a rearward osmosis membrane at force per unit area of about 60 saloon as this is what ‘s needed in order to get the better of the osmotic force per unit area. 40 % of the flow from the membrane consequences as fresh H2O end product while the staying 60 % is concentrated seawater that is rejected with a great force per unit area loss. This force per unit area loss is fed back to the system utilizing energy recovery devices which are detailed in 1.4.

Fig 4. Change by reversal Osmosis Block Diagram

The energy ingestion still remains the major operational cost constituent due to the high force per unit area pumps required to feed H2O to the RO procedure. These pumps are responsible for more than 40 % of the entire energy costs [ 2 ] . Reducing energy ingestion is, hence, critical for take downing the cost of desalinization and turn toing environmental concerns. [ 9 ]

2. Literature Reappraisal

Before the dressed ore watercourse is sent for disposal, force per unit area from the watercourse is recovered by go throughing it through an ERD. When an ERD is used, a fraction of the provender must short-circuit the primary hard-hitting pump and a supporter pump is used to account for force per unit area losingss in the RO membrane faculties, piping, and ERD. The fraction of power recovered depends on the type and efficiency of the equipment used. [ 11 ]

Greenlee et Al. ( 2009 ) & A ; Wang et Al. ( 2004 ) discussed the two wide categories of ERDs. Type I devices use the hydraulic energy of the RO dressed ore by first change overing the energy to centrifugal mechanical energy and so back to hydraulic energy. This is a two-step procedure. Type II devices use hydraulic power to do a positive supplanting within the energy recovery device and this transfers the hydraulic energy straight in a one measure procedure. [ 12 ]

Stover ( 2007 ) provided a elaborate description of Type I Centrifugal ERDs ( such as the pelton wheel, contrary running turbine pump and turbo courser ) . They are limited in capacity and are normally optimized for narrow flow and force per unit area operating conditions. Initially, Francis turbines were applied, but they were replaced by pelton turbines that operated at higher efficiency in high-head applications and provided a maximal possible efficiency of 90 % [ 13 ] Oklejas ( 2005 ) mentioned the turbo courser consists of an impeller and turbine on the same shaft, this is typically used in smaller capacity RO installings as its efficiency ranges from 55 % to 60 % . [ 14 ] .

Mirza ( 2008 ) discussed automatically conjugate contrary running turbine pump that have efficiencies in the scope of 75 % to 85 % . For the submergible generator type, the overall efficiency is in the 62 % to 75 % scope. Therefore, this type of ERD is non suited for a low flow scope. [ 16 ]

At present, most of the desalinization workss use a Type II type of ERD viz. a force per unit area or work money changer that can accomplish efficiencies greater than 95 % ( Greenlee et al. 2009 ) . The PWE transfers the hydraulic energy of the pressurized RO dressed ore watercourse to the RO provender H2O watercourse. [ 13 ] , [ 15 ] PWE systems can be categorized as two types: those that provide a physical barrier ( Piston ) between the RO dressed ore watercourse and feed side of the system, such as a Dual Work Exchanger Energy Recovery ( DWEER ) , and those without a physical barrier such as a Pressure Exchanger ( Cameron and Clemente 2008 ; Mirza 2008 ) . In the instance of a DWEER, the system is based on traveling Pistons in cylinders which is good suited for a broad scope of H2O viscousnesss and densenesss, but consequences in a big pes print ( Mirza 2008 ) . A Pressure money changer device has higher efficiency since no transformational losingss occur in the device, higher capacity is achieved by set uping several devices in series. Disadvantages include limited flow rates, high noise degrees necessitating a sound abatement enclosure ( Mirza, 2008 ) and the grade of blending that occurs between the provender H2O and dressed ore watercourse. A provender salt addition of 1.5 % e3.0 % caused by such commixture will increase the needed provender force per unit area for the RO system ( Wang et al. 2005 ) . [ 16 ] , [ 17 ]

M. Barreto et. Al. ( 2010 ) worked on a RO kinetic energy recovery system which is in the signifier of a closed cringle. feed H2O accumulated in one of the force per unit area money changers is pressurized with a high force per unit area pump ( HPP ) by doing a closed circuit between the membrane end product and the contrary osmosis faculty input, where a H2O armored combat vehicle ( force per unit area money changer ) and a supporter pump are fitted into the line. It besides consists of inactiveness valves, enlargement vesica. The H2O come ining or go forthing them, which must be pressurized or depressurized, is ever in continual gesture to avoid unneeded ingestion of kinetic energy that arise from Michigans in the operation. Certain advantages include: Reduced specific energy ingestion & A ; entire cost, 97 % energy efficiency, reduced capacity of the HPP, Decrease in the sum of antiscalant needed and low commixture per centum between saltwater and seawater in the isobaric chamber. [ 5 ]

Xiaopeng Wang et. Al. ( 2010 ) worked on a positive supplanting ( PD ) ERD known as the FS-ERD that was chiefly composed of three parts, a rotary fluid whipper, two force per unit area cylinders and a cheque valve nest. The rotary fluid whipper was the nucleus constituent that consisted of four joint ports and two working stages similar to a two place four-way valve. When the FS-ERD accomplishes its pressurizing shot ( and besides the depressurising shot ) , the whipper would revolve to working stage II at a low velocity of 7.5 revolutions per minutes driven by motor, which denotes that the shot manners in cylinders are alternated to each other. The whipper accomplishes its stage alteration by revolving its multi-channel rotor around the whipper ‘s shell. Single entirely and parallel operation ( Flow rate and force per unit area fluctuations ) trials showed that the parallel operation of two sets of ERDs can non merely extend the capacity of the system but besides unusually better the stableness and continuity of the working watercourse to and from the ERDs. The maximal recovery efficiency achieved is 95 % . The long contact clip ( 20 to 60 seconds ) between the seawater and saltwater in the isobaric Chamberss consequences in some intermixing, ensuing and an addition in the membrane provender salt of up to 1.5 % . [ 18 ]

From the literature reappraisal it is clear that isobaric ERDs deliver higher efficiency than centrifugal devices, but centrifugal devices are by and large better characterized and are easier to keep and run. Rotary isobaric devices provide a alone combination of isobaric and centrifugal characteristics with high energy transportation efficiency, no care, and easy operation

2 design of the Pressure Exchanger

The force per unit area money changer comprises of a Rotor ( the merely traveling device ) that rotates about a longitudinal axis and has a plurality of uninterrupted rotor channels holding gaps on each rotor terminal face arranged around the longitudinal axis of the rotor with the rotor channels pass oning with the connexion gaps of the lodging via flow gaps formed in the lodging such that during the rotary motion of the rotor the rotor channels alternately carry high force per unit area liquid and low force per unit area liquid from the respective foremost and 2nd liquid systems. This is enclosed in lodging along with hydrodynamic bearings. On either side of the rotor, terminal screens are fixed with recess and mercantile establishment connexion gaps for each liquid. The terminal covers and rotor are enclosed in a arm. [ 13 ]

Fig. 5: CAD assembly of the force per unit area money changer

With mention to Figure 6, Low force per unit area sea H2O enters the force per unit area money changer and fills rotor, this sea H2O is so exposed to high force per unit area dressed ore from the membrane. Pressure transportations straight from the dressed ore to the sea H2O inside the rotor ducts. Spent dressed ore leaves the rotor ducts as it gets pushed out by low force per unit area sea H2O. The canals of the rotor maps like a carrousel charging and discharging. Water around the narrow spread in the rotor serves as a lubricator. [ 13 ]

Fig. 6: Working of the force per unit area money changer

In the design phase for recesss into the rotor channels, the flow ratios are based on speed trigon diagrams in which the circumferential constituent degree Celsius u generates a drive torsion for the rotor as a impulse force. This circumferential constituent is designed to be larger than the circumferential speed U of the rotor. The rotor recess edges formed between the gaps of the rotor channels with the wall surfaces which follow in the way of flow are constructed so that the ensuing comparative flow of the rotor is received without impact by the rotor channels and is deflected in the way of the rotor channel length.

Fig. 7: CAD theoretical account of the rotor

Fig. 8: CAD drawing of the rotor

Such a design of the recess of the rotor channels besides includes the advantage that when there is a alteration in volume flow, the trigon diagram of the speed at the recess of the rotor channels undergoes an affine alteration, i.e. , the circumferential constituent degree Celsius u alterations to the same extent as the oncoming flow speed degree Celsius of the liquid. Thus the drive torsion moving on the rotor besides increases, taking to an addition in the rotor revolutions per minute. With an addition in rotor revolutions per minute, the frictional minute moving on the rotor and holding a retarding consequence besides increases. Due to the additive relationship between the drive torsion M I which increases with an addition in the circumferential constituent degree Celsius U and the frictional minute M R which increases in proportion to the rotational velocity, the circumferential speed of the rotor is ever established so that the triangle diagrams of the speed conditions which prevail at the rotor recess are similar for all volume flows. There is therefore a self-acting consequence which guarantees the status of impact-free onset flow for each volume flow established. The rotational velocity of the rotor is therefore corrected based on the congruent speed trigon diagrams and an impact-free onset flow of the rotor channels for volume flows of the chief flows that are altered due to system conditions.

A rotor is constructed in multiple parts, whereby a rotor portion holding consecutive rotor channels on its terminal faces is provided with one or two incoming flow home bases, and recess gaps and/or downstream channel beginnings which make the channel flows unvarying are arranged in the entrance flow home bases.

Fig. 6: Speed vectors come ining a rotor channel

Rotor channels holding a trapezoidal cross subdivision are arranged so they are axially parallel to and concentric with the axis of rotary motion of the rotor, with wall surfaces designed as webs running radially between the rotor channels widening between the rotor channels. The gaps in the rotor channels arranged on the terminal face of the rotor have extra rounded surfaces on their radially outer corners in the mode of inclined surfaces that widen diagonally outward, so that each gap is somewhat enlarged.

Opposite the gaps of the rotor with its axially parallel rotor channels, The speed trigon diagram for a liquid flowing into the rotor, consisting speed vectors U, tungsten and degree Celsius, where the pointers indicate the waies and the magnitudes of the assorted speeds, where:

U=circumferential speed of the rotor

w=relative flow in the gap upstream from the rotor channel

c=absolute flow of the liquid fluxing out of the lodging and to the rotor, where:

degree Celsiuss u =circumferential constituent of the absolute flow and

degree Celsiuss x =axial constituent of the absolute flow,

I”c u =driving speed for the rotor=c u a?’U

I±=angle of flow of the absolute flow degree Celsius

I?=angle of flow of the comparative flow

The flow to the rotor 1 is passed through a lodging portion opposite the rotor ( non shown ) which is opposite the rotor so that the flow in the stationary mention system strikes the rotor 1 as an absolute flow degree Celsius at the angle I± . The rotor 1 rotates with the circumferential speed U and consequently the comparative flow tungsten strikes it at the angle I? . The circumferential constituent degree Celsius U of the absolute flow degree Celsius is greater by I”c U than the circumferential speed U of the rotor, therefore guaranting the needed drive torsion of the rotor.

Because of the comparative onset flow angle I? , which is different from nothing, the oncoming flow of the rotor channels in the comparative system is non free of impact. Consequently, separations in the signifier of Eddies are invariably developing in the gaps in the rotor channels and as a consequence an irregular speed profile is established within the flow in the staying way of the rotor channels. These irregular speed profiles lead to the commixture jobs.

Fig. 9: CAD Model of the terminal screen

Fig. 10: CAD drawing of the terminal screen

4 mathematical Analysis

Rearward osmosis systems dwelling of a force per unit area money changer, pelton turbine and no energy recovery device have been analyzed below. Block diagrams of each energy recovery device had been constructed to buttockss and analyse the forces moving on the fluid.

Premises made:

The fluid flow through the rotor channels is syrupy.

Blending occurs in the rotor channels

Few Equations Used in the computations

Eg. Efficiency =

Blending =

5 Consequences

A System with a force per unit area money changer recovery, pelton turbine recovery and no energy recovery were analyzed theoretically utilizing a certain set of equations. The expression were inserted in excel and certain inputs were given to the system. Given below are the consequences obtained:

5.1 System with a force per unit area money changer

Fig. 12: Rearward osmosis system with a force per unit area money changer block diagram

Table 1: Calculations of a contrary osmosis system with a force per unit area money changer

A

A

A

Bacillus

C

Calciferol

Tocopherol

F

Gram

Hydrogen

Flow

m3/day

130

111

19

111

130

13

117

117

Pressure

saloon

2.5

2.5

62.0

59.8

62.0

0.0

60.4

2.0

Quality

ppm

35,000

35,000

35,000

35,436

35,616

200

39,551

39,137

A

A

Input signal

Fresh Water Output

A

13 m3/day

Membrane recovery rate

A

10 %

Membrane provender force per unit area

A

62.0 saloon

Membrane differential force per unit area

1.6 saloon

Pressure Exchanger Low Pressure discharge force per unit area

A

2.0 saloon

Feedwater salt

A

35,000 mg/l

Motor frequence

A

50Hz

Cost of power

A

0.10 $ /Kwh

High force per unit area Pump efficiency

A

90 %

High force per unit area Pump motor efficiency

A

87 %

Booster pump efficiency

A

48 %

Booster pump motor efficiency

A

88 %

Booster pump VFD efficiency

A

97 %

High PRESSURE PUMP

A

Pump efficiency

A

90 %

Motor efficiency

A

87 %

Power consumed

1.7 KW

A

Booster Pump

Pump efficiency

A

48 %

Motor efficiency

A

88 %

VFD efficiency

A

97 %

Power consumed

0.7KW

Pressure Exchanger

Unit of measurement flow

4.9 m3/hr

Lubrication per array

0.2 m3/hr

Lubrication flow

5 %

Differential force per unit area High Pressure side

A

0.6 saloon

Differential force per unit area Low Pressure side

A

0.5 saloon

Efficiency

A

93.7 %

Blending at membrane provender

1.8 %

Operating capacity

71.6 %

Power Savingss

A

9.0KW

Estimated CO2 Savings

47tons/year

SYSTEM POWER RESULTS

A

Specific power ingestion

A

kWh/m3

4.34

Power cost saved with the force per unit area money changer

$ /year

7,913

5.2 System without an energy recovery device

Fig. 13: Rearward osmosis system without an energy recovery device block diagram

Table 2: Calculations of a contrary osmosis system with no energy recovery device

MEMBRANE Parameters

A

A

Recovery

A

%

10 %

Membrane derived function

A

saloon

1.6

A

A

A

C

F

Gram

A Flow

m3/day

130

130

13

117

A Pressure

saloon

2.5

60.9

0.0

59.3

Quality

mg/l

35,000

35,000

200

39,551

Power CALCULATIONS

A

Mechanical energy recovered

0.0 KW

HP pump shaft power

15.4 KW

Motor shaft power

A

15.4 KW

Motor electrical power

17.2 KW

DEVICE EFFICIENCIES

A

HP Pump efficiency

57 %

HP Pump motor efficiency

90 %

Net transportation efficiency

57 %

SYSTEM POWER RESULTS

Entire power ingestion

17 KW

Specific power ingestion

31.75 KWh/m3

5.3 System with a pelton turbine

Fig. 14: Rearward osmosis system with a pelton turbine block diagram

Table 3: Calculations of a contrary osmosis system with a pelton turbine wheel

A

A

A

Tocopherol

F

Gram

Hydrogen

A Flow

m3/day

130

130

13

117

117

A

Pressure

saloon

2.5

60.9

0.0

59.3

0.0

Quality

mg/l

35,000

35,000

200

39,551

39,551

DEVICE EFFICIENCIES

A

Turbine efficiency

56 %

HP Pump efficiency

57 %

HP Pump motor efficiency

90 %

Net transportation efficiency

32 %

Power CALCULATIONS

A

Mechanical energy recovered

4.5KW

HP pump shaft power

15.4KW

Motor shaft power

A

10.9KW

Motor electrical power

12.2KW

Membrane Parameters

Recovery

A

10 %

Membrane derived function

A

1.6 saloon

PELTON SYSTEM POWER RESULTS

A

Entire power ingestion

A

12 KW

Specific power ingestion

A

22.47 KWh/m3

Salvaging analysis

A

Power saved with Pressure Exchanger

18.13 KWh/m3

81 %

Cost saved with Pressure Exchanger

8,604

5.4 Graphs

Based on the tabulated values give above a certain set of tendencies and fluctuations can be observed

Fig. 15: Efficiency ( % ) vs. Water recovery ratio ( % )

Fig. 16: Differential Pressure ( Bar ) vs. Flow Rate ( Brine Reject ) m3/day

Fig. 17: Mix at membrane provender ( % ) vs. Flow Rate ( Brine Reject ) ( m3/day )

Fig. 18: Lubrication Flow ( % ) vs. Flow Rate ( Brine Reject ) m3/day

Fig. 19: Energy Recovered Comparison ( KW )

Fig. 20: Power Consumption comparing ( KW, KW/m3 )

Fig. 21: Cost Salvaging Analysis: Pressure money changer vs. No ERD & A ; pelton Turbine

Fig. 22: Specific power vs. recovery ratio

6 Discussion

Sing all the facets taken into history for the way of this undertaking, the consequences obtained are feasible. From table 1, 2 and 3, graphs have been generated in order to mensurate the public presentation of the design.

With mention to fig 22. As the recovery rate increases the seawater concentration, and the membrane flow is deficient to take the salts that deposit on the membrane surface. This in bend increases the force per unit area bead, therefore increasing the HPP energy ingestion by diminishing the efficiency of the force per unit area money changer.

With mention to fig. 23, the force per unit area beads and syrupy clash associated with the force per unit area money changer can be explained. The force per unit area of the feed H2O fluxing from the Pressure money changer is somewhat lower than the force per unit area of the seawater Federal to it. Similarly, the force per unit area at the brine mercantile establishment of the Pressure money changer is somewhat lower than the force per unit area at the provender H2O recess.

With mention to fig. 24, as the flow rate additions, the commixture that takes topographic point between the high force per unit area sea H2O issue of the force per unit area money changer and the sea H2O pressurized by the high force per unit area pump reduces. Mixing is one of the biggest issues in a force per unit area money changer design even though trapezoidal channels are employed.

With mention to fig. 25, the rotor sits on hydrodynamic bearings. Around the rotor a narrow spread filled with H2O serves as lubrication that helps it spin at a changeless rate of approx… 1200 revolutions per minute. At a higher flow rate the sum of lubrication provided to the hydrodynamic bearings reduces and settees to around 3.5 % at around 200 m3/day

With mention to fig. 26, fig. 27, fig. 28 and fig. 29 the sum of energy recovered by the force per unit area money changer is about 30 % more than what a conventional pelton turbine can accomplish followed by a economy of about 60 % in a system with no energy recovery device. The high force per unit area pump histories for about 70 % of the energy in the rearward osmosis procedure, presenting a force per unit area money changer reduces the energy ingestion as compared to any other system. Lower flux rates and lower recovery rates by and large result in lower system energy ingestion. Suiting a force per unit area money changer in workss without any energy recovery would ensue in monolithic savings/year. This would even promote new concerns and would finally take to H2O copiousness! As the recovery ratio additions, the power cost saved lessenings ; an optimum system would work at 40 % recovery.

With mention to fig. 30, the bound is 80 % ; past that a tendency is observed where in the force per unit area money changer efficiency is lesser than that of the pelton wheel for higher recovery ratios. The two most of import steps of energy recovery device public presentation are energy transportation efficiency and concentrate-feedwater commixture ; both of these have been met at a really high graduated table utilizing the force per unit area money changer energy recovery device. Compared to older energy recovery systems, RO systems consume 15 to 35 % less power with force per unit area money changers Reduced High force per unit area pump ingestion and system power ingestion bead. A restricted operating scope and commixture of the two liquids found in the rotor channels during operation.

7 Decisions

The planetary H2O crisis has reached such a phase where action is needed right now. This paper looks into retrieving energy for a typical contrary osmosis in order to do it more low-cost and efficient. From the consequences presented above it is quiet clear that the force per unit area money changer fulfils what has been mentioned.

From the literature reappraisal, we gather cardinal information about the different types of energy constellations used. It was necessary to understand how a contrary osmosis system works. Each portion in item. Assume certain parametric quantities and calculate system end products.

A block diagram of the contrary osmosis system with 3 different energy recovery constellations was drawn. Certain parametric quantities sing efficiency, provender force per unit area… etc. was assumed. Following these inputs values were fed into the system, a set of equations were used in order to cipher flow, force per unit area… etc. at each point and finally the system power ingestion and public presentation. The analysis shows that the force per unit area money changer recovery system recovers about 95 % of the energy wasted in the seawater.

To farther look into this proposal, a CAD theoretical account of the force per unit area money changer was built in CAD, drawings were obtained and it was manufactured utilizing acrylic. A family contrary osmosis unit was purchased for proving. Obtaining experimental consequences from the trial rig would be ideal to formalize the theoretical consequences. A existent life theoretical account would include losingss as good which would supply utile penetration.

8 FUTURE WORK

A CAD theoretical account of the force per unit area money changer was created in solid border ; drawings for each portion were produced and handed over to the workshop where fabrication took topographic point utilizing acrylic.

A rod was purchased to be inserted through the setup. On either terminal covers pipe adjustments for the LP, HP Sides were connected.

Silicon Glue was used to put the parts in topographic point.

The system would be tested out by mensurating the flow, force per unit area and salt at each point. This would be subsequently validated by the theoretical consequences obtained.

A contrary osmosis system dwelling of a force per unit area money changer was modeled as shown in figure 5, 6 and 7.

Fig. 24: System with the force per unit area money changer

Fig. 25: acrylic theoretical account of the rotor

Experiment will be performed in order to obtain values for force per unit area, flow rate and salt at each point. Fluid bearings will be installed ( hydrodynamic ) to the force per unit area money changer theoretical account. Equally good as replacing bing pipes and adjustments with larger diameter opposite numbers.

9 Recognitions

First of all I would wish to thank my supervisor Dr. Sarim for non merely being a great supervisor but for being a great friend. Mr. Mohamed the lab technician besides deserves a particular note as it was with him that the trial rig was able to be set up. Recognition goes out to my co-workers for steering me in instance of any hurdle faced.