Division Of Accounting And Finance Finance Essay

Within the right of a freshly qualified accountant working with a house of stockbrokers, analysis is done for seeking advice on investing chances of the two companies, Marks and Spencer Plc and EasyJet Plc, and composing a study, as requested by the client.


Introductions to the companies- Marks and Spencer Plc and EasyJet Plc

Analysis and treatment which cover the undermentioned wide countries:

Liquidity and Profitability

Gearing and Capital Structure

Investor dealingss and Share monetary value tendencies

Corporate Social Coverage

Recommendations on investing chances between the two chosen companies


Information about the backgrounds of M & A ; S and EasyJet was found out to present the two companies.

Calculations of the ratios were done harmonizing to the informations collected from the one-year studies of the two companies.

A literature reappraisal that captures the theory underpinning the topic was carried out.

Analysis which included illustrations and issues of the theory originating from the application of theory to pattern and comparings of similar every bit good as different accounting patterns employed by the two companies was put out.

A clear recommendation which was justified by the grounds provided was given for one of the two chosen companies.


Introductions to the two chosen companies-M & A ; S and EasyJet

Marks and Spencer Plc

Marks and Spencer Plc founded in 1884 by a partnership between Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer is one of the British retail merchants whose headquarter is located in the City of Westminster, London. It owns over 700 shops in the United Kingdom and over 300 shops spread over more than 40 states. It sells vesture and luxury nutrient merchandises. M & A ; S was the first British retail merchant to do net income before revenue enhancement of over ?1A billion. In the ulterior few old ages, it plunged into a crisis. Now it is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a component of FTSE 100 Index.


EasyJet Airline Company Limited is one of the British air hoses whose headquarter is located in London Luton Airport. It has more riders than any other United Kingdom-based air hose, runing domestic and international scheduled services on 500 paths between 118 European, North African, and West Asiatic airdromes. EasyJet plc, as the parent company, is listed on the London Stock Exchange, and is a component of the FTSE 250 Index. EasyJet employed 8,000 people based throughout Europe but chiefly in the UK as at 30 September 2009. It has seen rapid enlargement since the constitution in 1995, holding grown through a combination of acquisitions and base gaps fuelled by consumer demand for low-priced air travel. The air hose company, along with franchise air hose EasyJet Switzerland, now operates over 180 aircraft. In 2009, EasyJet carried 45.2 million riders and is the second-largest low-cost bearer in Europe, behind Ryanair.

Liquidity and Profitability

In accounting, there are definitions for liquidness and profitableness. Liquidity is a step of the ability of a company to pay off its debts as and when they fall due. Normally, it is expressed as a ratio or a per centum of current liabilities. Profitability is an appraisal of the ability of a concern to bring forth net incomes as compared to its disbursals and other relevant costs incurred during a specific period of clip.


To compare the liquidnesss of M & A ; S and Easyjet, speedy ratio was chosen for analyzing. The speedy ratio, besides called the acid-test ratio, is index of liquidness which can farther polish the current ratio by mensurating the sum of current assets which is regarded the most liquid there are to cover current liabilities. Compared with the current ratio, the speedy ratio is much more conservative. For it is more hard to turn stock list and other current assets into hard currency, the current ratio which includes these mentioned is less conservative. The hard currency ratio as another map to mensurate accounting liquidness by mensurating the sum of hard currency, hard currency equivalents or invested financess has more restrictions. The hard currency transition rhythm is similar to the hard currency ratio. For the speedy ratio, a higher ratio means a more liquid current place.

Formula of the Quick Ratio:

Quick Ratio= ( Current Assets-Inventory ) / Current Liability

The speedy ratios of Easyjet during last three old ages were wholly more than 100 % , which were much higher than that of M & A ; S. In theory, this means the liquidness of Easyjet is better than that of M & A ; S. Easyjet ‘s ratios remained about 1.3 and even higher. In some countries, this means that Easyjet could pay off its current liabilities utilizing its current assets excepting the stock list. However, the speedy ratios of M & A ; S for the last three old ages were on the degree of 0.25 to 0.50. There is no uncertainty that acceptable current ratios vary from industry to industry. When a company ‘s current ratio is in this scope, so it is by and large considered to hold good short-run fiscal strength. If the current liabilities exceed current assets, the company may hold jobs run intoing its short-run duties. But a excessively high ratio means that a company may non utilize the current assets or the short-run funding installations expeditiously. Low values for the speedy ratios indicate that a house may hold trouble run intoing current duties. Low values, nevertheless, do non bespeak a critical job. If a company has a great long-run chance, it may be able to borrow against the chance to run into the current duties. Some types of concern normally operate with a current ratio less than one.

In order to state the industry differences between M & A ; S and Easyjet, the speedy ratios of John Lewis and Debenhams were calculated to see whether M & A ; S had got a good liquidness among its ain industry. John Lewis had small higher ratios than M & A ; S and Debenhams had speedy ratios which were much lower than M & A ; S did.

By and large talking, Easyjet had got better liquidness than M & A ; S. But among the industry of the same sort stores like M & A ; S, M & A ; S ‘ liquidness was among the high degree in the industry. So even though Easyjet ‘ speedy ratios were higher than M & A ; S ‘s, M & A ; S is a good smuggler in its industry.


The Return on Equity ratio and Return on Capital Employed ( ROCE ) ratio were chosen for analyzing the profitableness of M & A ; S and Easyjet.

The return on equity ratio indicates how profitable a company is by comparing its cyberspace net income to its equity. The ratio measures how much the stockholders earn for their investing in the company. The higher the ratio per centum, the more efficient direction is based on its equity and the better return is to the investors. The ROE tells common stockholders how efficaciously their money is being employed. The ROE ratio is an of import step of a company ‘s net incomes public presentation. Peer company, industry and overall market comparings are appropriate. However, it should be recognized that there are fluctuations in ROEs among some types of concerns. In general, fiscal analysts consider return on equity ratios in the 15 % to 20 % scope as stand foring attractive degrees of investing quality. While extremely regarded as a profitableness index, the ROE metric does hold a recognized failing. Investors need to be careful about a disproportional sum of debt in a company ‘s capital construction would be interpret into a smaller equity base. Therefore, a little sum of net income could still bring forth a high ROE off a modest equity base.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.prabhatmittal.com/Learnings/financialratio.pdf ( 21/03/2010 ) )

The return on capital employed ratio, expressed as a per centum, narrows the focal point to derive a better apprehension of company ‘s ability to bring forth returns from its available capital base by comparing net income ( here runing net income is used ) with capital employed. A batch of investing analysis thinks that factoring debt into a company ‘s entire capital provides a more comprehensive rating of how well direction is utilizing the debt and equity it has at its disposal. Investors would be good served by concentrating on ROCE as a key, if non a key, factor to estimate a company ‘s profitableness. An ROCE ratio, as a really general regulation of pollex, should be at or above a company ‘s mean adoption rate.

Formula of the Return on Equity Ratio and on Capital Employed:

Tax return on Capital Employed= Net Income / Capital Employed

Tax return on Equity=Net Profit / Equity

The return on capital employed ratio of M & A ; S remained on the degree between 15 % and 25 % during the last three old ages. However, the ratio of Easyjet stayed at the degree between 2 % to 6 % .

The return on equity ratio of M & A ; S went from 0.40 in 2007 to 0.24 in 2010. The ratio of Easyjet went down from 0.62 in 2008 to 0.19 in 2010.

The ROCE ratio of M & A ; S is much higher than that of Easyjet. The ROE ratios of both the two companies were similar. Uniting the two ratios, it was easy to state that M & A ; S was much more profitable than Easyjet. As known to all, M & A ; S and Easyjet are two companies from two wholly different industries. Though M & A ; S was evidently more profitable than Easyjet, comparings between companies of the same industry are needed.

Here the ratios of John Lewis and Debenhams were calculated. The state of affairss of the two companies were like the followers: John Lewis had the ROCE ratios 10.7 % , 10.2 % , 14.3 % and 13.2 % in the last four old ages and Debenhams had the ratios 18.9 % , 12.0 % , 13.2 % and 12.2 % during the last four old ages. And the ROE ratios of John Lewis were 0.062, 0.135, 0.077 and 0.066 for the last four old ages and the ratios of Debenhams were 0.193, 0.224, 0.615 during the last three old ages. Within the industry, M & A ; S had a higher ROCE ratio than the others did and besides a higher ROE ratio. This means that M & A ; S was non merely profitable than Easyjet, but besides more profitable than John Lewis and Debenhams which are in the same industry as M & A ; S is.

The liquidness of Easyjet was better than that of M & A ; S harmonizing to the consequences calculated. However, the profitableness of M & A ; S was much better than Easyjet. Among the industry of retail merchants, M & A ; S ‘s liquidness was on the average degree and its profitableness was on the top.

For the country of liquidness and profitableness, both of Easyjet and M & A ; S had their advantages. Easyjet had a stronger ability to pay off its current assets. But due to the differences between concern theoretical accounts, M & A ; S ‘s liquidness was besides good in its industry. There is no uncertainty that M & A ; S was much more profitable than Easyjet. Within the industry, M & A ; S was besides the leader of profitableness. So as the advice for investors, M & A ; S is better for investings.

Gearing and Capital Structure

Gearing, called purchase in the US and some other states, measures the extent to which a company is funded by debt. The cardinal analysis ratio of a company ‘s degree of long-run debt compared to its equity capital, expressed in per centum signifier. Companies with high pitching – more long-run liabilities than stockholder equity – are considered bad. It is besides known as “ fiscal purchase ” . In simpler words, pitching explains how a company finances its operations – either through outside loaners or through stockholders. There are many different definitions of pitching. One common definition is: Debt/Shareholders Fundss. Unfortunately, there are other definitions, and the other which is widely used and is found easier to understand intuitively by many people is: Debt/Capital Employed. It is the same as Debt/ ( Debt +Shareholders ‘ Fundss ) . Except for the definition, there are fluctuations even on Debt/Equity. Gearing is normally shown as a per centum than a fraction.

Here for pitching, debts merely include borrowing, non other debt such as trade creditors. It is non unusual to deduct good will from the value of stockholders ‘ financess when ciphering geartrain. Though this is non universally done, it is logical as good will reflects a company ‘s history instead than its current fiscal strength. As a general regulation, Debt/Equity of more than 100 % or Debt/Capital Employed of more than 50 % is “ high ” , but there is no exact cut-off point which is excessively high. As debt gets higher, net incomes for stockholders become more volatile for the same grounds as with operational geartrain. It normally causes concern about a high degree of debt. However, a high degree of debt does speed up net income growing every bit good as diminutions. Companies with more stable runing net incomes can safely take on higher degrees of debt, so what is acceptable depends on the concern.

To but the geartrain in another manner, the term geartrain means the sum of debt an entity has incurred to back up the capital construction. Capital construction means a mix of a company ‘s long-run debt, specific short-run debt, common equity and preferable equity. The capital construction is how a organisation finances its overall operations and growing by utilizing different beginnings of financess. Bond issues or long-run notes collectible constitute debt, while common stock, retained net incomes or preferable stock make up equity. At the same clip, short-run debt such as working capital demands is besides regarded to be portion of the capital construction. When people refer to capital construction, most likely they are mentioning to an organisation ‘s debt-to-equity ratio, which provides penetration into how hazardous a company is. As the house is comparatively extremely levered, a company normally more to a great extent financed by debt airss greater hazard. Debt-to-equity is ever the cardinal division in capital construction. Gearing is the measuring of the proportion of debt support.

Sing the division between debt and equity is sufficient to understand the issues as the followers. The simple division is slightly complicated by the being of other types of capital that blur the lines between debt and equity, as they are loanblends of the two. Preference portions are legal with a fixed return that makes them closer to debt than equity in the economic consequence.

Simple fiscal theory theoretical accounts show that capital construction does non impact the entire value of debt and equity of a company. This is non wholly true as more complex theoretical accounts show.

hypertext transfer protocol: //moneyterms.co.uk/gearing/ ( 21/03/2010 )

Harmonizing to the easy apprehension of geartrain, a expression was chosen for the geartrain ratio among all the expression.

Formula of the Gearing Ratio:

Gearing Ratio=Long Term Liability / Capital Employed

( Capital Employed= Equity + Long-term Liability )

The pitching ratio of M & A ; S stayed above 50 % for the last three old ages, which were 62.03 % in 2008, 57.57 % in 2009 and 58.46 % in 2010. And the pitching ratio of EasyJet was kept under 50 % during the last three old ages, which were 41.52 % in 2008, 49.93 % in 2009 and 48.92 % in 2010.

Harmonizing to the figures, it could be easy found out that M & A ; S was taking a high degree of debt for the ratio was over 50 % under the formula Debt / Capital Employed. Peoples should state that EasyJet was a running company with less hazard than M & A ; S. However, as mentioned, the pitching ratio should be compared to the companies of the same industry to see whether it is higher or lower among the industry since the “ cut-off ” point of pitching ratio depends on the concern theoretical account.

Another two companies Debenhams and Ryanair were used to compare whether M & A ; S and EasyJet had higher gearing ratios. Debenhams is the same sort of retails as M & A ; S with much higher ratios of 90.64 % in 2008 and 72.11 % in 2009 than M & A ; S. The ratio of Debenhams went down in 2010 to 49.85 % which was a small lower than M & A ; S. Ryanair, as a same sort air hose company as EasyJet, owned about the same ratios as Easyjet did. The gearing ratios for Ryanair in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 47.55 % , 51.58 % and 52.63 % .

Between the different industries, EasyJet was truly less hazardous than M & A ; S merely based on the figures of the geartrain ratios. However, due to the differences of the distinguishable industries, EasyJet was a company with common hazard in the air hoses and M & A ; S was a company with lower hazard in the retail merchants.

After analysis of the capital construction, it was easy to happen out that the per centums of equity, current liability and long-run liability of both M & A ; S and EasyJet were about the same. The three parts took up one tierce of the sum. Still based on different concern theoretical accounts, small differences existed in the capital

construction. Long-run liabilities took up the most of the sum of M & A ; S and equities took up the most of the sum of EasyJet. Because of the different types of concern theoretical account, the industry of retail merchants seems to be running more likely based on the long-run liabilities while the industry of air hoses seems to be running more on the foundation of equities.

The capital constructions of the two companies were similar while the pitching ratios can reflect some jobs. M & A ; S is still a better company among the retail merchants and EasyJet is an air hose on the average degree of the industry. Investors should pay more attending to M & A ; S for it is more attractive.

Investor dealingss and Share monetary value tendencies

Investor Relations, which is called IR for short, is a strategic direction duty that integrates finance, selling, communicating and securities jurisprudence conformity to enable the most effectual bipartisan communicating between the fiscal community, a company, and other constituencies. It contributes finally to a company ‘s securities accomplishing just rating. The term describes the section of a company devoted to managing enquiries from stockholders and investors, every bit good as others who might be interested in a company ‘s stock or fiscal stableness. In some companies, investor dealingss is managed by the public dealingss or corporate communications sections and in some companies investor dealingss is a section or a individual describing to the fiscal officer or financial officer. Companies ever hold one-year stockholders ‘ meeting to pass on between stockholders and the companies in order to guarantee the stockholders ‘ long-run benefit.

hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Investor_relations ( 21/03/2011 )

M & A ; S Group ‘s support scheme is to guarantee a mix of support beginnings offering flexibleness and cost effectivity to fit demands of the Group. Operating subordinates are financed by a combination of maintained net incomes, bank adoptions, average term notes, finance rentals and committed bank installations. The aim is to guarantee that the Group has appropriate financess to pull off its fiscal duties and to accomplish its concern aims. In add-on it is to guarantee that the Group has a sensible degree of funding diverseness in footings of investors and adulthood.

EasyJet Plc besides has its ain method to guarantee the benefits of the stockholders. Annual stockholders ‘ meetings are held every twelvemonth. It provides analysts to analyze the histories and compose the studies for the investors. Internal services for the stockholders are provided to guarantee their benefits.

Due to the grounds of the consumer markets and external factors, the forms of the portion monetary value tendencies of M & A ; S and EasyJet seemed to be really similar. The portion monetary value of M & A ; S reached the lowest point which was a small higher than 200.00 in 1 January 2001 and the portion monetary value of EasyJet reached the lowest under 200.00 in the 2nd half of 2004. Both of the portion monetary values of M & A ; S and EasyJet went up to the highest which about got to the point 800.00 in 2007. The tendencies of the portion

monetary values of the two companies went up and down during the last 10 old ages. Except for they reached the highest in 2007 of the figures shown, both the tendencies of the companies on the average degree.

The portion monetary value tendencies were similar for both of the companies. The lowest and the highest points of M & A ; S were both higher than that of EasyJet. Get downing from the twelvemonth of 2010, the two companies owned the portion monetary values on the same degree of approximately 400.00.

M & A ; S had a specific scheme for the investors and EasyJet had particular services for the stockholders. Merely based on the portion monetary value tendencies, M & A ; S is a small better than EasyJet. However, it is truly difficult to state which of the two is decidedly better than the other 1. What that can be known from the analysis is that M & A ; S had a better history of the past 10 old ages than EasyJet did.

hypertext transfer protocol: //corporate.marksandspencer.com/investors/shareprice/current ( 21/03/2011 )

hypertext transfer protocol: //corporate.easyjet.com/investors/shareholder-services/agm.aspx

( 22/03/2011 )

Corporate Social Coverage

Corporate Social Reporting is the study provided by the company to province its corporate societal duty. Corporate societal duty, which is called CSR for short, is a signifier of corporate self-regulation which is integrated into a concern theoretical account. The ternary underside line ( TBL ) of CSR is people, planet and net income. CSR policy maps proctors and ensures the companies ‘ active conformity with the spirit of the jurisprudence, ethical criterions, and international norms. CSR keep some activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all the other members of the populace in order to encompass duty for the actions of the companies and acquire a positive impact. The rubric of CSR is to help an mission to the organisation to steer to the significance of the company.

Both M & A ; S and EasyJet have their ain programs back uping their corporate societal duties.

The end of M & A ; S is ‘becoming the universe ‘s most sustainable major retail merchant by 2015 ‘ . Plan A was pull out by M & A ; S to run into their duties of the corporation and the society. Twenty chief aims of Plan A were point out from 2010 to 2015 based on the five bing pillars and two new pillars. The seven pillars are climate alteration, waste, natural resources, just spouse, wellness and well-being, affecting clients in Plan A and doing Plan A how we do concern. Under the chief 20 aims, there are besides little bomber rubrics demoing how precisely M & A ; S would run into their ends. The program started a few old ages ago and had some effectual consequences. The ends were completed on different degrees, such like that 55 % of clime alteration was finished and 78 % of waste was completed. The thing that can be seen is M & A ; S is run intoing its original ends step by measure.

hypertext transfer protocol: //plana.marksandspencer.com/media/pdf/planA-2010.pdf ( 23/03/2011 )

EasyJet ‘s end is to guarantee that its bing concern is every bit efficient as possible, both in the air and on the land, and to endeavor to happen ways to understate its

environmental impact in the hereafter. Four chief points are following their end: Greenhouse gas emanations, Particulate emanations, Waste and Noise. Because of the features of air hose companies, much more work should be done to the environment. Apart from the safety of the riders, EasyJet aimed to offer wellbeing to clients and employees. Safety is NO.1 precedence. It besides encourages the staffs to hold passion expertness and committedness.

There are some same points of the Corporate Social Reporting of the two companies. Customers play great functions for both of the companies. M & A ; S and EasyJet hold the duty to the environments. And they need to seek to guarantee their net incomes while they are making the other ends.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.easyjet.com/common/img/easyJet_CRS.pdf ( 23/03/2011 )


As mentioned above, M & A ; S is more outstanding in some countries than EasyJet. It is more profitable and its liquidness corsets in the forepart of the retail merchants industry.

The geartrain and capital construction of the two companies are a small different in the constituents. Though EasyJet is less hazardous than M & A ; S, M & A ; S is a good retail merchant among all the retail merchants for that the industry of retail merchants is the one full of more hazards.

Both of the two companies have policies to guarantee the stockholders ‘ and the investors ‘ benefit. The portion monetary value tendencies of the two during the last 10 old ages were similar. But the lowest and highest points of M & A ; S are higher than that of EasyJet.

The portion of Corporate Social Reporting shows the different duties of the two companies and the different steps adopted by the two companies. Due to the characteristics of the industries, M & A ; S had a heavier duty. Besides it offered a comprehensive and careful program to work out the jobs.

EasyJet is a good company. But compared with M & A ; S, the advice for investors is that put investings into M & A ; S is a superb pick.







M & A ; S









John Lewis










Tax return on Equity





M & A ; S









John Lewis









Quick Ratio





M & A ; S









John Lewis














49.85 %

72.11 %

90.64 %

M & A ; S

58.46 %

57.57 %

62.03 %


48.92 %

49.93 %

41.52 %


52.63 %

51.58 %

47.55 %

M & A ; S