Development Of Monetary Framework Inghana Finance Essay

In 2002, the Bank of Ghana Law, Act 2002 was passed by parliament. The Law gave the Bank of Ghana the independency in the discharge of its pecuniary policy. The independency facet of the jurisprudence implied that the Bank could utilize whatever tools available at its disposal in accomplishing its primary aim of monetary value stableness. The Law gave birth to the Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) . Behavior of Monetary Policy vested in the MPC. The jurisprudence foresaw the Bank of Ghana to be an inflation-targeting cardinal bank. The Monetary Policy Committee since 2002 has been seting in topographic point assorted institutional, operational every bit good as answerability and transparence constructions to ease the effectual discharge of its maps.

The Development of the Monetary Policy Frameworks in Ghana

The history of pecuniary direction in Ghana can be categorized into two chief distinguishable stages that is the period associated with pecuniary controls and the period under which pecuniary policy has been allowed to develop in a scene of a liberalized environment. Prior to 1983, when major reforms in the fiscal construction of the economic system began, the Bank of Ghana operated mostly a direct controlled system of pecuniary direction. This entailed the trust on preponderantly direct intercession instruments, prominent among which was direct recognition control. This involved the infliction of ceilings, both planetary and sectoral, on single commercial Bankss ‘ loaning and had to be consistent with national macroeconomic marks like growing, rising prices and external balance. With clip these agreements proved to be uneffective and introduced inefficiencies in assorted sectors of the economic system. These failings inherent in the economic system at the clip necessitated reforms in the behavior of pecuniary policy. The direct control system of pecuniary direction had to be abandoned with the coming of liberalisation of the economic system in 1983.

The liberalisation procedure entailed progressive de-regulatory steps, climaxing in the institutionalization of a market based system of pecuniary direction in early 1992 and focused mostly on the usage of indirect and market based instruments in the behavior of its pecuniary policy. This brought into focal point a new dimension to the manner pecuniary direction was designed and implemented. The elements of fiscal scheduling was introduced

In 2002, the Bank of Ghana Law, Act 2002 was passed by parliament. The Law gave the Bank of Ghana the independency in the discharge of its pecuniary policy. The independency facet of the jurisprudence implied that the Bank could utilize whatever tools available at its disposal in accomplishing its primary aim of monetary value stableness. The Law gave birth to the Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) . Behavior of Monetary Policy vested in the MPC. The jurisprudence foresaw the Bank of Ghana to be an inflation-targeting cardinal bank. The Monetary Policy Committee since 2002 has been seting in topographic point assorted institutional, operational every bit good as answerability and transparence constructions to ease the effectual discharge of its maps.


The authorization for the Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) is derived from the Bank of Ghana Law ( Act 612 ) , subdivision 27, passed in 2002. The Act requires the constitution of an MPC to be responsible for explicating and implementing policy in the countries of money, banking and recognition with the chief purpose of keeping stable monetary values contributing to equilibrate and stable economic growing every bit good as promoting and continuing pecuniary stableness. The commission sets an involvement rate it Judgess are consistent with an rising prices mark and an aim of growing


The Bank ‘s Monetary Policy Committee ( MPC ) is made up of seven ( 7 ) members – the Governor, the two Deputy Governors, the Director of the Bank ‘s Research Department, The Director of Banking Services of the Bank of Ghana and two external members appointed straight by the Minister of Finance. The external managers may either be from academe or from private practise. The assignment of external members is designed to complement the expertness within the Bank of Ghana.

The current members are:

Dr. Henry Wampah, 1st Deputy Governor

Mr.MillisonNarh, 2nd Deputy Governor

Mrs.EllyOheneAdu, Director of Banking Services

Mrs. Grace Akrofi, Director of Research

Dr. John Kwakye, External Member

Dr. NiiKwakuSowah, External Member


The BOG MPC meets six times each twelvemonth to consider on the economic system. The MPC meetings are held Bi-monthly get downing February of each twelvemonth. Meetings are normally held on the 3rd Wednesday of the month in which the meeting falls. Each bi-monthly meeting tallies for three yearss – usually from Wednesday to Friday


The Bank ‘s medium-term aim remains conveying down rising prices to individual figures. The rising prices marks are announced each twelvemonth and these marks are set jointly by the Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance. A set is set around the cardinal mark of +/- 2 per centum. After debating on the issues thoroughly and weighing the balance of hazards in rising prices and end product, each commission member makes a instance for traveling the cardinal policy rate in a preferable way, mentioning their economic logical thinking. The bulk ballot represents the determination of the commission.


The Bank of Ghana explains its policy actions and determinations on involvement rates to the populace. The thought and the informations that informs the determinations of the MPC is made public through a imperativeness release. Because transparence promotes credibleness which in bend enhances efficiency of the transmittal mechanism for pecuniary policy, the commission members and the bank has had on many occasions speak to audiences, academe and the populace at big, explicating the MPC ‘s policy determinations.

Committee ( MPC ) that the minutess market for foreign exchange remains loosely stable, consistent with economic basicss. However, bad activity of currency bargainers in the inter-bank foreign exchange market continues to exercise force per unit areas on exchange rates, ensuing in go oning depreciation of the Ghana cedi.

It would be recalled that the MPC increased the policy rate and reduced the bounds on Net Open Position ( NOP ) of Bankss. The steps were intended to better the attraction of cedi assets and increase the supply of foreign exchange to the Market. The Bank farther indicated that it would closely supervise developments and take extra steps if deemed necessary.

In order to reenforce the pecuniary policy stance and reconstruct stableness and transparence in the foreign exchange market, the Bank has decided on the followers



In the undermentioned tenors – 30days, 60 yearss and 270 yearss. This is intended to back up the pecuniary operations of Bank of Ghana and supply extra avenues for cediInvestments.


All Bankss will now be required to keep the compulsory 9 per centum Reserve demand on domestic and foreign sedimentation liabilities in Ghana cedis merely. Consequently, Bankss will no longer keep the militias in different currencies.


All Bankss are required to supply 100 per centum cedi screen for their vostro balances, to be maintained at Bank of Ghana. This is in line with the proviso in the Operational Guidelines

Pursuant to the Foreign Exchange Act, 2006 ( Act 723 ) that precludes foreign Investor engagement in the short terminal of the money market. This is besides consistent with the 27th March 2012 directive of Bank of Ghana to all Bankss.

These steps will take consequence from 1st May 2012.

Notices and guidelines will be communicated to the Bankss for their counsel.

April 27, 2012


The coveted rising prices mark of below 10 per centum is expressed in footings of an one-year rate of rising prices based on the Consumer Prices Index ( CPI ) . Although the Bank is non bound by jurisprudence to explicate to the Ministry of Finance or to parliament if the mark is non achieved, the Governor may be summoned to the Finance Committee of parliament to explicate developments within the economic system. A mark of 10 per centum does non intend that rising prices will be held at this rate invariably. The economic system is capable to dazes that can do unneeded uncertainness and volatility. When rising prices stays above mark for some obvious grounds, the MPC ‘s purpose would be to maneuver involvement rates so that rising prices can be brought back to aim within a sensible period of clip without making undue instability in the economic system.

To accomplish an rising prices mark, it requires that the supply of money should be consistent with the demand for money at the targeted monetary value degree.

The three most common general attacks to finding the supply of money are:

( a ) To restrict its creative activity by Bankss by straight commanding the sum of recognition they may widen,

( B ) To restrict its creative activity by Bankss by commanding the sum of militias available to them, and

( degree Celsius ) To repair the exchange rate of the currency to another currency or unit whose value behaves in the coveted manner and to let the supply of money to be determined by demand for it at the value that has been fixed by the exchange rate.

The attack of a fixed exchange rate has considerable advantages but requires that authorities borrowing be limited to sums that can be raised from the populace. Repairing the value of money exogenously ( e.g. , to the dollar, Euro, SDR, gold, oil, or a trade good basket ) is non merely the easiest pecuniary policy to administrate, presuming that the financial shortage can be minimized, but it likely provides the quickest manner to set up religion in the stableness of such money ‘s value.

Degree centigrades: UsersMichael Kofi Forson`Desktopghana-inflation-cpi.png

Interest Rate

The benchmark involvement rate in Ghana was last reported at 15.00 per centum. Historically, from 2002 until 2012, Ghana Interest Rate averaged 16.67 Percent making an all clip high of 27.50 Percentage in March of 2003 and a record depression of 12.50 Percentage in December of 2006. In Ghana, involvement rates determinations are taken by the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of Ghana. The official involvement rate is the Monetary Policy Rate ( MPR ) . This page includes a chart with historical informations for Ghana Interest Rate.

The rising prices rate in Ghana was recorded at 9.4 per centum in September of 2012. Historically, from 1998 until 2012, Ghana Inflation Rate averaged 17.77 Percent making an all clip high of 63.00 Percentage in March of 2001 and a record depression of 0.40 Percent in May of 1999. Inflation rate refers to a general rise in monetary values measured against a standard degree of buying power. The most good known steps of Inflation is the CPI which measures consumer monetary values, and the GDP deflator, which measures rising prices in the whole of the domestic economic system. This page includes a chart with historical informations for Ghana Inflation Rate.

Degree centigrades: UsersMichael Kofi Forson`Desktopghana-interest-rate.png

The involvement rate term construction is the relation between the involvement rate and the clip to adulthood of the debt for a given borrower in a given currency. For illustration, the current U.S. dollar involvement rates paid on U.S. Treasury securities for assorted adulthoods are closely watched by many bargainers, and are normally plotted on a graph such as the 1 on the right which is informally called “ the output curve. ” More formal mathematical descriptions of this relation are frequently called the term construction of involvement rates. Output curves are normally upward inclining asymptotically ; the longer the adulthood, the higher the output, with decreasing fringy growing. There are two common accounts for this phenomenon. First, it may be that the market is expecting a rise in the riskless rate. If investors hold off puting now, they may have a better rate in the hereafter. Therefore, under the arbitrage pricing theory, investors who are willing to lock their money in now necessitate to be compensated for the awaited rise in rates – therefore the higher involvement rate on long-run investings.

However, involvement rates can fall merely as they can lift. Another account is that longer adulthoods entail greater hazards for the investor ( i.e. the loaner ) . Hazard premium should be paid, since with longer adulthoods, more ruinous events might happen that impact the investing. This account depends on the impression that the economic system faces more uncertainnesss in the distant hereafter than in the close term, and the hazard of future inauspicious events ( such as default and higher short-run involvement rates ) is higher than the opportunity of future positive events ( such as lower short-run involvement rates ) . This consequence is referred to as the liquidness spread. If the market expects more volatility in the hereafter, even if involvement rates are anticipated to worsen, the addition in the hazard premium can act upon the spread and do an increasing output.

Monetary POLICY Rate

The pecuniary policy tool of the BOG is the pecuniary policy rate ( MPR ) the rate at which commercial Bankss can borrow from the cardinal bank and it is set at a degree that is consistent with run intoing the BOG s rising prices mark. The MPR, therefore, is expected to pass on the stance of pecuniary policy and act as a usher for all other market involvement rates.

The pecuniary transmittal mechanism the procedure by which pecuniary policy determinations affect the existent economic system and rising prices operates through several channels.

When pecuniary policy tightens, for illustration, and market involvement rates rise, the fiscal place of houses may weaken either because of an addition in their involvement payments which reduces their cyberspace hard currency flows or because of a autumn in the value of their assets and therefore indirect doing the footings of recognition that they face ( the cost of external financess ) to lift. This is the balance sheet channel.

Monetary policy alterations may besides impact the supply of recognition, peculiarly by commercial Bankss. Because Bankss rely on demand sedimentations as an of import beginning of financess, pecuniary policy tightening, by cut downing the aggregative volume of bank militias will besides cut down the handiness of bank loans. When a important figure of houses and families rely on Bankss as a major beginning of funding, so a decrease in loan supply will deject aggregative disbursement and cut down entire end product and monetary value. This is the bank loaning channel.

In conventional macroeconomic theoretical accounts, the primary mechanism believed to be at work in the transmittal of pecuniary policy is the involvement rate channel. In this instance, an addition in the MPR, for illustration, is expected to straight impact on some short-run sweeping market involvement rate ( the interbank involvement rate the rate at which Bankss borrow from each other or Treasury measure involvement rates ) and so transmitted to retail market involvement rates bank loaning and sedimentation rates. Assuming that monetary values remain fixed for some period of clip, the addition in the nominal market involvement rates would interpret into an addition in existent ( rising prices adjusted ) market involvement rates and, therefore, an addition in the existent cost of capital. This, in bend, would ensue in a decrease in overall ingestion and investing disbursement ( i.e. a diminution in aggregative demand ) such that entire end product and monetary values would fall.

The effectivity of the pecuniary transmittal mechanism is of import for the credibleness of pecuniary policy the relevancy of the MPR in finding market involvement rates and therefore the degree of economic activity and monetary values.

Treasury measure rates Monday 05th November, 2012 To Friday 09th November, 2012

Time period

Discount Ratess

Interest Ratess

91 – Day

21.1449 %

22.3250 %

182 – Day

20.3376 %

22.6397 %

1 – Year Note

– %

22.8000 %

2 – Year Fixed Rate Note

– %

23.0000 %

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form


In decision, successful rising prices aiming requires a really structured procedure of roll uping and analysing economic and fiscal informations and pass oning the stance of policy to the populace in visible radiation of theoretical account assisted prognosiss. Regular interaction between the policy shapers and the prognosis squad is critical to guarantee entire success.

Near working relationship is indispensable between the cardinal bank and the prediction squad in pecuniary targeting ; but, effectual communicating is really critical for rising prices aiming.

This is because the cardinal bank must calculate expected rising prices, and if it is believable, it becomes a key in finding accomplished rising prices. Therefore, rising prices aiming besides requires really crystalline communicating of the cardinal bank ‘s policies and why they are expected to ensue in accomplishing the rising prices mark in Ghana.