Design Of Belt Conveyor System Engineering Essay

Belt conveyer is the transit of stuff from one location to another. Belt conveyer has high burden transporting capacity, big length of conveying way, simple design, easy care and high dependability of operation. Belt conveyer system is besides used in material conveyance in foundry store like supply and distribution of modeling sand, casts and remotion of waste. In this paper the survey is carried out on DISA form modeling machine to run into the demand of higher weight castings. The DISA machine is holding the capacity of 100 molds per hr. The mould size and denseness of stuff is given parametric quantities. The present treatment purposes to plan the conveyer system used for chilling of cast, which includes velocity, motor choice, belt specification, shaft diameter, block, loafer spacing, gear box choice, with the aid of standard pattern. Besides from ergonomic point of position some advanced control switches can be considered such as pull cord switch, belt sway switch, zero velocity switches etc.

Keywords: Belt, Conveyor, DISA machine, Mould, Control Switches.

2. Introduction:

Whenever the majority stuff requires uninterrupted transit belt conveyers provide a dependable agencies. If the handling rate and entire measure warrant, they normally are the most economical. All lifting and conveying machines can be divided by their operating rules into two big groups:

( I ) Intermittent gesture, ( two ) Continuous gesture Intermittent gesture includes all types of Cranes, lifts ; surface conveyance means ( trucks, stevedores, premier movers ) , aerial ropewaies and overseas telegram ways, combatants and the similar.

Continuous gesture includes conveyers, pneumatic and hydraulic conveyance means etc. which may by and large name uninterrupted conveyance machines or conveying machines. [ 1 ]

Continuous machines are characterized by non-stop gesture of majority or unit tonss along a given way, without hallts for lading and droping. The rule intent of uninterrupted conveying machine is to transport tonss along a peculiar way. At the same clip they can administer tonss among a figure of finish points, present them to shops, transportation merchandises from one technological operation to another and guarantee the coveted gait of a production procedure. [ 1 ]

Belt conveyers are employed for conveying assorted majority and unit tonss along horizontal or somewhat inclined waies and for transporting articles between assorted operations in production flow lines.

Belt conveyers are used as the rule constituents of some complex machines such as wheel excavator, conveyer Bridgess and many other type of hoisting and conveying machines.

Belt conveyers are used for assorted applications such as material transit in metalworks store ( supply and distribution of modeling sand, molds and remotion of wastes ) coal and excavation industry, sugar industry, car industry, Bagasse industry, fuel supply system of electric power Stationss etc.


It is necessary to hold design related basic information about assorted constituents of belt conveyer before trying to plan belt conveyer. The design of belt conveyer is depends upon design/construction of single constituent, but the design of many single constituent depends upon the ultimate design building of belt conveyer.

3.1 Data available for belt conveyer system:

Input informations used for planing the belt conveyer system

( Disa match 32X32 high force per unit area flaskless horizontal molding line with disa cool ) .

Material denseness

Belt velocity, V

Length of conveyer, L

Height of conveyer, H

Inclination angle

Mould Size 833 millimeter

Mould Temperature grades.

Mould rate 100 moulds/hr

3.2 Design process for belt conveyer system:

Note: Most of the expressions are in MKS units and for better apprehension, converted into SI units.

The undermentioned process is followed to plan present belt conveyer system:

3.2.1 Belt Capacity: [ 2 ]

BeltCapacity … … . ( 1 )

3.2.2.Belt Width: [ 3 ]

Belt breadth …… ( 2 )

Live burden ( A ) :

Live burden

Entire unrecorded burden ( A )

Dead Load ( B ) :

This burden consists of weight of roller, belting and thrust block.


Belt Pull ( C ) :

Belt pull ( C ) in pound

For roller bed belt conveyor coefficient of clash

Inclines/declines ( D ) :

Tangent of angle

Additional belt pull

Additional belt pull

The upper limit of above two is consider as a value of D

Deflectors ( E ) : There are no deflectors in our system

Passage point ( F ) :

Additional belt pull

Effective belt pull

T1 T1factor

From table T1factor


As mould temperature is 180 grades, heat immune belt is required. Therefore pyroshield belt ( KEP 800/4 ) is selected holding the belongingss like high tensile strength, longer working life, robust building, corrosion opposition, wear and tear opposition.

Belt Strength / inch [ 4 ]

Substitute the value of belt strength and T1 in equation ( 2 ) ,

Belt Width

3.2.3 Belt Tension: [ 2 ]

Effective tenseness ( Te ) …….. ( 3 )

Return side tenseness

For horizontal and promoting conveyers,



Weight of stuff, Wm

Where, v=0.1 m/s=19.68ft/min


Weight of belt, Wb


Return side tenseness

Entire empty clash

Standard border distance

For standard border distance 0.0899 tf

Entire empty clash

Entire empty clash

Transporting side empty clash

Load clash

For horizontal and promoting conveyer, Fl

Load clash

Load incline tenseness

Load incline tenseness

Load incline tenseness

Effective Tension Te

Effective Tension Te

3.2.4 Power Calculation: [ 5 ]

Power HP …………… . ( 4 )


Substituting the values in equation ( 4 ) ,


Power, P

3.2.5 Idler Spacing: [ 2 ]

Idler Spacing …… ( 5 )


Substituting the value of Te, W and droop in the equation ( 5 ) ,

Idler Spacing Si

Idler Spacing Si

3.2.6. Motor RPM computation: [ 6 ]

Motor RPM, N ……… . ( 6 )

Here torsion is non known and hence it can be calculated by following method

For belt conveyer application,

Mt ………… . ( 7 )

To happen out the diameter of axial rotation

Material weight denseness

Material weight denseness Wm

From tabular array of bulk stuff managing enchiridion, for weight denseness of stuff Wm and belt width 48 inch, the diameter of block D [ 7 ]

Harmonizing to CEMA ( Conveyor Equipment and Manufacturers Association ) the coefficient of clash [ 8 ]

Substitute the values of F, W, and g in equation ( 7 ) ,

Torque Mt

Substitute the value of Mt in equation ( 6 ) ,

Motor RPM, N

N1500 RPM

3.2.7. Diameter of shaft: [ 9 ]

Harmonizing to ASME criterion, the diameter of shaft is calculated by following expression

vitamin D …… . ( 8 )

Diameter of shaft vitamin D is depends on assorted factors such as shear emphasis, Kb combined daze and fatigue factor applied to flexing minute, Mb upper limit flexing minute, Kt combined daze and fatigue factor applied to torsional minute, Mt torsional minute.

To happening the maximal bending minute following process is adopted. The figure 1 shows the bending minute diagram for shaft as the beam is merely supported at two terminals. [ 10 ]

Vertical burden diagram ( VLD )

Let RAv and RDv be the bearing reactions at A and D due to the perpendicular burden

Now taking minute about A.



Besides RAvDv


Vertical Bending Moment Diagram ( VBMD ) :

Bending minute at A

Bending minute at B

Bending minute at C

Bending minute at C

Bending minute at D

Horizontal Load diagram ( HLD )

Let RAH and RDH be the bearing reactions due to horizontal tonss

Now taking minute about Angstrom



Figure 1: Bending minute Diagram

Besides RAH


Horizontal Bending Moment Diagram ( HBMD )

Bending minute at A

Bending minute at B

Bending minute at C

Bending minute at D

Attendant Bending Moment Diagram ( RBMD )

Bending minute at A

Bending minute at B

17396574.54 Nmm

Bending minute at C

17396574.54 Nmm

Bending minute at D

Maximal bending minute, Mb

From tabular array, for burden to be applied bit by bit

Kb and Kt

For shaft stuff EN 8 AISI 1040 steel

Ultimate tensile strength utmm2

Output strength ymm2

From ASME codification,

Select lower limit of above two values of

Sing the cardinal manner consequence,

Substitute above values in equation ( 8 )

vitamin D

3.2.8. Pulley Diameter: [ 11 ]

D ………… ( 9 )


Sing fluid is non organizing a portion of thrust, S.

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Substitute all the values in equation ( 9 ) ,


From the diameter of block, the size of geared yoke is decided by utilizing elecon catalog. [ 12 ]

Sizes of geared yokes are as follows:

ED 500- geared motor to pitch box

ED 4500- cogwheel box to beat

To cut down the dork we are cut downing the velocity by utilizing geared motor and cogwheel box.

In the geared motor the velocity decrease ratio is 1500/48

i.e.31. The maximal velocity decrease is carried out in geared motor. The staying velocity decrease is carried out by utilizing gear box. As the belt velocity is 0.1m/s and pulley diameter is 636mm, the needed revolutions per minute is 3.

Therefore the velocity decrease in geared box is 48/3 i.e. , 16.

The bearing selected from the shaft diameter and push is SN 230 coiling roller bearing ( ZKL bearing ) . [ 13 ]

From ergonomic consideration and human safety some advanced control switches can be used such as

( I ) Pull Cord Switch: Pull cord switch is besides known as Rope operated exigency switch is used as a safety switch to halt the conveyer belt in instance of exigency by drawing the rope.

( two ) Belt Sway Switch: The switch allows the smooth running of the conveyer and protects it from amendss by over rocking which can happen due to uneven burden of stuff, worn out idler roller bearings etc.

( three ) Zero Speed Switch: when any job occurs in the system it will feel the signal and machine automatically stops utilizing this type of switch.

4. Fabrication Aspect:

After design, proper profile of belt conveyer is finalised. Geometric parametric quantities and material choice are choosen from the design. The conveying stuff is mould which is at 180 degree centigrade. Therefore stuff used for belt is pyroshield KEP/800/4 ply. The block and loafers are made up of mild steel stuff and shaft stuff is EN 8 AISI 1040.

From the design, constituents are procured such as geared motor, cogwheel box, geared matching etc. as per demand.


The major constituents and its parametric quantities in the conveyer system are finalised. The designed parametric quantities are calculated by utilizing standard pattern.

The belt breadth is 1200 millimeter. The belt tenseness is 47.908 KN The thrust is holding power of 10HP with 1500 revolutions per minute. The shaft and block diameters are 165 and 636mm severally. The spacing between the loafer is 1 metre.

By utilizing the advanced control switches like pull cord switch, belt sway switch, zero velocity exchange one can command the gesture, cut down the frequence of accidents in belt conveyer system.

6. Terminology:

Cbelt capacity in tons/hr



Hheight of conveyer in m

Fe, Fl









Mbbending minute in Nmm


coefficient of clash


ggravitational acceleration in m/s2


vitamin D


flexing minute


torsional minute

shear emphasis in N/mm2

Greenwich Mean Time: ultimate tensile strength in N/mm2

yt: output strength in N/mm2



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VLD: Vertical burden diagram

HLD: Horizontal burden diagram.

VBMD: Vertical bending minute diagram

HBMD: Horizontal bending minute diagram

RBMD: Attendant flexing minute diagram