Demographic Profile Of The Respondents Finance Essay

After explicating the research methodological analysis and informations analysis techniques in Chapter 3, Chapter 4 will supply the consequences obtained from the study, by supplying the descriptive analysis and the consequences of informations analysis.

This subdivision explains the demographic profile of the respondents surveyed which is presented in Appendix F. It includes gender, race, matrimonial position, age, instruction, salary, employment position, old ages worked, occupation place and classs of merchandise and services. The entire sample is made up of 282 respondents. The consequences showed that among 282 respondents, 55.7 % are male respondents and 44.3 % are female respondents. For the cultural group, it can be categorized into three major groups which are Malay, Chinese and Indian. The consequence showed that Chinese contributes the largest part in this study which comprises 59.9 % of the respondents, followed by Malay which comprises 25.5 % of the respondents whereas 14.5 % of the respondents are Indians.

For the age group, the consequence showed that the bulk of the respondents are aged between 26 to 35 old ages which consists of 37.6 % . The 2nd and 3rd highest proportion of respondents falls into the age group of 36 to 45 old ages and 25 twelvemonth or less with 31.9 % and 17.4 % severally. Meanwhile, there are merely 13.1 % of the respondents are aged 46 old ages or greater. On the other manus, the consequences of the study besides indicated that 40.4 % of the respondents are individual and 57.1 % of the respondents are married. The staying 2.5 % of the respondents are divorced.

In footings education degree, the 4 degrees of making are No College Degree, Diploma/Advanced Diploma, Bachelor ‘s Degree/Professional Qualification and Masters. The consequence of the study showed that 57.4 % of the respondents are qualified with Bachelor ‘s Degree or with Professional Qualification whereas 28 % are Diploma or Advanced Diploma holder. There are besides respondents who hold Masters and No College Degree which are 12.8 % and 1.8 % severally. Furthermore, as shown in the consequence, 48.6 % of the respondents have a monthly wage of RM3,001 to RM5,000. This is followed by 36.9 % and 5.7 % of the respondents who have a monthly wage of RM1,000 to RM3,000 and RM5,001 to RM7,000. While 1.4 % of the respondents have monthly wage of RM7,001 – RM9,000.

The consequence of the study besides showed that most of the respondents are full timer, which consists of 87.9 % whereas the staying 12.1 % of the respondents are portion timer. For the service length, 38.7 % of the respondents have worked with the company for 3 to 5 old ages. Furthermore, there are 26.6 % and 22.7 % of the respondents who have worked with the company for 1 to 2 old ages and 6 to 10 old ages severally. While 7.8 % of the respondents worked with the company for less than a twelvemonth. Meanwhile, merely 4.3 % of the respondents worked with the company for 11 to 13 old ages. Furthermore, most of the respondents which comprise 35.5 % autumn into the occupation place of Low-level Employees and 29.4 % of the respondents hold the occupation places of Executives. This is so followed closely by the place of Manager with 29.1 % . There are besides respondents who hold the occupation place of General Manager or Director or Chief Executive Officer and others which are 5.3 % and 0.7 % severally.

Last, the organisation merchandises or services can be categorized into six group which are electrical & A ; electronics merchandises, chemical & A ; chemical merchandises, fabrics & A ; fabric merchandises, nutrient merchandises, gum elastic & A ; fictile merchandises and machinery & A ; hardware. The consequence showed that 52.5 % of the respondents worked in the class of electrical & A ; electronics. This is followed by respondents working in the machinery & A ; hardware industry and gum elastic & A ; plastics industry with 17.7 % and 13.5 % severally. Following, there are 6.7 % and 6.4 % respondents who worked in the fabrics & A ; fabric and nutrient industry. Meanwhile, the staying 3.2 % of the respondents work in the class of chemical & A ; chemical merchandises. The pie chart for demographic profile of the respondents and general information are shown from Figure 4.1 to Figure 4.10 in Appendix H.

4.1.2 Cardinal Tendencies Measurement of Constructs

Mean and standard divergence of the variables were computed in Appendix G. The average values of all the variables are in the scope of 3.5000 to 3.999. This can be concluded that the variables are more towards agreed. The standard divergences for all of the variables were less than 1 which means that there is less scattering of informations.

Mean and standard divergence of all the questionnaire points were besides computed in Appendix G. The average values of most points ranges from 3.4000 to 4.1000. This can be concluded that these points are more towards agreed and strongly agreed. For standard divergence, all of the points have a standard divergence of less than 1 which means that there is small scattering of informations.

4.2 Scale Measurement

4.2.1 Normality Test

Table 4.1: Casewise Diagnostic

Casewise Diagnosticsa

Case Number

Std. Residual

EE_AVE

Predicted Value

Residual

4

3.060

4.60

3.1927

1.40726

a. DV: EE_AVE

Beginning: Developed for the research

Casewise nosologies was conducted on the 283 samples obtained. If the sample has a standard residuary outside +3 and -3, it would be identified as outliers and necessitate to be removed. From the Table 4.1 above, instance figure 4 was identified as an outlier and therefore should be removed. After taking the outlier, the normality trial of the DV for this research was carried out.

Since the sample size was 282 after the outlier has been removed, which is considered big in measure, Kolmogorov-Smirnov ‘s trial was referred to look into the normalcy of the DV for this research. By mentioning to Postpone 4.2 below, p-value is 0.200 ( P & gt ; 0.05 ) which shows that the normalcy of the DV can be assumed ( Razali & A ; Yap, 2011 ) .

Table 4.2: Normality Test ( After uncluttering outlier )

Trials of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

Standardized Residual

.047

282

.200*

.991

282

.068

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

* . This is a lower edge of the true significance.

Beginning: Developed for the research

4.2.2 Reliability Test

Table 4.3: Dependability Statisticss

No

Constructs/ Variables

Cronbach ‘s Alpha

No of Items

1.

Pay Rise

0.811

5

2.

Stock Option

0.818

5

3.

Training and Development

0.852

5

4.

Pleasant Working Environment

0.827

5

5.

Employee Engagement

0.880

5

Beginning: Developed for the research.

In this research, we used Conbach ‘s alpha to analyze the internal dependability of the 5 concepts. In our study, 25 points have been included to prove the internal dependability of the concepts. Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2004 ) and Sekaran ( 2003 ) , if alpha coefficient is below 0.6, the dependability is weak. Alpha coefficient which ranges from 0.6 to 0.8 is considered to be reasonably strong. If the alpha coefficient is above 0.8, they are considered to be really strong.

Table 4.3 above showed that the alpha coefficients for all 5 concepts are above 0.8. The 5 points used in mensurating wage rise has an alpha coefficient of 0.811. By utilizing the 5 points in the measuring of stock option, the alpha coefficient is 0.818. In add-on, 5 points were used to mensurate preparation and development, have an alpha coefficient of 0.852. For pleasant working environment, the alpha coefficient of the 5 points is 0.827. Finally, the last concept was employee battle with an alpha coefficient of 0.880 which measured by 5 points.

In the nutshell, the internal dependability coefficients for all the 5 concepts reported values above 0.8 severally, which is regarded as really strong. Therefore, we can presume that all the points used to mensurate the 5 concepts for this research are considered stable, consistent and dependable for the intent of farther analysis.

4.2.3 Multicollinearity Test

Table 4.4: Correlation

Correlation

PR_AVE

SO_AVE

TD_AVE

PWE_AVE

EE_AVE

PR_AVE

1

SO_AVE

0.341**

1

TD_AVE

0.141*

0.242**

1

PWE_AVE

0.395**

0.249**

0.305**

1

EE_AVE

0.569**

0.457**

0.344**

0.624**

1

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

* . Correlation is important at the 0.05 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

As shown in the Table 4.4, there is no multicollinearity job among all the IVs in this survey as the highest correlativity between IVs is less than 0.9 ( Wheeler & A ; Tiefelsdorf, 2005 ) , which is 0.624 ( correlativity between Pleasant Working Environment and Employee Engagement ) .

Table 4.5 Coefficients

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

Thymine

Sig.

Collinearity Statisticss

Bacillus

Std. Mistake

Beta

Tolerance

VIF

1

( Constant )

-.796

.248

-3.216

.001

PR_AVE

.385

.054

.316

7.135

.000

.780

1.282

SO_AVE

.265

.052

.218

5.110

.000

.840

1.191

TD_AVE

.131

.045

.122

2.926

.004

.877

1.140

PWE_AVE

.442

.048

.407

9.165

.000

.775

1.290

a. DV: EE_AVE

Beginning: Developed for the research.

In add-on, Table 4.5 illustrates the value of tolerance and VIF for Pay Rise, Stock Option, Training and Development and Pleasant Working Environment. Hair et. Al ( 2003 ) suggested that optimal value for tolerance and VIF have to above 0.10 and below 10 severally to avoid muliticollinearity job. Hence, the consequence above indicated that there is no multicollinearity job in this survey.

4.3 Inferential Analysis

4.3.1 Pearson Correlation Analysis

4.3.1.1 Monetary Incentives and Employee Engagement

Table 4.6 Correlation between Monetary Incentives and Employee Engagement

Correlations

MONETARY_AVE

EE_AVE

MONETARY_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.626**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.626**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.6 shows that the correlativity coefficient between pecuniary inducements and employee battle is 0.626 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . Hence, it indicates that pecuniary inducements have a moderate positive association with employee battle. It can be concluded that employee that awarded with pecuniary inducements will hold higher battle to the organisation.

4.3.1.1.1 Pay Rise and Employee Engagement

Table 4.7: Correlation between Pay Rise and Employee Engagement

Correlations

PR_AVE

EE_AVE

PR_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.569**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.569**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.7 shows that the correlativity coefficient between wage rise and employee battle is 0.569 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . Hence, it indicates that wage rise has a moderate positive association with employee battle. It can be concluded that employee with wage rise inducement will hold higher battle to the organisation.

4.3.1.1.2 Stock Option and Employee Engagement

Table 4.8: Correlation between Stock Option and Employee Engagement

Correlations

SO_AVE

EE_AVE

SO_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.457**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.457**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.8 shows that the correlativity coefficient between stock option and employee battle is 0.457 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . Therefore, this indicates that stock option has moderate positive association with employee battle. It can be concluded that stock option is able to lend to a higher employee battle.

4.3.1.2 Non-monetary Incentives and Employee Engagement

Table 4.9 Correlation between Non-monetary Incentives and Employee Engagement

Correlations

NON-MONETARY_AVE

EE_AVE

NON-MONETARY_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.598**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.598**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.9 shows that the correlativity coefficient between non-monetary inducements and employee battle is 0.598 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . Hence, it indicates that non-monetary inducements have a moderate positive association with employee battle. It can be concluded that employee that awarded with non-monetary inducements will lend higher battle to the organisation.

4.3.1.2.1 Training and Development and Employee Engagement

Table 4.10: Correlation between Training and Development and Employee Engagement

Correlations

TD_AVE

EE_AVE

TD_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.344**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.344**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.10 shows that the correlativity coefficient between preparation and development and employee battle is 0.344 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . This indicates that there is a weak positive relationship between preparation and development and employee battle. Hence, it can be concluded that preparation and development will increase employee engagement towards the organisation.

4.3.1.2.2 Pleasant Working Environment and Employee Engagement

Table 4.11: Correlation between Pleasant Working Environment and Employee Engagement

Correlations

PWE_AVE

EE_AVE

PWE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

1

.624**

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

EE_AVE

Pearson Correlation

.624**

1

Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.000

Nitrogen

282

282

** . Correlation is important at the 0.01 degree ( 2-tailed ) .

Beginning: Developed for the research.

Table 4.11 shows that the correlativity coefficient between preparation and development and employee battle is 0.624 with a p-value of 0.000 ( & lt ; 0.001 ) . This indicates that there is a moderate positive relationship between pleasant working environment and employee battle. Hence, it can be concluded that pleasant working environment will hold a positive impact on employee battle.

4.3.2 Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

Multiple additive arrested development analysis is a method which uses more than one IV to explicate the discrepancy in a DV ( Ghani & A ; Ahmad, 2011 ) .

Table 4.12: Model Summary

Model Summaryb

Model

Roentgen

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Mistake of the Estimate

1

.759a

.576

.570

.45275

a. Forecasters: ( Constant ) , PR_AVE, SO_AVE, TD_AVE, PWE_AVE

b. DV: EE_AVE

Beginning: Developed for the research

R-square indicates the extent or per centum that the IVs can explicate the fluctuations in the DV. Based on the theoretical account drumhead tabular array, the R-square for this research is 0.576. This means that 57.6 % of the fluctuation in the DV ( Employee Engagement ) can be explained by the four IVs ( Pay Rise, Stock Option, Training and Development, and Pleasant Working Environment ) . However, 42.4 % ( 100 % – 57.6 % ) of the fluctuation in the DV is unexplained in this research. In other words, there are other extra variables that are of import in explicating employee battle that have non been considered in this research.

Table 4.13: Analysis of variance

ANOVAb

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1 Arrested development

77.066

4

19.267

93.991

.000a

Residual

56.780

277

.205

Entire

133.846

281

a. Forecasters: ( Constant ) , PR_AVE, SO_AVE, TD_AVE, PWE_AVE

b. DV: EE_AVE

Beginning: Developed for research

Based on the ANOVA tabular array, the F-value of 93.991 is considered big plenty. While the significance value of 0.000 is less than 0.05. Since it is less than 0.05, we can reason that the IVs ( Pay Rise, Stock Option, Training and Development, and Pleasant Working Environment ) will significantly explicate the discrepancy in employee battle in Penang ‘s fabrication industry.

Table 4.14: Coefficients

Coefficientsa

Four

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

T

Sig.

Hypothesis

Supported / Not Support

Bacillus

Std. Mistake

Beta

( Constant )

Monetary_AVE

PR_AVE

SO_AVE

Nonmonetary_AVE

TD_AVE

PWE_AVE

-.796

.690

.385

.265

.558

.131

.442

.248

.065

.054

.052

.059

.045

.048

.464

.316

.218

.418

.122

.407

-3.216

10.547

7.135

5.110

9.501

2.926

9.165

.001

.000

.000

.000

.000

.004

.000

H1

H1 ( a )

H1 ( B )

H2

H2 ( a )

H2 ( B )

Supported

Supported

Supported

Supported

Supported

Supported

a. DV: EE_AVE

Beginning: Data generated by SPSS version 16.0

Harmonizing to the Coefficients tabular array, Pay Rise ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) , Stock Option ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) , Training and Development ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) , and Pleasant Working Environment ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) are all significantly impacting employee battle in Penang ‘s fabrication industry. This is because the significance values of all four IVs are less than alpha value 0.05. In other words, the consequence showed that pecuniary inducements every bit good as non-monetary inducements are strongly related with employee battle in fabricating industry in which Hypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 2 are supported by this research theoretical account.

In add-on, Standardized Coefficients Beta value is used to prove the effectivity of each IV in impacting the dependant variable. In this research, it is found that Pleasant Working Environment ( I? = 0.407 ) is the most effectual factor in impacting employee battle among the four IVs. However, Training and Development ( I? = 0.122 ) is found to be the least effectual factor in impacting employee battle among other IVs.

Harmonizing to the Coefficients tabular array, the arrested development equation is written as:

Y= a + b1 ( X1 ) + B2 ( X2 ) + B3 ( X3 ) + B4 ( X4 )

Where,

X1 = IV 1

X2 = IV 2

X3 = IV 3

X4 = IV 4

Therefore, the equation of the theoretical account employed in this research can be written as:

Employee Engagement = – 0.796 + 0.385 ( Pay Rise ) + 0.265 ( Stock Option ) + 0.131 ( Training and Development ) + 0.442 ( Pleasant Working Environment )

4.4 Decision

Chapter 4 provided the demographic profile of the mark respondent and the information analysis of the information obtained from the mark respondents. Chapter 5 will explicate on the major findings, deductions, restrictions of this research and recommendations for future research.