Conversation Analysis Replies And Responses English Language Essay

The public presentation appraisal is an of import manner of covering with the dealingss between the employer and forces. In this article, there will be an comparative analysis about three pictures during the procedure of face-to-face talk. These videos demonstrate evidently personal manners of participators. And in a sense, the public presentation appraisal and information transportation can be analysed by the related HR or linguistic communication method. Conversation, as the basic and primary usage of linguistic communication, can be taken to be the most familiar prevailing sort of talk and the archetypal sort of linguistic communication use. Early all matter-of-fact constructs can be claimed to bind in closely with conversation. It has been long approached and analyzed and still hot today.

Analysis of given pictures

There are three pictures in this instance. The first scene which can be calld Role-Play A, Manager A and Employee A. In this scene, the specific public presentation of director is not-so-good and public presentation of the employee is all right. The bad facets of the director in the public presentation assessment interview are to a great extent based on the undermentioned facts: there is no grasp with a wholly disregard of the employees ‘ personal state of affairss, the whole procedure is non organised without a smooth, constructive and harmonious feedback.

The 2nd scene, called Role Play B with Manager B and Employee B, the public presentation of the director is all right and that of the employee is not-so-good. During the whole procedure, the director put frontward the unfastened inquiries with an extended pick, the recognition is contributing to the emanation of public presentation appraisal. Of class, there are some points that the director can better. The director can take notice of specific word use on the public presentation appraisal of employee.

As for the 3rd scene which be called as Role Play C with Manager C and Employee C, the public presentation of both sides are to a great extent unsatisfactory. The assessment procedure demonstrates that these two individuals are both non prepared. The side of the director shows the deficiency of the effectual manner to cover with the state of affairs in the public presentation appraisal interview. Consequently, the employee in this procedure did nil related with the apprehension of the director on his personal accomplishments.

Conversation analysis

Levinson ( 1979 ) states that conversation is clearly the archetypal sort of linguistic communication use, the signifier in which we are all first exposed to linguistic communication? The matrix for linguistic communication acquisition. About all the matter-of-fact constructs can be claimed to bind in closely with conversation as the cardinal or most basic sort of linguistic communication use. So surveies refering conversations are rich, and great accomplishments have been made.

( 1 ) Previous surveies and recent development of conversation analysis

As the most typical and common manner of human linguistic communication communicating, conversation attracts many bookmans ‘ attending. Early in the sixtiess, anthropologists, sociologists and sociolinguists began to carry on assorted surveies about conversation.

Among these surveies, the British attack was greatly influenced by M.A.K. Halliday ‘s functional attack to linguistic communication, which in bend has connections with the Prague School of linguists. “ Halliday ‘s model emphasizes the societal maps of linguistic communication and the thematic and informational construction of address and authorship ” ( Goffman, 1976 ) .

Besides Halliday, besides of import were Goffman ( 1979 ) who developed a theoretical account for the description of teacher-pupil talk, based on a hierarchy of discourse units. Other similar work dealt with doctor-patient interactions, service brushs, interviews, arguments and concern dialogues, every bit good as soliloquies. “ The British work has chiefly followed structural-linguistic standards, on the footing of the isolation of units, and sets of regulations specifying grammatical sequences of discourse ” ( Goffman, 1979 ) . Relatively, the American attack has been dominated by work within the ethnomethodological tradition. It emphasizes the research method of close observation of groups of people pass oning in natural scenes, which is strictly empirical and basically inductive. Plants of Halliday ( 1961 ) and Goffman ( 1979 ) are of import in the survey of colloquial norms, turn-takings and other facets of spoken interaction. The American work has produced a big figure of descriptions of conversation types, constructions, every bit good as penetrations into the societal restraints of niceness and face-preserving phenomena in talk, overlapping with the British work in pragmatics.

On the footing of those early surveies, a great figure of results of CA have emerged in recent old ages, such as surveies conducted by Hutchby & A ; Wooffitt ( 1998 ) and other bookmans. However, most of the work merely gives attending to the inactive descriptions of the construction of conversation, but ignores dynamic facets, that is, the talker ‘s interior motives of taking different linguistic communication signifiers to show his feelings and thoughts or the grounds for his illocutionary Acts of the Apostless are ignored at that clip.

Therefore, since the 1990s, CA has developed into a period of dynamic survey which chiefly concerns the talker ‘s societal function and discourse function, the colloquial activities, the participants ‘ communicational ends, and whether the participants observe or violate the Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle. The dynamic analysis of conversation is a new tendency of CA, and it has attracted great attending of linguists in recent old ages and bit by bit go a focal point of survey.

( 2 ) Structural analysis of conversation

The construction of conversations is the major concern in pragmatics. Levinson ( 1983 ) and many other bookmans summarize that there are three chief attacks of analyzing the construction of conversation.

The first attack adopted by text-grammarians who define conversation as the ace sentence is non successful. As we know, discourses? Especially conversations? Are different from sentences. A sentence is a grammatical point to which conversation do n’t belong. In 1970s, some bookmans did research in this manner, but most of them gave up.

The 2nd attack is based on address act theory which was originated by Hymes ( 1974 ) who developed a theoretical account for the description of teacher-pupil talk, are the representatives. They found “ in the linguistic communication of traditional native-speaker school schoolrooms a stiff form, where instructors and students spoke harmonizing to really fixed perceptual experiences of their functions and where the talk could be seen to conform to extremely structured sequences ” ( Labov & A ; Fanshel,1977 ) .

To explicate their theory, Sinclair and Coulthard borrowed the construct of a rankscale from Halliday ‘s ( 1961 ) descriptive units: act, travel, exchange, dealing, and lesson, which are ordered in a hierarchal mode.

The 3rd attack of CA is a strictly empirical attack pioneered by a break-away group of sociologists, frequently known as ethnomethodologists. Among them, American socialists Levinson ( 1979 ) are the most influentialones.

Levinson ( 1979 ) points out that their methods are basically inductive ; their intent is to seek for repeating forms across many records of of course happening conversations. The descriptive units that have been used by those sociologists in depicting colloquial organisation are: bend, brace, and sequence.

The structural analysis of conversation has turned into a dynamic survey since the 1990s.This will be introduced in the undermentioned subdivision.

( 3 ) Dynamic analysis of conversation

Peoples ‘s communicating ends, the interactive effects of conversation every bit good as assorted schemes have been taken into history by bookmans since the 1990s. Thomas ( 1991 ) has of all time said that dynamic pragmatics focuses on people ‘s interior motive, that is, it focuses on why participants choose certain linguistic communication signifiers but non the others to show their feelings and thoughts during the dynamic procedure of interaction. The chief studied subjects of dynamic analysis now include: classifications of discourse functions, matter-of-fact vagueness, colloquial schemes and the type of conversation, etc..

Accomplishments of the dynamic survey of conversation are relatively rare ; consequently, the analyzing theoretical accounts and systems of this new researching field are non mature plenty, which means that the contents and researching graduated tables need to be farther extended.

Politeness and effectual communicating in the appraisal procedure

Since Grice ( 1975 ) put frontward the Cooperative Principle to explicate colloquial implicature, many bookmans have discussed his theory and much betterment has been made. For the inquiries to which Grice ‘s theory did n’t give successful replies, Levinson ( 1979 ) proposed the theories on niceness to assist to work out the staying jobs.

Among these plants, the most influential one is Brown and Levinson ‘s theory cardinal to “ face ” which was foremost used in their celebrated book Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. In this book, “ niceness is interpreted as a scheme ( or series of schemes ) employed by a talker to accomplish a assortment of8 ends, such as advancing or keeping harmonious dealingss ” .


By utilizing those schemes with different effectual maps, the interviewer and the interviewee may show their inquiries and sentiments without doing the other feel embarrassed, particularly for sensitive inquiries refering personal information such as salary and public assistance. In add-on, the public presentation appraisal interview is different from other types of conversation in that it can play a significant function in the income of the employee and the future personal development every bit good as the good relation between both sides. Factors discussed above efficaciously act upon a talker ‘s choice of niceness schemes and linguistic communication use in a serious talk.