The events that occurred on November 22, 1963 have invoked more intrigue than any other blackwash of the 20th century. Fortunately, because of the progresss in engineering, the blackwash of President Kennedy was recorded in movie both with gesture and still picture taking. These in writing keepsakes have been the topic of much research and enquiry. More clip has gone into look intoing the two proceedingss environing the fire of the fatal shootings than any other clip period ( Arnold, 1997 ) . The blackwash of arguably one of the greatest presidents of the United States was seen by 100s of eyewitness witnesss who all qualified as first-person informants. The argument that encompasses the blackwash includes the difference whether President Kennedy was the victim of an blackwash confederacy. As one examines the contradictions, eyewitness histories, and support grounds, assorted the decisions may be reached, the chief impression that Lee Harvey Oswald may hold non been entirely responsible for the blackwash of John F. Kennedy, but acted at the same time with other unknown plotters.
On Nov. 22, 1963 President Kennedy and his married woman were in Dallas, Texas seeking to beef up his political run for his approaching election. While in his motorcade, President Kennedy was fatally shot from a 6th floor warehouse window. As the shootings were being fired, a member of the Secret Service jumped on the dorsum of the auto and plunge
on top of the president, screening him ( Groden, 1993 ) . During the shot, Governor Connally suffered hurts to his right side. Although the Governor was severely wounded,
he survived. At 1:00 p.m. President Kennedy was pronounced dead at the Parkland Hospital. Later that afternoon aboard Air Force One, Vice President Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as President of the United States of America ( Groden, 1993 ) .
As President Kennedy ‘s motorcade turned left onto Elm Street a series of gunfires rang out. Kennedy was struck twice and Governor Connally was struck one time. The populace was outraged that President Kennedy was murdered and wanted an account. President Lyndon B. Johnson set up the Warren Commission, lead by Earl Warren, to head probe. The Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone bravo in the slaying of John F. Kennedy. Harmonizing to the official study from the Warren Commission all three shootings came from the 6th narrative of the Texas School Book Depository ( Kallen, 2003 ) . Therefore, the Commission surmised that Oswald had been wholly responsible.
Lee Harvey Oswald was claimed as the exclusive bravo of President Kennedy. Oswald had been really dissatisfied with the authorities of all time since he had been discharged from the United States Marine Corps. Following his discharge, he moved to the Soviet Union trying to get citizenship and after being denied citizenship, he returned to the United States ( Newman, 1995 ) . The twelvemonth Oswald shooting and killed President
Kennedy, he moved to Dallas, Texas where he plotted the blackwash of the president with legion co-conspirators ( Newman, 1995 ) .
The angle of the slugs caused a batch of contention. After the blackwash, the first official necropsy on the human organic structure took topographic point on President Kennedy. There were two necropsies on President Kennedy, one in Bethesda Naval Hospital, and another in Parkland Hospital in Dallas. In Bethesda, the physicians said that the slugs had entered President Kennedy ‘s organic structure in this upper part of the cervix, and emerged out of the cervix about 2 centimetres above his bow tie ( Kallen, 2003 ) . However, the physicians at Parkland
Hospital said that the back lesions were lower, and had different manners of entry. Parkland physicians found that the slugs entered about 2 centimetres above the President ‘s bow tie, and emerged out of his lower back, about 14 centimetres below the entrance lesion ( Kallen, 2003 ) . With that flight, the gunslinger would hold to hold been situated good above the President, an impossible shooting. The Warren Commission wholly ignored these findings and did non do reference of them in the official study ( Kallen, 2003 ) .
The Warren Commission besides ignored the sentiments of experts every bit good as eyewitness histories and the sounds coming from constabulary wirelesss. The latter of these cogent evidences were the recordings captured on the wireless traffic of the Dallas Police Department. These wirelesss were in the ownership of constabulary officers who were positioned near to the motorcade and adjacent to a railway pace and a grassy mound. The first two gunfires could be heard faintly in the distance while the 3rd was perceptibly louder and presumptively fired closer to where the officers were stationed ( Prouty, 1992 ) . The recordings were analyzed by experts and a joint decision was made. In December of 1963, two of the expert research workers, Mark Weiss and Ernest Aschkenasy, testified before the House Assassination Committee. In their decision Professor Weiss stated that “ with the chance of 95 per centum or better ” the 3rd shooting came from the grassy mound ( Arnold, 1997 ) .
Furthermore, several guiltless bystanders besides confirmed that gunshot came from the grassy mound. These informants included six railway workers who confirmed studies of fume being seen in the country environing the grassy mound instantly after the shot stopped ( Prouty, 1992 ) . Additionally, several looker-ons heard the crisp cleft of a rifle study behind them as they observed the President ‘s motorcade ( Prouty, 1992 ) . Possibly the most compelling history is the description given by Senator Ralph Yarborough who
rode in the motorcade a few autos behind President Kennedy ‘s limousine. The Senator stated that after driving by the grassy mound “ you could smell [ gun ] pulverization on our auto about all the manner to Parkland Hospital ” ( Prouty, 1992 ) .
The common nexus between the blackwash of President Kennedy and Lee Harvey Oswald was Jack Ruby, the adult male who killed Oswald in the cellar of the Dallas Police Department Headquarters. Many people questioned why Jack Ruby shooting Lee Harvey Oswald. Was this a screen up to maintain him from speaking about his portion in this calamity? Ruby was a nightclub proprietor and a local strongman with strong ties to organized offense ( Lindopy, 1992 ) . His associates included Joseph Campisi, a top-ranked
Dallas Mafia member and Carlos Marcello, the caput of the New Orleans offense household ( Arnold, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to eyewitness histories and swore affidavits, Ruby met with these work forces and other Mafia members in several meetings in the period of clip taking up to the blackwash of President Kennedy ( Arnold, 1997 ) . Besides, legion phone calls
including long-distance calls were placed between Ruby and his Mafia associates before the blackwash ( Arnold, 1997 ) . In fact Ruby was so involved with organized offense that he was referred to as “ one of our male childs ” by the Mafia leading ( Prouty, 1992 ) .
When the United States House of Representatives issued their concluding study in the spring of 1964, they reported that the “ logical and likely illation ” of the blackwash of President Kennedy was that the President was killed “ as the consequence of a confederacy ” ( Prouty, 1992 ) . This decision was in direct dissension with the Warren
Commission ‘s given of Oswald as the lone gunslinger. There is strong grounds to propose that the Mafia ordered the decease of President Kennedy as a punishment for tampering with the personal businesss of organized offense. Jack Ruby was merely used as a pawn by slaying the lone suspect.
By 1963, the Kennedy disposal had become much evolved and slightly successful in its efforts to prosecute the Mafia. This was apparent though the Justice Department ‘s victory in directing several Mafia leaders to prison and leveling its control over some parts of its kingdom including illegal gaming and loan sharking ( Lindopy, 1992 ) . President Kennedy ‘s brother, Robert “ Bobby ” Kennedy, was the Attorney General of the United States and mostly responsible for these Federal indictments and prosecutions. Bobby Kennedy could hold overlooked the devastation of organized offense but alternatively chose to aim the Mafia from the highest degrees of its organisation ( Lindopy, 1992 ) .
Additionally, the Mafia had set a case in point of killing or taking from power those opposed to their docket. Examples of this perfidy include the blackwash of Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak, United Auto Workers President Walter Reuther and UAW-AFL President John Kilpatrick ( Lindopy, 1992 ) . Each of these work forces was murdered for opposing the Mafia ‘s programs or talking out against them. Thus the phase may hold been set for the blackwash of President Kennedy.
The 2nd major theory environing the blackwash of President Kennedy involves the United States ‘ primary undercover agent web, the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ) . During the Second World War the Central Intelligence Agency possessed much power. Their policy and determination devising affected about every facet of the war from cardinal military offenses to the edict to drop the atomic bomb on Japan ( Newman, 1995 ) . After the War, the CIA continued be aftering governmental schemes and exercised great power until the failed effort to subvert Fidel Castro ‘s Cuban authorities at the Bay of Pigs. Deeply enraged by this CIA catastrophe, President Kennedy and his advisers decided that Allen Dulles, the Director of the CIA, and other top degree staff must travel ( Prouty, 1992 ) . In
fact, President Kennedy was so enraged by the botched manoeuvre that he vowed “ to shatter the CIA into a 1000 pieces ” ( Prouty, 1992 ) . In November of 1961, President
Kennedy fired Director Dulles and his top Plutos throwing the CIA into a province of semi-disarray ( Prouty, 1992 ) .
Furthermore, President Kennedy was determined to take all United States military forces from Vietnam, efficaciously stoping U.S. engagement in Asia. This move worried the CIA in add-on to several big companies supplying armaments for the war attempt ( Newman, 1995 ) . The CIA felt that while the stoping of the war may hold economic deductions, the chief mistake of this thought was that it would go forth American involvements vulnerable holding no seeable military presence in the Far East ( Prouty, 1992 ) . The CIA was resolute to change by reversal the President ‘s program no affair what the cost ( Newman, 1995 ) . In August through October of 1962, the CIA met with the President and his advisers to try to alter his purposes in Vietnam. When President Kennedy refused to negociate with the intelligence community the phase was set for his blackwash ( Newman, 1992 ) .
After Kennedy ‘s blackwash and despite the overpowering grounds of multiple taws, the intelligence studies spoke merely of Oswald as the lone bravo. This deficiency of information to the populace was the inspiration of the CIA in its effort to cover-up the facts ( Newman, 1992 ) . This cunningly constructed secret plan was carefully monitored by skilled agents who could command certain cardinal aspects of the bureaucratism, the Warren Commission and the intelligence media ( Prouty, 1992 ) . This activity caused J. Lee Rankin, the committee ‘s general advocate to state,
“ Part of our trouble in respect to the blackwash in that they
hold decided that it is Oswald who committed the blackwash.
They have decided that no 1 else was involved ” ( Prouty, 1992 ) .
Possibly the most compelling grounds for the CIA ‘s engagement in the blackwash of President Kennedy was the speedy reversal of Kennedy ‘s policies by Lyndon B. Johnson, the adult male who followed John F. Kennedy in the Presidency. Whether for political grounds or for self-preservation, President Johnson both supported the Warren Commission ‘s findings and reversed the class of Kennedy ‘s Vietnam policy ( Newman, 1005 ) . Possibly Johnson excessively, feared for his life and would non oppose the effectual power of the CIA ( Prouty, 1992 ) . In any instance, a strong statement exists to back up the theory that the CIA was involved in the blackwash of President Kennedy.
There is no serious inquiry that Lee Harvey Oswald shot President Kennedy and Governor Connally. Oswald took a rifle to work, claiming the long bundle contained drape rods ( Semple, 2003 ) . There was no eyewitness to him hiting the rifle from inside the edifice, though a informant saw him from the street and gave a unsmooth description to the constabulary. The rifle was found hidden on the 6th floor. It was the same gun Oswald had ordered through the mail and it had Oswald ‘s fingerprints on it ( Kallen, 2003 ) . The slugs doing the lesion to President Kennedy and Governor Connally were matched to this gun. Boxs used to do the “ sniper ‘s den ” had Oswald ‘s prints on them every bit good ( Aynesworth, 2003 ) . Oswald fled the scene and subsequently shot a police officer who had stopped him for modus operandi inquiring. While in detainment, he told legion easily-discoverable prevarications to patrol inquisitors ( Aynesworth, 2003 ) .
For many states around the universe, November 22, 1963 is merely another day of the month on the calendar. But for America, it represents one of the darkest yearss in the history of this still really immature state. It represented the terminal of America ‘s artlessness. It forced America to wake up, rub its virgin eyes and see the universe for what it truly is: a cold, rough world that we were non ready to cover with. There is no inquiry that Lee Harvey Oswald was straight involved in the shots of President Kennedy and Governor Connally. But
overpowering grounds and contradictions support the theory that the blackwash of President John F. Kennedy was much more so merely a solitary onslaught, giving manner to one of the greatest confederacies of all time imagined and altering America everlastingly.