Colonialism And Freedom Struggle In India History Essay

Khilafat Movement ( 1919-24 ) was a religious-political run launched by the Muslims for holding ownership of the Khilafat-e-Usmania or Ottoman Caliphate and for non giving the Muslim sanctum topographic points travel under the power of the Non-Muslims. ‘Khalifa ‘ is an Arabic word beginning from ‘Khalafa ‘ which means ‘to follow ‘ or ‘to come after ‘ .

During the 1stA World WarA Turkey supported Germany as the state was confronting monolithic jobs. But Germany started losing its district and so does Turkey. TurkeyA had lost most of its district in 1918 by the terminal of the first World War. During that clip the chief quandary was how the allied powers would treatA Turkey, theA Ottoman EmpireA or the Khilafat-e-usmania as most of its district had been occupied in this Movement.

Turkey being a Muslim state, the Indian Muslims thought it was their spiritual responsibility to assist them. The other ground for back uping them was the universe as Ummah which the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of integrity.

Ottoman Caliphate:

‘Caliph ‘ is an Arabic word which means “ a replacement ” or “ a representative ” which emphasizes spiritual authorization for the caput of province. The Islamic system of authorization in which the province regulations under Islamic jurisprudence is known as Caliphate.

To protect the Ottoman Empire from the Western states and to get the better of the Western democratic resistance in Turkey, Ottoman emperor Abdul Hamid II had launched a Pan Islamic plan. This plan expressed spiritual passion and sympathy amongst Indian Muslims.


Following were the ends of the Motion: –

Ottoman Caliphate should be kept secured.

Turkey ‘s territorial harmoniousness should be preserved.

Not allowing the Muslim sanctum topographic points travel under the power of the Non-Muslims.


In India, this was the first religious-political Movement which gathered the common adult male. The Indian Muslims demanded certain precautions from the British and they started pass oning with the other group and the Congress Party. But during that timeline from 1906-1919 political relations was restricted to merely educated people and besides people who had adequate money to save the money involved in the political relations.

However it was due to Khilafat Movement where common adult male gathered and people were on streets protesting. This was the 1st Movement in India to acquire common people involved in the political relations.

Mobilization Capacity of Islam:

Khilafat Movement besides showed the societal control capacity of the Islam amongst the Muslims. It besides conveyed how Islam and Islamic establishments are cherished to the Indian Muslims. Thus it clearly indicated that Islam had had a batch of mobilisation capacity and entreaty for the common adult male in India and elsewhere.

Extra-territorial Attachments:

Another feature of this motion is that it points out the fondness of the Muslims of India based on Islam outside the district. The significance of extra-territorial is that people feel attached to a certain establishments, political orientations, beliefs that may be outside the territorial limitations of their ain states. And these extra-territorial fond regards have ever been really strong in Muslims which are based on Islam.

Concept of Ummah:

The construct of Ummah is that Muslims shacking in any portion of the World belongs to an ideological socio economic category of Islam. It is a community based on the beliefs, cognition and doctrine of Islam. And hence the perceptual experience of Ummah had a batch of Muslims coming frontward during the Khilafat Movement.

The Institution of Khilafat:

The Indian Muslims paid much more attending to Khilafat-e-Usmania which had nexus from the original establishment of Khilafat in Islam. Institution of Khilafat was the 2nd facet which created extra-territorial feelings amongst the Muslims.

The Balkan wars:

If you go back in the history to 1911-12 you will happen the Balkan Wars. This war clearly signifies the strong sentiments of the Indian Muslims for other states. During that period there was a war between Turkey and Italy and Italy was besides assailing Libya. Turkey was confronting monolithic jobs therefore the Indian Muslims sent medical deputation to supply medical aid to the people affected by war. And now the Indian Muslims in 1919 are demoing the same sentiments on the bases of Ummah. Therefore there were a batch of emotions and a batch of support for the ownership of Khilafat Movement. These were some of the grounds why Khilafat Movement is so of import.


The authors and poets in India were concentrating on subjects such as the coevals and the autumn down of the Muslims, this all happened during the first three decennaries of the twentieth century. And their Hagiographas clearly portray the feelings for the saving of Khilafat and the ownership of the Muslims sanctum topographic points. The cardinal function was played by the news media which steer the way of the battle. There were many other subjects by the authors and the poets which shaped the motion and recovered the jobs faced by them.

Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Al-Hilal of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Comrade Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, etc. were the well-known newspapers and magazines which performed their duty to show their hatred. When these newspaper and magazines were demanding the cause of the Muslims, the Allies imposed mortifying footings on vanquishedA Turkey.

After the first World War ended, Turkey had lost many of its districts, it was in this context the Indian Muslims started a motion that is known as the Khilafat Movement.

Protests in India:

Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay now known as Mumbai in July 1919 which shaped the activities of the Muslims sing the Khilafat Movement. Their first Khilafat Committee conference was held in Delhi in 1919 where they used to discourse the issues happening in the motion. In the first conference Congress leaders like Nehru and Gandhi besides took portion. It was due to Congress engagement, the other major political parties united custodies to assail the favoritism with the Muslim community.

Following were the stairss announced:

No Contribution in Victory Celebrations: This was the enterprise taken by the participants of this Conference. As the British had won the 1st World War they were observing their triumph everyplace, India being a portion of the British Empire was on the British ‘s side. So they decided in the Conference to boycott the triumph jubilation to demo choler on the province of personal businesss and to convey their point in more productive mode.

Boycotting British Goods: The 2nd measure which they took is to boycott British goods, the intent of making this was to impact their economic system. By following this British economic system would drop drastically.

Non-Cooperation with the Government: This was the 3rd measure which they took during that clip, the intent of this was non at this period but at the later on phase they may besides originate Non-Cooperation Movement.

The subsequent Khilafat Conference which was an of import 1 was held in Amritsar in December 1919. All the major political parties contributed in this but the high spot of this Conference was that Shaukat Ali and Maulana Muhammad Ali, who were held behind bars for interrupting British jurisprudence in protest of British policies, besides joined the Conference after their release from prison.

Without Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali parts one can non discourse the Khilafat Movement. They used to work with Congress party and besides played a important function in mobilising the multitudes. They were good known as Ali brothers. The Ali brothers with several other leaders went to imprison rather a few times due to determine up the Khilafat Movement and take the Muslims. This emanation happened whenever they were released.

At the terminal of the Khilafat Conference the Congress party decided to work together as there were similar jobs in India which all of them were confronting. For Muslims the Khilafat Movement was their precedence compared to the other issues. Congress thought of uniting up with the Muslims as they were besides holding jobs against the British for the ownership of the Ottoman Empire. Congress and Muslims would hold more effectual motions together instead than working individually as their purpose is to extinguish the British from their state. One of the issues which were faced during that clip was Rowlett Act, 1919.

The Rowlett Act – 1919:

This was a sort of black jurisprudence, whereby the authorities had the power to collar anybody they wanted without giving them any legal installation and the right to appeal. This jurisprudence was meant for any condemnable activities which took topographic point, but really they were intern for the people involved in political activities. This act was protested by both the Hindu and Muslim communities.

The Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April – 1919:

The Jallianwala Bagh was a topographic point in Amritsar where many people of different categories and societies came in order to protest against the Rowlett Act. To this protest the British authorities got highly agitated and ordered the ground forces to kill everyone present at that place. The Gatess were shut and many unit of ammunitions were fired by the British. This slaughter was one of the greatest calamities that India saw. This allowed different political parties to dispute the British authorization.

The Non-Cooperation:

In the December of 1920 the well-known Congress session was organized in Nagpur by Congress leader Mahatma Gandhi. Here Gandhi adopted the non-violent and non-cooperation motion. The first motion adopted by Gandhi was the non-cooperation motion and later a twosome of other motions were launched. The general understanding was that:

Peoples with British rubrics to their names had to return those rubrics, for illustration Sir which was given to the Indians had to be returned.

The educational establishments and tribunals had to be boycotted.

Anyone whose occupation was under the British people had to vacate.

Taxs should non be paid to the British Government.

Peoples vacating from military and constabularies occupations would be decided at a ulterior phase. This was non launched but could be thought approximately subsequently on.

The Khilafat Conference-A Karachi- July 1921:

In July 1921, the Khilafat conference was held at Karachi where there were chiefly Muslim participants who expressed their truenesss towards the Turkish Sultan and the Khilafat. At that clip they had been removed from their district by the British powers. To free foreign forces from the mainland they welcomed the attempts of the Ataturk. At that clip the Ataturk was taking assorted stairss to take the foreign forces from their mainland of Turkey. They felt that something new needed to be encouraged.

The Hijrat Movement 1920-21:

The chief ground of why the Hijrat motion took topographic point was that the Indian Ulama or spiritual leaders thought of India as ‘Darul Harab ‘ where the Muslims were non safe. A certain topographic point or a state where the Muslims are non allowed to transport out their spiritual patterns and activities is known as a ‘Darul Harab ‘ . The Muslim caputs ( Ulama ) said that the Muslims should travel to the nearest safe topographic point that was from ‘Darul Harab ‘ to ‘Darul Islam ‘ . This caused a panic amongst the Muslims in India and as suggested the nearest ‘Darul Islam ‘ was Afghanistan which was Hijrat. A really big figure of lower category people of society left India either on pes or with the aid of bullock carts as the paths to Afghanistan were non developed. The belongingss were sold at really inexpensive rates as they were traveling from their topographic point to a topographic point in hunt of Islam ; a big graduated table of migration of people was seen. At first the Indians were welcomed. Later on the boundary line was closed as the addition in the figure of people could non be sustained due to Afghanistan being a hapless state and its ain jobs it told the Indian migrators to travel back to its ain state. Due to this there were loss of lives and properties of several Muslims. Many Muslims died during this mission. Many of the people moved to Russia ( Soviet Union ) as they had nil left in India. This was the manner in which the Hijrat motion ended as it was all emotion based and non planned based.

The End of the Khilafat Movement:

This was a motion where the Muslims of British India supported the Ottoman Empire to command their holy topographic points but bit by bit the motion died out. The first thing which affected the motion was the Moplah rebellion in Kalicut.

The Moplah Revolt-at Malabar Coast- Kalicut:

The Moplah rebellion started in 1921.The posterities of Arab Muslims were called as Moplahs. In the August of 1921 there was a rebellion against the Hindu landlords because of their barbarous intervention towards them. This was n’t a spiritual issue. The Moplahs were enduring by the actions of the landlords so they revolted against them, but the constabulary supported the landlords. This was projected as a Hindu Muslim issue by the local Hindu Unions. Due to this there was a batch of issue against the Muslims. These issues resulted in a acrimonious relationship amongst the Hindus and Muslims. A negative impact was seen in the Hindu Muslim integrity because of the rebellion. This was a ground for the terminal of Khilafat motion.

The Increase in Violence – 1921:

The 2nd ground to why the motion did non last was an addition in Violence. The Non- cooperation motion started by Gandhi was a peaceable and non violent motion. Sing an addition in violent activities like the Chora Chori incident in Uttar Pradesh, Gandhi decided to stop the Non-cooperation motion. This affected the Khilafat motion as Gandhi ‘s determination to stop the Non-cooperation motion was non consulted with Khilafat motion leaders which therefore created misgiving between the two operative parties. This was another incident which weakened the Khilafat motion.

The Developments inA Turkey:

This was the 3rd ground to why the Khilafat motion ended. The Ataturk who controlled the military service emerged as leader. The powers of the Sultan were restricted. The head of the Grand assembly was the Ataturk. Turkey abolished the Khilafat system. The Indian Muslims were contending made no difference as the leading had changed. This weakened the Khilafat motion in India.


The Hindu Muslim integrity stage was highly short.

It was seen that faith was a manner to mobilise forces and form multitudes.

Extra- territorialism was the footing of the start of the motion.

The Muslims suffered in the Khilafat motion.