Chapter 26: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China
Undertaking One: Stearns
1. For each of the three empires/regions covered in this chapter ( Ottoman, Arab Islamic Heartlands, Qing China ) :
a. Identify the cause ( s ) and consequence ( s ) of specific autochthonal actions and reforms – one complex sentence per specific action/reform.
- Sultan Selim III ‘s debut of the printing imperativeness and his attempts to better the administrative efficiency and constructing a new naval forces and ground forces angered the Janissaries, powerful cabals within the bureaucratism and besides cost him his throne and life.
- Sultan Mahmud II ‘s creative activity of a little professional ground forces broke both the Janissary ‘s and ayan ‘s ( provincial luminaries ) power.
- Legislation of extended legal reforms and announcement of a fundamental law based to a great extent on European paradigms by Mahmud II greatly improved the place of minority spiritual groups, whose function in the Ottoman economic system increased steadily.
- Mahmud II ‘s reorganisation of big subdivisions of society along western lines and 1838 pact with British that removed import revenue enhancements and other barriers to foreign trade soberly weakened the place of artisan as the pact protected autochthonal manufacturers from competition from the West.
- Sultan Abdul Hamid attempted to make order through absolute regulation but his regulation ended in a bloodless putsch supported by the Ottoman Society for Union & A ; Progress ( Young Turks ) whose end was to reconstruct the 1876 fundamental law but immediate jobs such as factional combat, eruption of World War 1 and continued subjection of Arab parts of the heartland stopped them short.
Arab Islamic Heartlands
- With the outgrowth of Muhammad Ali as the swayer of Egypt, the armed forces was westernized that successfully invaded Syria and a modern war fleet built that threatened Istanbul on a figure of occasions.
- However, his efforts to industrialise Europe were blocked by European powers who wanted to stay dominant in the Egyptian market and therefore the limited range of his reforms finally checked his programs for territorial enlargement and left Egypt unfastened to inroads by these European powers.
- The increased production of cotton at the disbursal of nutrient grains and other harvests reduced Egypt to be dependent on a individual export, therefore vulnerable to crisp fluctuations in demand and monetary value on the European markets to which most of it was exported.
- The climb debts of the khedival government and the strategic importance of the canal gave the European powers, peculiarly Britain and France, a turning interest in the stableness and handiness of Egypt.
- Muhammad Achmad ‘s announcement against both the Egyptian and British heathens and his promise to purge Islam of what he saw as superstitious beliefs and degrading patterns led him to gain several triumphs over the Egyptians. ( due to the adept usage of guerrilla tactics, approvals and charming appeals )
- The determination to let the Manchus by the functionaries to go through beyond the Great Wall led to the bold promotion of the Manchus on the Ming Capital at Beijing which was captured by them within the twelvemonth.
- Chinese merchandisers, freed from the limitations against abroad travel of the late Ming, found moneymaking market mercantile establishments overseas from which the net incomes made gave rise to a affluent new group of merchandisers called the compradors specialising in the import-export trade on China ‘s south seashore.
- The worsening Qing Empire led to widespread banditry, exam systems riddled with cheating and money being given to affluent people and non for substructure.
- The Taiping rebellion ( by Chinese provincials ) threatened the Qing dynasty but the organisation of a powerful ground forces by the Qing with the support of the scholar-gentry made the rebellion unsuccessful and forced the Qing to do reforms, the most well-known called the Self-Strengthening Movement.
- The reforms in the Self-Strengthening Movement focused on the debut of Western engineering in the hopes of overhauling the state but had limited success ; China remained an agrarian-based society centered on traditional Confucian idea.
- Further, an internal rebellion led by a group known as the Boxers, who unsuccessfully sought to free China of foreign influenceA allowed aliens to derive even more grants from the Qing and besides weakened the governing party.
b. place the cause ( s ) and consequence ( s ) of specificEuropean/colonial actions and reforms – one complex sentence per specific action/reform.
- Napoleon ‘s triumph over the Ottoman Mamluk lieges in Egypt destroyed the bing local power balance and demonstrated how far the Muslims had fallen behind the Europeans in the capacity to pay war.
- Great Britain supported the Ottomans to maintain Russia from commanding the strategic port metropolis of Istanbul.
- The edifice of the Suez Canal made Egypt an of import strategic commercial and military nexus between the European powers and their colonial imperiums in African and East Africa.
- British General Kitchener sent to set an terminal to one of the most serious menaces to European domination in Africa caused the Mahdist province to prostration and made the British power progress yet once more into the African inside.
- Britain ‘s superior military led to decisive triumph over the Chinese during the Opium War and resulted in the sign language of a series of unequal pacts which in bend weakened China economically, therefore doing other foreign states take advantage of its diminished province and so set up their ain domains of influence at that place.
2. Summarizethe In Depth piece on pages 620-621in 1-2sentences – no more.
The outgrowth of Western Europe as an expansive planetary force radically changed long-standing forms of interaction between civilisations every bit good as between civilisations and mobile peoples.A A It besides basically changed the forms of the rise and autumn of the civilisations.
3. Measure the possible effectivity of the reforms suggested by Liang Qichao in theDocument ” Constructing a New China ” on page 636in 1-2 sentences – no more.
I do believe that the reforms suggested by Liang to “shatter at a blow the despotic and baffled governmental system of some 1000s of years” while still keeping the basic characteristics of Chinese society will work as before the European became the dominant force, China was reasonably much the most advanced state and decidedly at the top. And so, continuing what China had before and regenerating some parts of the Chinese Empire will decidedly assist them last the challenges posed by the industrialised West and make the top.
Undertaking Two: Human Record
Document 74 Sultan Abdul Mejid, IMPERIAL RESCRIPT ( pp.321-23 ) , inquiries 2, 3, 5.
2. Abdul tries to state everyone that everybody will be treated reasonably. This was seen when he says “The revenue enhancements are to be levied under the sane denomination from all the topics of my Empire, without differentiation of category or of religion” . This was besides farther seen when he says “The proceedings of these courts shall be public ; the parties shall be confronted, and shall bring forth their informants, whose testimony shall be received, without distinction” .
3. It seems though Abdul was reasonably concerned about the economic system as he says “A particular jurisprudence holding been already passed, which declares that the budget of my gross and the outgo of the province shall be drawn up and made populace every twelvemonth, the said jurisprudence will be most conscientiously observed” . Asking his people observe the jurisprudence really scrupulously/ really exactly shows that possibly their economic state of affairs is likely non really good.
5. The Imperial Rescript reflects the Western broad thoughts of single freedom and spiritual acceptance when Abdul says “ As all signifiers of faith are and shall be freely professed in my rules, no topic of my Empire shall be hindered in the exercising of the faith that he professes… No one shall be compelled to alter their religion” .
Document 75 Sayyid Jamal ad-Din, LETTER TO HASAN SHIRAZI ( pp.323-27 ) , inquiries 1, 4, 7.
1. Jamal ad-Din starts his missive by stating all things good about Hasan Shirazi. He besides tries to intrust him with a duty stating that he is the lone 1 who can alter the class of action. Jamal refers to Shirazi as “O most mightily spiritual Guide” and besides tells him that “ [ God ] has assigned you to the throne of authorization, and has bestowed on you such domination over his peoples as empowers you to salvage and support their state and attest for them to the ways of those who have gone before.”
4.A He refers to an Englishman who had been granted a grant to open steamer traffic on the river as “a wicked free-thinker” suggesting that he was really hostile to the people of the West.
7.A The missive asks Shirazi to abandon his unpolitical stance by denouncing the Shah. It besides asks Shirazi to non to allow the Europeans control their fundss and economic systems.
Document 76 ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE ARABS, SONS OF QAHTAN ( pp.327-30 ) , inquiries 1, 6.
1.A He considers that the Europeans “unjustly dispossesses [ the boies of Qahtan ] of the fruit of [ their ] work and labour and leaves [ them ] to endure the stabs of hunger.” He thinks that the European are merely here to “inflict all sorts of agony, dictatorship and persecution.” The writer thinks that if the Turks go independent so they will so go autonomous, free and advanced, free and active in the societal organisation of humanity, in contrast to [ us ] .”
6.A He asks the Arab people to be united “with the members of [ their ] race and fatherland.” He thinks that this might be accomplished when they will “not go divided against [ themselves ] harmonizing to the designs and intents of the trouble makers who feign Islam” and when they help one another and non inquire each other what faith they pattern.
Document 56 Emperor Qianlong, EDICT ON Trade WITH GREAT BRITAIN ( pp.244-47 ) , inquiries 1, 2, 3.
1. Qianlong respects China as heavenly when he repeatedly refers to his imperium as the “Celestial Empire”.A Besides, when he says that his imperium “rules over the countless races of the globe” , it seems like he is proposing that China is really of import and cardinal to the other imperiums.
2. He views them both as mere savages. This was seen when he refers to England as a “barbarian land”A and respects everyone from outside their imperium as merely savages.
3. Most the emperors stated grounds are simply that whatever the British are inquiring for, it is merely utterly unreasonable or a “flagrant infringement” of the use of his imperium.
Document 79 Lin Zexu, LETTER TO QUEEN VICTORIA, 1839 ( pp.339-42 ) , inquiries 2, 3.
2. Lin considers that the Europeans trade is really of import for them because they need natural stuffs to feed their machines whereas for China, “the imported goods from foreign states are simply toies which can be easy dispensed without doing any ill-effect” .
3. Lin says that the “Heaven is ferocious with choler and that the Gods are groaning with hurting! It is thereby suggested that [ Victoria ] destroy and plough under all of these opium workss and turn nutrient harvests instead”.A He farther tells Victoria that by abandoning opium, she will bask a long life and be rewarded with a battalion of kids and grandchildren.
Document 80 ZengGuofan, MEMORANDUM TO EMPEROR XIANFENG ( pp.342-45 ) , inquiries 1, 3, 5.
1.A Harmonizing to Zeng, communicating between the emperor and the people of his imperium is the key to maintaining China peaceful and secure.
3. The behaviour of the revenue enhancement aggregators and the manner they harass the people who are unable to pay the revenue enhancement affects their lives as it makes them angry towards the imperium and the emperor.A Further, when the soldiers unnecessarily inquire for payments from the victims who were harassed by the brigands, the Chinese people are affected financially and emotionally. They therefore lose religion in the authorities and will likely non lift to protect the imperium that they despise so strongly in future.
5.A He asks the emperor to order all the governors-general and governors to believe carefully about the Chinese people and to invent ways for their remedy. I do non believe that this solution might hold a opportunity of success as the functionaries will likely merely ignore it.
Document 81 Sun Yat-sen, THE THREE PEOPLE ‘S PRINCIPLES AND THE FUTURE OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE ( pp.345-49 ) , inquiries 1, 4, 6.
1.A Patriotism for Sun is correspondent to a individual who recognizes his parents and ne’er confuses them with strangers.A For him, it means non allowing a alien taking control of another state ‘s political status.A It is directed towards the Manchus.A Sun continues to state that “As for the Principle of Democracy, it is the foundation of the political revolution. In the hereafter to be certain, the barbarous political relations of today will be swept off after the nationalist revolution triumphs” therefore associating the rule of patriotism and democracy together.
4.A Basically what the land rating process is when the landlord sets a lasting monetary value for his land and subsequently, by how much of all time the land monetary value additions, merely that lasting monetary value is what the landlord takes and the remainder is given to the state.A It will profit the support as the rich people will non be able to monopolise the wealth and in the long tally, as Sun says, the cruel revenue enhancement system could be abolished due to this pattern. However, one of its failings is that it still does n’t work out the lifting land monetary values and how that will impact the hapless people.
6. Sun ‘s thoughts are inspired by Western political orientations when he says that he excessively will hold the separation of powers into executive, legislative and judicial. However, it besides draws on Chinese idea and pattern as he says that there will be two other powers in add-on called the scrutiny power and supervisory power.