32. Shivaji practised more than three hundred old ages ago the dogmas of guerilla warfare which guerilla leaders have theorised today. It is unfortunate that no Indian writer of all time developed the aim and analytical manner of composing history. If merely Shivaji had a Sun Tzu or a Kautilya in his tribunal or a chronicler like Edgar Snow or Payne to go forth behind an history of how he planned his tactics and scheme in the hours of crisis and the words of wisdom he uttered in his directives to his commanding officers, we would hold amassed such a immense mass of literature on guerilla warfare.
33. Shivaji belonged to the Bhosle kin of Marathas which claimed descent from the Sisodia Rana of Udaipur[ 9 ]. His male parent, Shahji was the first Maratha head to withstand the Mughal governments, dodging and deceiving their celebrated generals. Shahji became a life illustration to his boy, Shivaji, learning him how the weak could have on out the strong.
34. Shivaji was born in the garrison of Shivneri near Pune in 1627 AD.[ 10 ]It was a disruptive period of acrimonious competition between the Mughals and Shahji, who was being
pursued by his ain male parent in jurisprudence, Lukhoji Jadhav. During this period, Shahji was in service of the Adilshah.[ 11 ]Shivaji stayed in Bijpur for a short period of clip. He provoked the tribunal by neglecting to detect the tribunal etiquette and made a little salaam alternatively of bowing to the land.[ 12 ]His male parent and female parent, Jijabai advised him on affairs of regard to seniors and virtuousnesss of obeisance and cooperation.
Preparation to Meet his Destiny
35. Due to old ages of enduring since her matrimony, Jijabai had developed strong character and a spirit of audacious bravery and rebelliousness, which she was determined to instill into her boy. She had great moral and religious influence on him. If his male parent could withstand the might of the mughals for old ages, why could non Shivaji continue and finish his work? While Jijabai moulded Shivaji to be a austere martinet and far sighted, supervising of formal instruction was entrusted to Dadoji Kondev.[ 13 ]
36. Dadoji Kondev was the director of Shahji ‘s Pune jagir. In 1642, he brought Jijabai and Shivaji from Karnataka to Pune and built Lal mahal for them to shack. He was a individual of extraordinary unity and devotedness to his Masterss. But the greatest influence on Shivaji was of the undecorated nature and beauty of the mountains. He surveyed all unaccessible parts, analyzing paths of communicating, bywaies and paths and vales. He appreciated that this terrain was best to throw out the aliens. While seeing his ain countryside, he came in contact with his countrymen and developed long permanent friendly relationships.[ 14 ]
37. The intelligence of Shivaji ‘s homework for accomplishing swaraj reached the Bijapur tribunal. All of sudden, Shahji was declared as a Rebel by the Bijapur grand Turk. In 1645, at the age of 16, Shivaji took an curse to liberate his countrymen and set uping Hindavi Swaraj. By so he had collected a thousand mawlas under him. Outwardly he continued to profess full trueness to the Bijapur grand Turk and urged that his ain activities were intended to set down anarchy and upset in the hilly parts.
Fort Based Tacticss
38. Shivaji developed garrison based and fort centric tactics. His purpose was to capture as many garrisons possible, that excessively without a battle. Most of the hills and mountains were neglected by the Muslim swayers and they failed to work the terrain. Shivaji occupied Torna, 20 stat mis south west of Pune. Torna fell in Shivaji ‘s custodies with persuasion and craft and without a bead of blood in 1646. Till 1648, Shivaji captured legion garrisons of strategic importance Internet Explorer Kondana ( subsequently Sinhgarh ) , Raigad, Vishalgad, Purandar etc. By the terminal of 1648, Shivaji gained mastery over the parganas of Pune, Mawal and Supa. The Numberss of his followings swelled in rank as yearss passed by.
Clangs with Bijapur
39. Shivaji ‘s first unfastened clang with the Bijapur grand Turk was in 1648, when he occupied Kondana garrison. Till so he had avoided unfastened struggle with the grand Turk, cognizing to the full good that he did non stand any opportunity in unfastened combat. The grand Turk despatched Fateh Khan, a good known general to learn Shivaji a lesson. Shivaji ‘s
meager force of 5000 wholly routed Fateh Khan ‘s forces by busting parties organised by Shivaji and his mawalas. Fateh Khan returned to Bijapur. Thus a shattering blow was delivered on the grand Turk.[ 15 ]
40. In 1648, Shahji was arrested on false charges of cabaling with the Sultan of Golkonda. He was paraded as a mere felon in the streets of Bijapur. He was subsequently reinstated in 1653, but was ne’er allowed to go forth Karnataka. Shahji ‘s practical house apprehension in Karnataka put limitations on Shivaji ‘s activities. Shahji ‘s missive to Shivaji reding him to give up Kondana, put Shivaji in a quandary. Shivaji now, most tactfully displayed servile attitude towards the Mughal Emperor, raising his backing.
41. Shivaji was a pragmatist, moralss of war had no topographic point in his doctrine ; he was contending a war of release for his state and he was acute on procuring his terminals without trouble oneselfing about morality of the agencies. But there were some basic principles of human behavior which did non flash even while covering with the enemy. In his enlargement, he shortly captured Barmati, Indapur, Tikona, Lohgad, Rajmachi, Supa, Javli and Purandar. Javli was subsequently renamed, Raigad in 1674.
42. Slowly but certainly, Shivaji was spread outing his land right under the alert oculus of the Bijapur grand Turk. Backing of the mughal emperor paid good dividends. Shivaji had to collar his married woman ‘s brother for non take parting in the freedom battle on his side. Following the dogmas of guerilla warfare, Shivaji did non loosen up and occupy
himself in uninterrupted activity. The enlisting land of his mawla military personnels increased quickly. Two stat mis west of Javli, he constructed garrison Pratapgad, which control eight base on ballss traversing the scopes into Konkan from Mahabaleshwar and Wai. Shivaji now eyed the fertile Fieldss of Konkan. When in 1656, Mohd Adilshah of Bijapur died, Shivaji ‘s activities increased well.
Confrontation with the Mughals
43. In November 1656, Aurangzeb obtained permission from Shah Jahan to occupy Bijapur. Mir Jumla and Shahistakhan joined him on this escapade. Shivaji assessed that taking on the Mughals entirely was impossible, hence he raided Dabhol in Bijapur district and captured it. He pleaded with Aurangzeb, that he be allowed to retain his spoils of the Bijapur district. Aurngazeb, happy that Shivaji was on his side, permitted that. Aurangzeb was decimating Bijapur and was capturing district after district. Shivaji knew that with the Bijapur grand Turk gone, Aurangzeb would turn against him. He hence launched several foraies in the mughal governed countries. Shivaji captured Junnar in Mughal district and marched against Ahmednagar and gained a batch in footings of Equus caballuss and money. The intelligence of Shivaji ‘s foraies annoyed Aurangzeb and ordered retaliation.
44. Shivaji ‘s ownerships in Pune and Chakan were absolutely ruined. Fortunately, Shah Jahan fell badly and Aurangzeb rushed back to Delhi to take part in the war for sequence. While he was off, he sent a message to Adil Shah to throw out Shivaji. With shrewdness, Shivaji excessively sent embassadors to Aurangzeb and accepted his
overlordship and demanded that Kokan be given to him as a jagir. Aurangzeb granted the jagir of Konkan to Shivaji. He consolidated his additions in Konkan by constructing sea garrisons and raising a navy under Kanhoji Angre. In the Konkan, he got into struggle with the Siddis,[ 16 ]English and the Portuguese over the control of the sea ports. He eventually defeated the Siddis and forged a pact with the English and the Portuguese.
Challenge to Bijapur
45. By the terminal of 1657, Shivaji ‘s little Maratha land was organised on solid foundations. He had 10,000 mawal foot and 10,000 horsed horse. He besides had a significant naval forces. In 1656, Adilshah died and there was a 19 twelvemonth old male child on the throne. To penalize Shivaji, it was decided to dispatch Afzal Khan, a general of high reputation who had valorously fought the mughals late. By Sep 1659, he marched against Shivaji with 10,000 horse and pes withdrawals of mountain guns and projectiles carried on camel dorsums. He tried to win over the Deshmukhs to his side, but to no help. They remained loyal to Shivaji. He caused loot enroute to Wai and desecrated many temples. A meeting was arranged between Shivaji and Afzal Khan on 10 Nov 1659. As Shivaji bowed to Afzal Khan, he embraced Shivaji in a decease clasp. Shivaji holding worn organic structure armor, was non affected. Shivaji tore unfastened Khan ‘s bowels as he thrust his sticker deep inside him.[ 17 ]
Battle of Pratapgarh
46. Shivaji hastened back to Pratapgad and a cannon was fired to signal the foot which was positioned at critical base on ballss to cut off the flying Khan ground forces. In the conflict, Khan ‘s ground forces lost over 3,000 work forces. Immense loot fell in the custodies of the Marathas – 4,000 horses,1,200 camels, 65 elephants and tonss of hard currency and jewelry.
47. The conflict of Pratapgad is an first-class to show how a guerilla commanding officer is ab initio compelled to contend a defensive conflict. The enemy ‘s high quality in weaponries and Numberss had to blunted before change overing the defensive tactics into violative. Shivaji suspected perfidy and was ready to run into the Khan. Shivaji lured Afzal Khan into the inside of the cragged part and annihilated his forces. This good executed operation was the concluding nail in the Bijapur casket.[ 18 ]
Second Front by the Mughals
48. Shivaji challenged the mughal authorization by busting Junnar and Ahmednagar and demanding revenue enhancements from them. The mughal emperor sent Shahitskhan to learn him a lesson. Shahistakhan was beaten back with his fingers cut.[ 19 ]Then Aurangzeb sent Mirza Raje Jaisingh against Shivaji.[ 20 ]Jai Singh was a great soldier, he cast his cyberspace far and broad and invited the Siddis, Adilshah and the English to fall in him against Shivaji. Due to the ternary confederation, Shivaji had to come in into a pact with Jai Singh i.e. Treaty of Purandar. Harmonizing to the pact, Shivaji was to give up 23 garrisons of the 35 held by him and his boy Sambhaji was to continue to Delhi as a courtier in Aurangazeb ‘s tribunal.[ 21 ]Shivaji agreed and himself proceeded to Agra to run into the
mughal emperor. He was kept under house apprehension, from where he escaped. This caused a major embarrassment to Aurangzeb. Shivaji came back to Deccan and reconquered all the lost garrisons.
Shivaji – a Top Guerrilla Leader
49. Shivaji believed in the dogmas of guerilla warfare. He was a rapacious reader and an fervent follower of Kautilya ‘s “ Kut Niti ” . He learnt the importance of terrain in guerilla war in his early old ages and ne’er confronted the enemy in unfastened combat. Few of his Guerrilla tactics can be summarised as below: –
( a ) Use terrain to ain advantage. Shivaji as a male child travelled all over the Mawal part and found the terrain was suited for defying Adilshah and the Mughals. The western ghats from Junnar in the North to Mahabaleshwar in the South have been cut by nature into vales and each vale is fed by a separate river.These vales are called mawals. High hills tower over these vales where garrisons were constructed.
( B ) Be sort to people. Shivaji knew that his greatest strength was the people of his land. He won over the trueness of his people by being one of them. He besides won over his oppositions by his candor and good behavior.
( degree Celsius ) Intelligence is the kernel of all operations. Shivaji really early realised the importance of intelligence. He had a full fledged section of
undercover agents who provided critical information of political, military and societal nature. He had a good oiled system of equestrians and smugglers to circulate information at the earliest.
( vitamin D ) Treat adult females common people with regard. Shivaji was particularly rough on his soldiers who did n’t esteem adult females. He treated the adult females common people of Surat[ 22 ]with regard, when he raided the metropolis. He expected the same from his work forces. Any aside in this facet was met with rough penalty.
( vitamin E ) Religious tolerance. Shivaji was a devout Hindu, but was far from fanatism. He was extremely tolerant and respectful of other faiths. He was ne’er actuated by a feeling of hatred towards the Muslims as a people or the faith itself. The people of his land had complete spiritual freedom His head naval commanding officers were Muslims.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Fort based tactics. Shivaji developed and devised a techinique of defense mechanism and offense through a 100s of garrisons as a necessary adjunct of guerilla methods adopted by him. There are three lines of distinguishable garrisons in Maharashtra which can be recognised even in present twenty-four hours. The chief garrisons are on the top of the Sahayadri scope ; so there are two chief lines of them, one on the eastern and other on the western goads of the mountain ranges. In add-on, some sea garrisons were constructed by Shivaji on unaccessible stones near the sea seashore as a counter to foreign nautical powers. Sindhudurg, Vijaydurg, Kolaba and Suvarnadurg are some of his major sea garrisons.
( g ) Strict subject. Shivaji maintined a high criterion of subject in his ground forces. Whatever loot was obtained by the ground forces during the runs had to be deposited in the exchequer. Khafi Khan, a critic of Shivaji writes, ” He made it a regulation, that whenever his followings went looting, they should make no injury to mosques, Book of God or adult females of any one. Whenever a transcript of Quran fell into his custodies, he treated it with regard and gave it to some of his Muslim followings. ”[ 23 ]
( H ) Guile. Shivaji was a maestro head in bluffing his enemies. Afzal Khan fell into his trap and paid with his life. At the besieging of Panhala, Siddi Jauhar was lulled into inaction by a promise of give uping the garrison.[ 24 ]Bahadur Khan was befooled by him as he was convinced of a entry of a request seeking dialogues and forgiveness by the emperor
( J ) Speed, Surprise and Audacity. Shivaji was a adult male of terrific velocity and mobility, which helped him to derive surprise. Cipher could cognize where he would be the following twenty-four hours. He was ever on the move, avoiding battle with the better equipped and numerically superior enemy. He followed the rule of surprise to hassle the enemy, when he was non prepared to run into him. Shivaji was bold and unafraid and led his work forces personally on distant and parlous runs.
50. Shivaji was a benevolent swayer, a broad and a constructive decision maker. If out of nil he could carve out an independent land against formidable enemies, it was because of his resolved honestness of intent, audacious bravery, relentless chase of a high aim, military foresight and sharp diplomatic negotiations. It is unfortunate that, he was ever at a province of war and died in the prime of his glorification. Ramdas called him ‘Sarvadnya ‘ – Godhead of all scientific disciplines.