The period of Reconstruction was marked by reconstructing of a fractured substructure after the Civil War which left the United States broken and uncertain of its future life. One of the most of import programs of the new authorities was to follow Torahs and policies which ensured that late emancipated enslaved black adult females and work forces would hold the same civil rights as white people. However, there were legion slaughters of black people in the South of the United States organized by white people.
This paper touches upon the historical events which took topographic point during Post-Reconstruction epoch, viz. lynching and the place of black adult females in that period.
Lynching DURING POST-RECONSTRUCTION ERA
Lynching is considered to be “ an American calamity ” .
Definition of the word lynching. Lynching is a non-legal action when a rabble carries out an act of force such as hanging or combustion.
Lynching epoch lasted “ approximately the five decennaries between the terminal of Reconstruction and the beginning of the Great Depression ” . During that period there were 2,018 incidents of lynching “ in which at least 2,462 Afro-american work forces, adult females and kids ” were killed in the appreciation of southern rabble of Whites. Although it is known that some lynchings and mob violent deaths took topographic point before 1880 when the inkinesss were enfranchised, the extremum of rabble force and racism was fixed in 1890. ( Tolnay, Beck 17 )
It is known that after the Civil War the authorities of the southern provinces forced into application tribunal system and statute law that gave legal protection to the former slaves. However, this did non halt the white people from lynching hapless inkinesss. It was a so called rite of plantation justness. The nature of lynching was simply wild. Any black adult female or adult male could be accused of any muss or misbehaviour at any clip. Mobs who committed lynching were organized. Lynching events were advertized in the intelligence. The leaders of this events and local politicians sometimes even were at the caput. In order to do a horrifying atmosphere, lynchings included anguishs and taking apart. ( Chesnutt )
Mike Baker wrote in his article that the metropolis of Wilmington “ flipped from a black bulk to a white bulk in the months ” after the force of lynchings took topographic point. At that clip about 60 inkinesss were killed and about 2,100 inkinesss escaped. Subsequently there were the same actions in such metropoliss as Atlanta ( in 1906 ) , Tulsa ( in 1921 ) , Rosewood ( 1926 ) . The white leaders encouraged the North Carolina leaders to follow their illustration motivating fright in the inkinesss. ( Baker )
BLACK WOMEN ‘ S POSITION IN THE PERIOD OF POST-RECONSTRACTION
Throughout the history of the United States black adult females were oppressed by non merely category geographic expedition and white domination but besides by male domination. “ In the system of bondage which was developed in the United States and abolished in 1865 ” , Afro-american slave adult females were despoiled really frequently. It was a legal action. They were raped by their “ white Masterss, their immature boies, the employees of their Masterss ” who oversaw them at Southern plantations. ( Smith 6 )
This subjugation continued even after the abolishment of bondage.
Black adult female who were slaves ever fought against colza by their white proprietors. ( Sizer )
There are a batch of documented histories which give information refering legion rebellions of black adult females which were manifested in toxic condition of rapers, firing their houses, and killing the slave proprietors. It is known there was an anti-rape motion organized by the black adult females at the terminal of the 19-th century which was besides known as the anti-lynching motion. ( Pfeifer )
Harmonizing to the historical information, during Post-Reconstruction white people from the Southern portion of the United States wanted to reconstruct their control over the black people. They established a system of lynching black people including adult females and kids when they “ got out of line ” and did non follow with their regulations. Lynching represented a sexualized signifier of killing black people. ( Lasley )
Very frequently the verification for lynching black work forces was the fact that they raped white adult females. So, many white adult females from the southern provinces supported lynching attempts. They did non desire to accept the fact that sexual force towards them was the ground of sexual force to the black adult females. As a consequence, when the black work forces were lynched they were frequently tortured before hanging and being publically castrated, the black adult females were frequently raped foremost before killing. ( Smith 6 )
The historian Rayford W. Logan called lynching the American Dark Ages.
BLACK WOMEN ‘S PROTEST AGAINST LYNCHING
Harmonizing to some historical informations, the black adult females were the first to demo protest against “ the offense of racially motivated lynching ” . In 1920, they took an active portion in support of Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill which was sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ) . Although there were some other efforts of anti-lynching groups to reconstruct justness, Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill was the first anti-lynching measure to be voted by the Senate. There were some other organisations which fought against lynching and racism in the United States. The Anti-Lynching Crusaders was one of them. It was founded in 1922 with the purpose to raise money for publicity of the Dyer measure and bar of lynching in the state. The motto of this organisation was A Million Women United to Stop Lynching. ( Hall 165 )
In decision, it is necessary to state that in the Post-Reconstruction South lynchings were the ways for keeping political and societal laterality by the Whites over the black people. Lynching besides had another significance. It was the manner for the white Americans to show their hatred and indignity for the representatives of other races and civilizations. It is known that “ in the Post-Reconstruction South colza was inseparable from lynching ” . To protest this black adult females organized anti-lynching motions such as Black Women ‘s Club Movement. Ida B. Wells investigated more than 700 lynchings and proved the fact that most of the accusals were incorrect. She stated that “ the black male raper myth provided a flimsy screen for the care of the white domination ” . ( Moorti ) Of class, these awful evens have already left grade in the history of the United States and will ever remind our people of human force and hatred.