Aviation History And Indian Civil Aviation Engineering Essay

The term air power means the art or scientific discipline of winging. In this faculty, the scholar will be able to understand how air power came into being.

Aviation applies to the manner of travel provided by the air hoses as bearers of riders, luggage, lading and mail are an built-in portion of the entire transit system.

History of Global Aviation

History of air power refers to the history of development of a mechanical flight, the first effort in kite powered and gliding flight, to powered heavier than air supersonic and space travels.

In 1903, two American brothers, Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright, invented the universe ‘s first successful aeroplane. It was the first controlled, powered and sustained human flight, which was heavier than air. The Wright fusss besides invented a winging machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. They were the first to contrive aircraft controls that made fixed flying flight possible.

The universe ‘s first air hose was Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft ( DELAG ) . It was founded and manufactured by Zeppelin Corporation in November 1909 with the aid of the authorities and operated dirigibles. The five oldest non-dirigible air hoses that still exist are:

Australia ‘s Qantas

Netherlands ‘ KLM

Colombia ‘s Avianca

Czech Republic ‘s Czech Airlines

Mexico ‘s Mexicana

KLM foremost flew in May 1920 while Qantas was founded in Queensland, Australia in late 1920.

Now-a-days, an air hose provides conveyance services for riders and cargo. They operate utilizing recognized certification or licence. Some air hoses posses their ain aircraft and some rental it. Some air hoses even form partnerships or confederations with other air hoses for common benefit.

Airlines differ from the one transporting mail or lading to full service international air hoses runing 100s of aeroplanes. Airline services are categorized as intercontinental, intra continental, domestic and international.

Development of Indian Civil Aviation

The development of Indian civil air power took topographic point in 1932 when Air India was started as cargo line drive. Later, in 1933 TATA air hose, subsequently called as Air India, became the first Indian rider air hoses. In India, boulder clay tardily 80 ‘s there was no competition in the air hose market and national air hoses were the lone participants. The deficiency of competition ensured public sector monopoly, it resulted in low service criterions and high monetary values.

In 1990, unfastened sky policy for air lading was announced. In 1994, air corporation act was revoked that paved the manner for constitution of Jet Airways and Air Sahara.

In early 2000 ‘s, Indian air power sector started incorporating with planetary industry. The Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible for fixing the national policies and programmes for opinion and developing the Civil Aviation in India. It is besides responsible for affairs refering to air power ; from, to, via, within India and Indian registered aircraft.

The Minister of State for Civil Aviation is in charge of the ministry. The caput of the ministry is the secretary and is assisted by an extra secretary and fiscal advisor, three articulation secretaries, seven officers of the degree of Director / Deputy Secretary / Financial Controller and 10 officers of the degree of Under Secretary. It is located at Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan, Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi.

There are three classs of organisation that comes under the scope of the ministry. They are as follows:

Autonomous/Attached Organizations

Directorate General of Civil Aviation ( DGCA ) : This is an Indian governmental bureau oversing civil air power. It investigates about all the accidents and incidents that take topographic point. Its chief aims are:

To supply existent aircraft enrollment that is given in the enrollment codification. For illustration, in the enrollment codification VT- EJK, VT is given by ICAO as it represents the nationality while EJK is the existent aircraft enrollment codification given by the National Aviation Authorities ( NAA ) .

To supply path licensing

To publish air worthiness enfranchisement, which involves declaring the aircraft as airworthy and that it can be taken to the skies.

To implement the policies and processs laid down by International Civil Aviation Organisation ( ICAO ) .

To work in close affair with ICAO and other NAA.

To guarantee airdrome and aircraft security.

Bureau of Civil Aviation Security ( BCAS ) : This is an affiliated office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. It lays down the security criterions that need to be followed before get oning the aircraft. It besides takes attention of anti-sabotage with regard to civil flights in India.

Commission of Railway Safety: This organisation deals with affairs related to the safety of rail travel and train operation. It is charged with certain legal maps as laid down in the Railway Act.

Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi ( IGRUA ) : This organisation was set up to better the flight criterions and land preparations of commercial pilots.

Air Carriers

Air India: It is India ‘s national air hose.

Indian Airlines: It is India ‘s premier air hose and is now renamed as Indian.

Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. : It is India ‘s prima chopper company, known for its dependable chopper operation.


Airports Authority of India ( AAI ) : This organisation manages and operates all the national and international airdromes in India. It was formed with a position to increase the incorporate development, enlargement and modernisation of the operational, lading and terminal installations at the airdromes. To overhaul all the airdromes in order to run into the international criterions AAI took assistance from GVK and GMR.

GVK is a diversified concern unit, which focuses on the undertakings related to the airdrome substructure and urban substructure. It besides has a important presence in cordial reception, services and fabricating sector.

The GMR Infrastructure Limited company financess all the capital demands of assorted substructure undertakings in the main road and airdrome concern. This is an substructure keeping company and it undertakes the development of assorted substructure undertakings through assorted subordinates.

The Story of National Carriers: Growth and Challenges

National air hoses are owned and operated by the authorities. Air India and Indian Airlines ( Indian ) are the two Indian National Carriers.

Air India

India ‘s national flag bearer air hose is Air India. It flies worldwide transporting riders and cargo. In 1932, J. R. D. Tata founded Tata Airlines. It was subsequently converted into a public company under the name of Air India in August 1946.

In 1948, Air India International Limited was formed. It provided international services with hebdomadal flight from Mumbai to London via Cairo and Geneva. In early 1950s, the Government decided to nationalise air conveyance due to deteriorating fiscal status of assorted air hoses. Subsequently in 1962 the word ‘International ‘ was dropped and Air India became the first all-jet air hose.

Air India expanded its service to topographic points like Shanghai, Los Angeles and Newark in the twelvemonth 2000. In the mid 2004, it launched a low cost air hose called Air India Express. This air hose connected some metropoliss of India with the Middle East, Southeast Asia and the Subcontinent. It started its international operations from Bangalore and Hyderabad and besides included non-stop flights from Ahmedabad.

In the twelvemonth 2007, the Indian Government announced the amalgamation of Air India and Indian Airlines, and a new company named National Aviation Company of India Limited ( NACIL ) was established.

Now, Air India is administered as a portion of the National Aviation Company of India Limited. It is the 16th largest air hose in Asia and serves about 44 finishs worldwide and serves about over 100 metropoliss with the assistance of its attached bearers. It is expected to fall in the Star Alliance, the universe ‘s largest air hose confederation, in 2010.

The assorted types of aircrafts Air India operates include Airbus A310, Boeing 747, Boeing 747-300M, Boeing 747-400, Boeing 777, Boeing 777-200ER, Boeing 777-200A, Boeing 737-800 and Boeing 767-300ER. It has expanded its fleet by investing 22 aircraft – four B777-200ER, five B747-400s, one B747-400 Combi and 12 Airbus 310s during the recent old ages.

Air India besides provides service through code-shared flights. The air hose operates from two of import bases, that is, Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai and Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi. Air India ‘s chief central office is in Mumbai.

Air India ‘s mascot, the Maharaja, is a turban clad king with over sized mustache and a royal frock. He is the most recognizable emblem of Air India. Refer to Figure 1.1.

Fig. 1.1: Air India ‘s mascot

In 1946, Maharaja made his first visual aspect in the air hose ‘s advertizements. Maharaja has completed about 62 year and has become the most recognizable mascot all over the universe.

Air India ‘s old logo was a Centaur, a conventionalized version of Sagittarius. It symbolised motion and velocity. The configuration was selected as logo because it intended as an allusion to the air hose ‘s original long distance paths with Lockheed Constellation aircraft. The logo of Air India is every bit shown in Figure 1.2.

Fig. 1.2: Air India ‘s old logo

After the amalgamation with Indian Airlines the logo has changed. The new logo contains a ruddy colored winging swan with the Konark Chakra in orange, placed inside it. The swan has been modified from Air India ‘s logo and the Konark Chakra is the reminiscent of Indian ‘s logo. Mention to Figure 1.3.

Fig. 1.3: Air India ‘s logo

Indian Airlines or Indian

Indian Airlines ( IA ) has changed to Indian, but some people are still non cognizant of this name alteration as Indian Airlines has established a strong trade name name. This air hose is Delhi based and wholly owned by the Indian authorities. It is administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation.

Indian Airlines came into being with the passage of the Air Corporations Act 1953. Eight private planes were nationalised during this clip and Indian Airlines inherited a fleet of 99 assorted types of aircrafts. It used to supply service within the state and besides to the neighbouring states within Asia.

Due to nationalization, Indian Airlines started modernization in the Indian civil air power industry. In 1964, a pure jet airliner, Sud Aviation Caravelle, was introduced. Since so uninterrupted upgradation in the fleet has been traveling on.

Indian Airlines to the full owns the Alliance Air subordinate and has a fleet of about 130 aircrafts. The air hose operates from three of import bases, that is, Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi and Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata. It provides services to about 76 finishs covering Singapore in the E to Kuwait in the West.

The assorted types of aircrafts Indian Airlines operates include Airbus A300, Airbus A320, Airbus A319, Boeing 737, Dornier Do-228, ATR-4, Airbus A319, A320 and A321.

As of 2005, Indian Airlines was the 2nd largest air hose in India after Jet Airways while Air Sahara controlled 17 % of the Indian air power industry. ModiLuft and East-West Airlines discontinued their flight operations but the entry of several low cost air hoses such as SpiceJet, Air Deccan and kingfisher continued to give competition in the market.

In 2007, the Government of India approved the programs of amalgamation between Indian Airlines and Air India. The two air hoses officially became one organic structure by runing under the name Air India on 15 July 2007. A new Boeing 777-200LR with the new logo of the incorporate air hose, that is, Air India ‘s logo, was introduced. The old logo of Indian Airlines is every bit shown in Figure 1.4.

Fig. 1.4: Indian Airlines old logo

The aim of Air India and Indian air hoses amalgamation is:

Better use of aircraft fleet, crew, substructure and technology and care installations.

Offer more infinite for rider and lading transit.

Expand their web world-wide.

Cost cutting on duplicated paths and duplicated disbursals.

Offer more flexibleness to riders by offering broad picks of flights and connexions.

India has the universe ‘s fastest turning air hose industry. However, there were assorted challenges faced by the Indian air power industry. These challenges were attributed to the recent times. Earlier the conditions were rather different. The Indian national bearers had a distinguishable advantage over other as air power sector in India was more or less regulated monopolised sector. The Indian skies were non blindly unfastened to anyone desiring to wing to India, from India or within India. So it can be said the challenges faced by the national bearers are of really recent beginning and as experienced by all bearers in the air power sector.

The challenges faced are as follows:

Stiff competition following globalization, liberalization and deregulating.

Drastic addition in fuel monetary values resulted in hiking in airfare. Therefore, ensuing in a diminution in rider traffic.

New entryway in the market such as, Jet Airways and Kingfisher Airlines has pushed Air India to the 3rd topographic point in India in footings of market portion.

High cost of operation due to inefficient airdrome substructure.

Due to ups and downs in the Global economic scenario and hard currency crunch, assorted issues have hampered air hoses operations and slowed down air hoses growing.

Withdrawal of all authorities compulsory orders coercing all authorities functionaries to wing by the national bearer has hit the national bearers concern.

The Rise of Private Carriers

The yearss of monopoly have vanished due to deregulating and liberalization. This has resulted in the entry of many private bearers such as Kingfisher, Spice Air, Jet Airways, GoAir and many more in the Indian air power scenario.

With the reaching of so many bearers both in the international and domestic sectors, competition has become broad unfastened. It issues an unfastened warning that in the context of today ‘s world, it is non the endurance of the fittest but merely that of the professional.


History of air power refers to the history of development of a mechanical flight of yester old ages, the first effort in kite powered and gliding flight, to powered heavier than air supersonic and of today.

Airline provides conveyance services for riders, luggage, lading and mail. They operate utilizing recognized certification or licence.

The development of Indian civil air power took topographic point in 1932 when Air India was started as cargo line drive. The Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible for fixing the national policies and programmes for opinion and developing the Indian Civil Aviation. The ministry is divided into three classs, Autonomous/Attached Organizations, Air Carriers and Airports.

Air India and Indian Airlines ( Indian ) are the two Indian National Carriers. Air India is India ‘s national air hose and Indian Airlines is India ‘s premier air hose. Indian Airline is renamed as Indian. J. R. D. Tata founded Tata Airlines, which was subsequently converted into a public company under the name of Air India in August 1946. Indian Airlines came into being with the passage of the Air Corporations Act 1953. Both these air hoses were merged and a new company named National Aviation Company of India Limited ( NACIL ) was established in 2007.

Due to deregulating and liberalization the yearss of monopoly have vanished ensuing in the entry of assorted private bearers in the Indian Aviation scenario.


Explain the history of planetary air power.

Describe development of Indian Civil Aviation.

Describe the Air India logo.

Describe the assorted challenges faced by the Indian air power sector