Aspects in the design

Introduction

For the class Master of Engineering in Maintenance and Asset Management the pupil has to compose a concluding thesis. My thesis is about the design methodological analysis for diesel generators sets on board of naval ships.

Company description

The thesis will be for the Defence Materiel Organisation ( DMO ) , subdivision propulsion. This subdivision is responsible for the constituents: Diesel engines, gas turbines, gear boxs, shafts and status monitoring used on board of vass from the Royal Netherlands Navy ( RNlNavy ) . The subdivision propulsion writes the demands for new constituents and gives proficient support for undertakings and jobs during development.

Background information

Diesel Generators provide the necessary power for all electrical systems on board of a ship. This could be computing machines, fire battle pumps, rudders, heavy weapon and in some instances the ships propulsion. Diesel generators should run into some particular demands because the ships are used during NATO operations. One specific demand for illustration is that the power frequence must be 60Hz in position of 50Hz what is more common used on shore in Europe. For war ships there are besides daze and noise demands to diesel generators. All these demands causes that standard Diesel generator sets can non be used and most of the clip are custom made physique.

At the other manus it becomes more common to utilize civilian constituents on board of the naval ships which are modified by the industry to run into the military demands. It is besides seen that manufactures combine several criterion constituents to run into the military specifications. In this state of affairs there is ever a hazard of design jobs.

In two types of ships from the RNlNavy there are besides combined diesel generator sets which have several jobs such as bearing failures in generators. Extensive probes found that the bases for these jobs are the design of the diesel generators sets. These probes will be used as a start for the thesis.

With this thesis I will explicate a design methodological analysis. This methodological analysis will give a sequence of stairss that should be followed to come to dependable diesel generator sets. As an illustration a basic design rhythm [ 17 ] is presented in figure 1.

This is a new facet for the DMO where it is more common to stipulate functional and specific specifications for buying diesel generators.

The range will be focused on Diesel generators sets used for naval ships at the RNlNavy with a power scope from 200 to 2000kW.

Confidentiality and Main contractor

At the minute of composing the thesis proposal it is non clear if the thesis topic is confidential.

The chief contractor from the Defence Material Organisation is the caput of the subdivision Propulsion KLTZT J.P. Spruit.

Description of thesis job

Diesel generators from the LCF and HOV vass

The diesel generator sets on board of the Lucht Commando Fregat ( LCF ) and Hydrografisch Opnemer Vaartuig ( HOV ) had several amendss to the Diesel generators. Both sets are different designed and have different failure mechanism.

Probes done by Technofysica ( Barendracht ) , Dame Shelde Nieuwbouw ( vlissingen ) , Oliveira ( Druten ) and the DMO gave some penetration what could be the ground for the different failures. The probes vary from vibration- , laser- and tenseness measurings to Operational Deflection Shape ( ODS ) and temperature measurings. Despite some probes are still traveling on there are a few chiefly decisions.

Failures on the LCF frigates

The LCF Diesel generators are build by MAN ( UK ) with a Paxman 12VP185 2165kW at 1800 revolutions per minute Diesel engine and an AVK DIDBN130/124 1650kWe generator. The Diesel engine and generator are coupled by a Vulkan Vulastik L40D8 yoke and the Diesel engine and generator are fixed to each other with a big bell house. Further the Diesel engine and generator are resilient mounted on a bomber frame and the bomber frame is besides resilient mounted to the ships hull. This is called dual resilient mounted. The failures where chiefly to the Diesel engine such as, crankcase detonations and cavitation eroding on the shaft bearings. The generator besides suffers from bearing failures. High quiver degrees ( above 20 mm/s ) caused clefts in the chilling system.

The dual resilient climb of the diesel generator sets causes little misalignments during operation. These misalignments addition which consequence in higher quiver degrees. The Diesel generator besides operate near a resonance status because the natural frequence for bending of the Diesel generator around bell lodging in perpendicular way is about 30-32Hz which coincides with the 1st fire rate order of the Diesel engine. Further the diesel generators are capable to deliverer 1600kWe but in most instances the engines are merely loaded at 40 % . This causes boundary lubrication ( metal to metal contact in the country of the extremums of the sliding surfaces ) in the big terminal bearings [ 6 ] . Both are design issues.

Failure on the HOV ‘s

The HOV Diesel generators are build by Pon Power ( Papendrecht ) and are a combination of a Catapilar 3412C DI-TA 590 ekW Diesel engine and an AVK DSG 74 M2-4W 875kVA generator. The Diesel and generator are coupled by a Centamax CM6600-SCB 72 SAE18 ” yoke and the Diesel and generator are besides fixed to each other with SAE J617 bell lodging. The Diesel and generator are fixed to a bomber frame. The bomber frame is resilient mounted to the ships hull by agencies of six resilient saddle horses. This is called individual resilient mounted. The failures are chiefly to the generator bearings. The quiver degrees are non high, around 10 mm/s [ 1 ] .

First decisions are that sub frame is non stiff plenty, with the consequence hat quivers generated by the Diesel engine are transmitted to the generator. Besides the bomber frame deforms which causes besides distortions in the generator lodging. Because of this distortion the clearances between the bearing and bearing lodging is jumping. This causes fretting corrosion and the difficult atoms from the fussing corrosion amendss the race manner of the bearings which result in bearing failures. Probes are still in advancement.

Alterations to the frames and other apparatus of the Diesel and generator should forestall future failures. The alterations will be analysed with computations.

Chiefly literature survey

A chiefly literature survey showed that probes to jobs and planing of new merchandises are most of the clip supported by FEM ( Fined Element Analysis ) . Disadvantage of FEM analysis is that with complex theoretical accounts a batch of clip is spend on pre-processing, computation and station processing [ 8 ] . Besides the theoretical accounts have to be validated and calibrated so that the theoretical account correlative with the existent universe. One survey besides proposes a design methodological analysis where correlativity is done by quiver measurings [ 9 ] . Such testing is of class possible when paradigms are build. As we see at the current Diesel generator industries, paradigms are non build. This could hold several grounds, such as figure of merchandises is low, non plenty development clip or money.

Further a batch of probes are done to work out one design facet of Diesel engine [ 12 ] or the diesel engine as a hole [ 11 ] . No mentions where found for a general design of complete Diesel generator sets but merely common design regulations. But as I learned from the chiefly literature survey, most failures are design related and could be solved by a combination of FEM analysis and measurings [ 13 ] .

As an illustration a more elaborate design procedure [ 18 ] is given in figure 2. As can be seen in the figure, in each stage there are several stairss to be taken. There are a batch more design methods presented in mention [ 19 ] each with a different attack such a designing for production, or more economic or design for life rhythm. But in general they all have the stages, Defining, Formulate solutions, Testing or Modelling and Implementing.

Thesis chief and sub inquiry

With the thesis I will further analyze the current amendss and will look into where and how in the design procedure the failures could hold been prevented. The chief inquiry and sub inquiries will give penetration into design procedure of the LCF and HOV and will assist to come to a design methodological analysis to develop dependable Diesel generator sets. The chief inquiry and the sub inquiries are:

What are the design stairss for Diesel generator sets in the scope from 200 to 2000 kWe for the Royal Netherlands Navy to buy dependable Diesel engines?

Sub inquiries:

  1. Which dependability should the Diesel generators have?
  2. What are the causes from the failures from the HOV and LCF and how where they investigated?
  3. How was the design procedure of the HOV and LCF?
  4. What are common design methods and demands for developing diesel generators?
  5. What specific demands does the RNlNavy have to diesel generator sets?
  6. What is the relation between the design procedure, the failures of the HOV and LCF and the specific demands from the RNlNavy?
  7. What control measures can be formulated to look into the design and concluding Diesel generator?

Each sub inquiry is checked on consistence by besides depicting the facets ground for the inquiry, cognition spheres, reply and methodological analysis or scheme. This harmonizing to the method of Heinze Oost [ 16 ] . The consequences of this proof procedure are given for each sub-research inquiry in Appendix 1. 6 Goal of thesis consequence

With the thesis I want to explicate a design methodological analysis for buying diesel generator sets.

The consequence should be divided into several parts, foremost the common and specific demands of a diesel generator design. Second several design stairss, this could be computations or simulation stairss. And eventually I will explicate control steps to measure the design and the concluding Diesel generator set.

The definition for methodological analysis that I will utilize is as follows [ 17 ] :

  1. A method is a specific manner to continue.
  2. A method is a rational process ; following the prescribed stairss increases the opportunity of work outing the job.
  3. A method is general – that means: applicable to more than one job.
  4. The usage of a method is discernible. From experimental point of position, one must be able to determine whether person acts harmonizing to that method.

Methodology of thesis

During the thesis several probes will be done. The footing for the probe will be the empirical cyclus new wave De Groot [ 15 ] .

Phases during the thesis

Phase 1, roll uping and arrange informations

At foremost an overview of current probes that are done to the HOV and LCF Diesel generators. The probe will be focused on the causes in relation to the design. From this probe it will go clear which aspects in the design are of import and should be taken into history for the design method.

Second a desk research to criterions such as Stanag ‘s ( military norms ) , ISO and in company criterions. I will besides execute a literature survey to general design facets and Diesel generators in specific. From this probe it will go clear which regulations are of import for diesel generator sets and what the design stairss should be. ( A chiefly literature survey is already done. )

Third, based on the old probes I will individual interview experts in deepness. These will be design experts and Diesel generator / constituent experts. From each group I will seek to interview two persons for chief facets ( Diesel, generator and system planimeter ) and one for other facets. I expect in entire 5 interviews.

The interviews will beforehand structured as follows ( based on the literature survey done before ) ;

  • Chiefly information
  • Design ( stairss ) of the constituent
  • Simulation facets to look into the design
  • Building of the constituent
  • Validation of design
  • Adjustments to the design

From this probe the contents of the design stairss will go clear.

Phase 2, formulate hypothesis

The variables that influence the design will be considered and a design methodological analysis will be formulated based on the informations collected before. I will besides explicate a trial method to look into the design method.

Phase 3, Deduction, generalise design methodological analysis

During this stage I will explicate the design methodological analysis that applies to a more common 1 that will be applicable to the chief inquiry.

Phase 4, Testing the design methodological analysis

During this stage I will look for a manner to formalize the old formulated design methodological analysis. At this minute it is non precisely clear which method should be used, but FEM computation and quiver measurings could be an option. I will contract out a FEM theoretical account of the HOV Diesel generator to look into what the differences are with quiver measurings and how to graduate the FEM theoretical account.

Phase 5, Evaluation of design methodological analysis

During this stage the consequences from the trial stage will be compared with the proposed design methodological analysis.

Research theoretical account of thesis method

The research theoretical account presents how to come to the concluding design methodological analysis.

Descriptions and clip agenda of mileposts

The mileposts of the thesis are several consequences during the thesis undertaking:

  • Collected and arranged informations, 5 hebdomads.
  • A formulated hypothesis, 1 hebdomad.
  • A formulated and generalised design methodological analysis, 2 hebdomads.
  • A good formulated proving method, 2 hebdomads.
  • Consequences from a proving method, 3 hebdomads.
  • Evaluation of consequences, 2 hebdomads.
  • Thesis papers, composing will be during whole undertaking.
  • Article papers.
  • Thesis presentation, 2 hebdomads for readying.

Mention Section

Where applicable: Name, Title, Edition, Printed by, Date, ISBN or equivalent.

  1. Ir. P. Kloppenburg, HOV “ Luymes ” and “ Snellius ” Measurement study Main Diesel generator # 3 HMS “ Luymes ” , Techno Fysica B.V. , 27 March 2008, Order figure 108047.
  2. KLTZT Ir. A.J. new wave Luik, Materieelinstandhoudingbeleid, Versienummer 2.1, Ministerie new wave Defensie, Bestuursstaf, DMO/Beleid, 15 februari 2008.
  3. Beleidsnota “ Algemeen ( inter ) nationaal materieellogistiek beleid ” . Versie 1.0.0. Ministerie new wave Defensie, Defensie Materieel Organisatie, Directie Beleid, Afdeling materieelbeleidsadvies, 11 januari 2007.
  4. Explotatieplan HOV, 2005, Koninklijke Marine, Ministerie new wave Defensie, 1 juli 2005.
  5. ISO 15243, Rolling bearings – Damagess and failures – Footings, features and causes, ISO, First edition 2004.
  6. Ir. P. Kloppenburg, Increasing RAMS of Paxman 12VP185 Dieselgenerators, Techno Fysica B.V. , 19 May 2009, Order figure 109129.
  7. ISO 8528-1 Part 1 to 12, Reciprocating internal burning engine driven jumping current bring forthing sets, Second edition, 01 June 2005.
  8. Andreas Werner, ( University of Stuttgart calculating Center ) , Harald Echtle ( Daimler Benz AG, Dr. Monika Wierse ( Silicon Graphics Computer GMBH ) , High public presentation simulation of internal burning engines, IEEE Iraqi National Congress, 1998.
  9. C. Leontopoulos, D.A. Robb and C.B. Besant, ( Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science ) , Vibration analysis for the design of a high velocity generator for a turbo electric intercrossed vehicle, Proc instn Mech Engrs Vol 212 Part D, 21 November 1997.
  10. Claudi Exkert and David Wyat and P John Clarkson, The elusive act of synthesis: Creativity in the conceptual desing of complex technology merchandises, Cambridge technology Design Centre, 26 October 2009.
  11. A.S. Mendes and P.S. Meirelles and D.E. Zampieri ( Universidade de campinas Brazil ) , Analysis of torsional quiver in internal burning engine modeling and experimental proof, Proc IMechE Vol 222 Part K, 5 February 2008, DOI 10.1243/14644193JMBD126.
  12. S.N. Kurbet and R. Krishna Kumar ( Indian Institute of Technology Madras ) , Finite component modeling of Piston pealing kineticss and blow by appraisal in a four cylinder Diesel enigen, Prec ImechE Vol 221 Part D, 26 July 2007, DOI: 10.1243/ 09544070JAUTO177.
  13. I.A. Craighead and TGF Gray, ( University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK ) , Investigation of Diesel generator shaft and bearing failures, Proc Instn Mech Engr Vol 218 Part K. 5 July 2004.
  14. OREDA Offshore Reliability Data Handboek, 4th Edition, Det Norske Veritas, 2002, ISBN 82-14-02705-5.
  15. Henri H.C.M. Christiaans, Methodologie van technisch-wetenschappelijk onderzoek, Uitgeverij LEMMA BV, 2004, ISBN 90-5189-839-8.
  16. Heinze Oost and Angela Markenhof, Een onderzoek voorbereiden, eerste druk, tiende oplage 2008, HBuitgevers, 2008, ISBN 978-90-557-4376-6.
  17. N.F.M. Roozenburg and J.Eekels, Product Design: Fundamentalss and Methods, John Wiley & A ; Sons Ltd, 1995, ISBN 0471 94351 7.
  18. Peter G. Dominick, Tools and tactics of design, first edition, John Wiley & A ; Sons inc. , 2001, ISBN 0-471-38648-0.

Appendix 1, proof research-sub inquiries

  1. Which dependability should the Diesel generators have?
    • Reason: As asked in the chief inquiry the design methodological analysis should take to dependable Diesel generators. At the minute it is non clear which reliability the Diesel generator sets should hold.
    • Knowledge Fieldss: Reliability, statistics.
    • Methods: Comparison with other systems.
    • Expected reply: A dependability diagram.
    • Literature: Oreda, Offshore Reliability Data Handbook [ 14 ] .
  2. What are the causes from the failures from the HOV and LCF and how where they investigated?
    • Reason: If the causes are known it can than be determined if the failures are related to the design.
    • Knowledge Fieldss: Root Cause Failure Analysis, stuff analysis, harm analysis.
    • Methods: Literature survey and interviews.
    • Expected reply: An overview of amendss.
    • Literature: Probes to the amendss, mentions 1 and 6.
  3. How was the design procedure of the HOV and LCF?
    • Reason: If it is know how the design procedure was, it can be used to be analysed in sub inquiry 4.
    • Knowledge Fieldss: Design methods.
    • Methods: Interviews.
    • Expected reply: An overview what the design steps where for the HOV and LCF.
    • Literature: None.
  4. What are common design methods and demands for developing diesel generators?
    • Reason: From the old inquiries the current design procedure will be analysed. This will be compared with common design methodological analysiss.
    • Knowledge Fieldss: Design.
    • Methods: Literature survey.
    • Expected reply: An overview of common design stairss.
    • Literature: Mention 8, 17 and 18.
  5. What specific demands does the RNlNavy have to diesel generator sets?
  6. Reason: It could be possible that the demands have influenced the concluding design of the Diesel generators.
  7. Knowledge Fieldss:
  8. Methods: Literature survey of specifications, interview.
  9. Expected reply: list of specific demands for Naval Diesel generators.
  10. Literature: ref 8 and 9.
  11. What is the relation between the design procedure, the failures of the HOV and LCF and the specific demands from the RNlNavy?
  12. Reason: The inquiries 2, 3, 4 and 5 will be related to each other. It should than go clear where in the design procedure the failures could hold been prevented.
  13. Knowledge Fieldss:
  14. Methods: comparing between inquiry 2, 3, 4 and 5.
  15. Expected reply: An overview of design stairss related to amendss.
  16. Literature: None.
  17. What control measures can be formulated to look into the design and concluding Diesel generator?
  18. Reason: To measure a design there should be a control step, as found in the literature FEM and quiver analysis can be used as control step.
  19. Knowledge Fieldss: FEM and quivers analysis
  20. Methods: Literature survey, instance probe on the HOV with FEM analysis and quiver analysis.
  21. Expected reply: A control step to look into the design.
  22. Literature: Mention 9.