This interim study consists of three chapters explicating the initial survey and research into anti – dork control of intercrossed electric vehicles. This undertaking aims at electrification of anti-jerk control in intercrossed vehicles by utilizing the intercrossed vehicle electric motor to muffle these oscillations and to analyse its consequence on fuel ingestion, comfort and sportiness of the vehicle and so to compare the consequences with fuelling merely method. This undertaking will besides include analyzing the impact of inactive muffling with DMF in these vehicles. As a portion of this undertaking, a theoretical account of a intercrossed Diesel engine driveline with DMF will be developed utilizing Simulation X and an active feedback control for an electric motor will be designed to allow active damping of these oscillations.
The consequences obtained from imitating the drivelines modeled utilizing Simulation X will be observed for driveline quivers with regard to the frequence scope and besides the scope in which the jolt frequences affect the riders inside the vehicle so as to concentrate on it specifically taking to maximal decrease in jolt of driveline.
The theoretical accounts so developed will so subjected to plan alterations and probe in conformity with the control strategies developed and affect of the same will be observed on all the thrust train theoretical accounts with degree of dork control achieved.
Finally Suggestions will be made on consequence of electric motor on intercrossed thrust train in muffling the driveline oscillations, fuel ingestion and sportiness of the vehicle besides comparing it with the conventional thrust train theoretical accounts.
In the age of engineering where everyone is concentrating on bettering the merchandises by conveying in sophisticated engineerings from autos to aeroplanes, we as human existences neglected the environment factor over the old ages. twentieth century was called an “ industrial age ” and much technological promotion have been made in this epoch which revolutionized the whole universe.
One of the industries which is closely related to link our day-to-day life are cars. Cars have grown quickly over the old ages with stiff competition among automotive makers across the universe. As the clip passed by people become more demanding with their involvements widening the automotive market and besides the fact that automotive big leagues started presenting those demands. These technological betterments along with human comfort factors all of us forgot about the consequence on environment.
The figure of vehicles on roads grew exponentially and ingestion figures of gasoline and Diesel across the universe increased drastically directing out dismay bells to seek for surrogate fuel engineerings as the conventional gasoline & A ; Diesels were non merely running out from their being but besides impacting the environment taking to considerable sum of CO2 emanations and farther lending to planetary heating. This hereafter job opened up chances for research in alternate fuel engineerings taking to the development of Hybrid vehicles, Fuel cell engineerings & A ; Hydrogen fuelled autos. Few of the surrogate fuel vehicles are Toyota Prius loanblend, Honda Civic loanblend, Honda Insight etc which have received good response in the market in footings of public presentation every bit good as in cut downing CO2 emanations and have successfully proved their presence in the market with their merchandising volumes and fuel nest eggs.
On a smaller degree, these developments lead to farther research in countries like DC/AC motors, fuel cells, battery battalion engineering, advanced accountant design, power optimisation and new constructs which can be used as alternate fuels.
Normally in every engine driven system issue of noise, quiver and abrasiveness ( NVH ) comes along with it. Automotive makers have ever tried to keep healthy comfort to public presentation ratio so as to achieve maximal client satisfaction. With regard to comfort of drive, the maker ‘s chief purposes are to supply quiver free driving pleasance every bit much as possible and the same applied to hybrid electric vehicles. One such country of concern in thrust line yanking which affects the overall drivability. Jerking is a sort of driveline oscillations which occurs due to excitation caused by sudden or immense fluctuation in engine torsion or driveline burden. These excitements cause because of torsional quiver of thrust train at high engine torsions taking to unwanted longitudinal oscillations of rider compartment which reduces the siting comfort and drivability. These oscillations have inclination to happen at low engine velocities which are experienced as unpleasant yanking consequence by the driver. Due to the fact Diesel engines produce high torsion at low engine velocities, makes these engines more prone to this job. The country of concentration under this instance is vibration frequences runing between 2- 10 Hz as human organic structure is sensitive towards this frequence scope doing unpleasant driving experience.
These driveline oscillations majorly occur during tip in and tip out conditions. In conventional Diesel engine vehicles methods like active control of fuel injection into engine and inactive component such as double mass flywheel are used to allow feed frontward active every bit good as inactive damping of these unpleasant oscillations in idle, tip-in/tip out and coast conditions. To accomplish minimum sum of driveline oscillations, vehicle makers have to compromise between comfort and public presentation of the vehicle. In Diesel loanblends, the jolt can be controlled by changing fuel injection and electric motor torsion control and besides passively by an extra double mass flywheel ( DMF ) .
Aims & A ; Aims
The purposes and aims of this undertaking are:
To develop a theoretical account with three different constellations of powertrain utilizing Simulation X those are: Conventional Diesel engine, Conventional diesel engine with DMF and eventually intercrossed power train with DMF.
To analyze the effects of dork in each single power train constellation before developing the control scheme for anti dork control.
To electrify the anti dork control in intercrossed vehicles by utilizing Crankshaft integrated stator/generator to muffle the oscillations.
To analyse the consequence on fuel ingestion, comfort and sportiness of the vehicle.
To compare the consequences with conventional fuel control method.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Hybrid Electric Vehicle is the one which uses two or more beginnings of energy to impel the vehicle which consists of an internal burning engine and electric motor power by batteries. Hybrid vehicles are of assorted types such as series loanblend, parallel loanblend and combination of series analogue and based on their hybridisation factor they are categorized into micro, mild and full loanblends. Figure 1, below shows the typical power split type power train. By and large, intercrossed power trains are dearly-won to construct due to its complexness but the costs are paid off against the running costs due to improved fuel efficiency. Regenerative braking plays an of import function in conserving energy by bear downing the battery battalion.
Figure: Showing a Power Split Hybrid Powertrain
Types of Hybrid vehicles based on drive train construction
In parallel intercrossed vehicles, there are two parallel ways for conveying power to the wheels of the vehicle ; those are by engine and by electric thrust, as shown in below figure 2. The transmittal is coupled with the motor/generator and the engine, leting either, or both, to power the wheels. Control architecture of parallel intercrossed vehicles is more complex compared to a series loanblend due to the demand of efficient yoke of the motor/generator and engine so as to keep optimal drivability and public presentation.
Figure: Parallel Hybrid Powertrain
Operating manners available in parallel intercrossed vehicles are:
Engine merely grip
Electric merely grip
In series loanblend there is merely one manner for conveying power to the wheels of the vehicle, but consists two energy beginnings. As shown in figure 3, the conventional engine is coupled to a generator for bear downing the battery battalion which provides electrical energy to a motor/generator to power the wheels via transmittal. The motor/generator can besides be used for reloading the battery during braking and slowing.
Figure: Series Hybrid Power train
Operating manners available in series loanblend vehicles are:
Electric merely grip
Electric grip & A ; battery charging
Battery charging and no grip
Series-Parallel ( combined ) Hybrid electric vehicles
A Series-Parallel ( combined ) loanblend vehicle has both the facets Series and Parallel energy transportation waies. As shown in figure 5, a system dwelling of motors and/or generators dwelling of a geartrain or power split device allows the engine to reload the battery. Changes in this power train constellation can run from simple to really complex type depending on the figure of motors /generators and their on the job nomenclature.
These constellations can be called as Complex loanblends ( such as the Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrids ) , Split-Parallel loanblends, or Power-Split loanblends.
Figure: Series-Parallel ( Combined ) Hybrid Power train
Driveline jolt besides called as driveline oscillations can happen due to many different factors such as burden alterations, gear switching and besides the status of the route. In recent times, direct injection Diesel engines with extended polish of constituents and important weight decrease in driveline lead to the job of driveline jolt. Besides with promotion in Diesel engine engineering over the old ages, end product torsion of these diesel engines has risen enormously for rider autos set uping the comfort and drivability. The job with high engine torsion is, it causes tortuosity of driveline due to the gear ratios of the concluding thrust doing the tortuosity at thrust shafts which in bend causes whole power train to hover with combined consequence of vehicle jolt. Figure 5, shown below show the measurings on a trial auto caused by tip in behaviour in which driver all of a sudden steps on the accelerator combined with high torsion gradient and tip out status, the back out manoeuvre.
Figure: Engine torsion and engine velocity for tip in and tip out manoeuvres.
Though the oscillations caused by engine velocity are slightly absorbed by engine saddle horses but the oscillations due to wheel velocity is responsible for horizontal quivers of the vehicle ‘s longitudinal acceleration impacting the public presentation of the vehicle which is experienced straight by riders. To keep these oscillations impacting the comfort and drivabilityfor the riders, muffling of these driveline oscillations is necessary which is referred to as “ Anti Jerk Control ” . The oscillations taking to power train jolt in conventional power train can be categorized by the Eigen frequences of following driveline constituents:
Tortuosity of shafts causes fliping and yanking due to suspension system, mass of the vehicle and damping. The scope of frequence for this cause lies between 2 – 5 Hz. Besides, we know that the natural frequence of the vehicle with regard to flip gesture is lies between 1 – 2.5 Hz.
The frequence of oscillations caused by engine motion and saddle horses lies in the scope of 15 – 200 Hz.
The quiver due to gearbox assembly lies in the frequence scope of 50-80 Hz.
There are oscillation depending upon the type of engine, no. of cylinders, engine velocity and besides the burning procedure shown in below figure
Table: showcasing different engine types and their Eigen frequences
Multiples of Eigen Frequency
4-Cylinder, R4, 4-Stroke
6-Cylinder, R4, 4-stroke
1,5, 3, 4,5, 6, 7,5, 9
1,5, 3, 4,5, 7,5, 9
12-Cylinder, V60, 4-Stroke
From the above classification of the constituents and their several Eigen frequences, the chief purpose is to contract down on the constituents taking to quivers which are felt by riders majorly and to minimise the degree of quivers by planing theoretical account based prognostic control scheme while retaining the public presentation of the vehicle every bit much as possible.
Hybrid Vehicle Design
The power train which has been considered for proving the jolt behaviour and the anti dork control scheme to be designed is shown in the below figure 6. This power train is one of the possible intercrossed vehicle architecture dwelling of I.C engine, CISG ( Crankshaft Integrated Starter/ Generator ) , Double Mass Flywheel ( DMF ) , Clutch, Gearbox assembly, High electromotive force battery battalion and power electronics.
Figure: Hybrid Vehicle architecture
In operation, at lower revolutions per minute the vehicle acts as pure electric vehicle powered by the on board battery battalion and at higher revolutions per minute, both electric thrust and I.C engine together produce needed power by the vehicle. The per centum of power transmittal sharing to impel the vehicle plays an of import function in finding fuel efficiency.
The constituents and factors which play of import function in intercrossed electric vehicle design shown in figure 6 are:
Engine design and choice: The I.C engine as in conventional power train plays an of import function in intercrossed vehicles. Generally, engines designed for intercrossed vehicles are smaller in size compared to conventional vehicles. Though the design & A ; choice of the engine is wholly based on the power demands of the vehicle.
Crankshaft integrated starter/generator ( CISG ) : The starter/generator is device which is controlled electronically. It combines both the maps of a conventional starting motor and generator into a one individual unit. The motivation of individual CISG unit is replacing the starting motor as a individual entity which is inactive in nature ; need to replace the old fashioned belt and block type connexion between the alternator & A ; the engine. Besides to replace the modern twenty-four hours rotor wound alternators with slip rings and coppices. The incorporate starter/generator works as a bi-directional device which converts electrical energy to mechanical work and frailty versa. As a electric motor, it assists in get downing the I.C engine without any noise and besides much quicker than conventional starting motor. As a generator it produces power required for electrical constituents of the vehicle and is besides used to bear down the batteries. Normally incorporate starter/generator is placed between engine and gear box assembly. The chief operating characteristics of ISG are it enables stat/stop, onboard power coevals and acts as power aid when required.
Figure: Integrated Starter / Generator.
Double Mass Flywheel ( DMF ) : Double mass flywheel consists of two flywheels connected by long discharge travel springs located between I.C engine and clasp or transmittal. The first DMF was introduced for the automotive industry in 1985. At that clip not lubricated dampers were used dwelling of heavy springs which were debatable. Then there was discovery in the DMF engineering and curve spring type dampers was introduced in 1989 work outing about all the jobs which were caused by DMF before. Due to the high cost of this merchandise non everyone was interested but was used in big vehicles. Though DMF is a inactive driveline component, it has been proven that DMF reduces torsional quivers to certain extent and plays an of import function in anti dork control of intercrossed vehicles besides. The operating public presentation of DMF can be characterized by the spring rate and its damping features.
The double mass flywheel consists of following of import features:
Primary and secondary inactiveness.
The tortuosity damper rate.
And the damping feature.
Advantages of utilizing DMF in conventional power train are:
Segregation of torsional quivers: we know that, torsional quivers are caused by torque fluctuations. A vehicle is a sort of vibrating system with all the constituents like engine, transmittal, drive shafts etc all contributing to the cause. Below figure 8, shows the simple driveline theoretical account so as to detect quiver behavior. In this instance engine and transmittal are supposed as revolving inactiveness connected by springs. The spring C2 represents the spring damper features and spring C3 demoing the stiffness of the thrust train.
Figure: Drive train with quiver manners.
Figure 9 shown below depicts the fluctuations in vehicle velocity and in this instance damped resonance occurs at around 1700 revolutions per minute. The chief purpose of DMF is to sideline the quivers happening from the engine every bit far as possible from the remainder of the driveline constituents. Besides the figure compares the difference between the extents of quivers in a conventional thrust train compared to one fitted with double mass flywheel. Double mass flywheel expeditiously reduces the engine quivers and reduces gear rattling, helps in salvaging the fuel ingestion and besides improves driving comfort.
Figure: Comparison of quiver muffling in a conventional thrust train to the 1 with DMF
Transmission aid: As DMF is said to cut down the engine quivers, it has positive consequence on the transmittal system as the emphasis induced will be significantly less compared to a compared thrust line increasing the transmittal efficiency and rhythm life.
Crank shaft aid: In a conventional power train, we know that flywheel and clasp are connected to engine crankshaft stiffly and due to the inactiveness of the flywheel high reaction forces are developed on the crankshaft. But in instance of DMF, the secondary flywheel can be neglected for flexing burden instance as it connected slackly to the primary flywheel by torsional damper and roller bearings which practically do n’t let high movable reactive forces. The primary flywheel is significantly lighter in weight, more elastic in nature compared to conventional flywheel.
Battery battalion design and choice: The chief standards in battery design and choice depend upon the capacity, the end product features based on type of battery battalion to be used, rhythm life, cost, range of reusability and whether reclaimable on non. The size and weight of the battery battalion depends on the capacity demand. If capacity is high, more will be size and weight of the battery battalion. In fact, battery battalion design plays a really of import function as the public presentation of the vehicle is dependent on the overall weight of the vehicle. In instance battery battalion is heavier, this would hold direct impact on the power consumed to impel the vehicle which is set to lift with addition in battery weight and will besides cut down the operating scope of the vehicle.
Figure: Typical Battery battalion agreement
Electric Motor: By and large AC, DC and PMDC electric motors are used in intercrossed vehicle depending upon the demand and use. In automotive industry, certain motor specifications are non acceptable due to their inability to run into the specific demands such as power evaluation at peak burden conditions, uninterrupted power supply, volumetric power denseness, cost, efficiency, weight, life-time, degree of protection against H2O and dust.
Gear box assembly: In intercrossed vehicles, largely a power splitter device is used which is consists of planetal cogwheel set leting power flow from two power bring forthing beginnings to impel the vehicle. The I.C engine is by and large connected to Sun cogwheel while electric motor is connected to the planet cogwheel.
Clasp: It is found in every vehicle with manual gear box. Though the usage of clasp varies from one intercrossed thrust train to another depending the gear box being used as most of the intercrossed power trains use automatic transmittal which do n’t necessitate clasp. The chief intent of clasp is to help the vehicle get downing off from base still place as it compensates for the velocity difference between engine and the driveline and faux pass on to synchronise both. Clasp besides used to prosecute and disengages engine from the transmittal while gear switching takes topographic point.
Procedure of work
Power train jolt in intercrossed vehicles is majorly due to engine & A ; electric motor torsion alterations during tip in and tips out operations. For look intoing the job of yanking for a intercrossed vehicle, certain stairss have been laid out for patterning the power train in five different stairss which are in below figure 9 to detect and analyse each instance separately with root cause:
Figure: Modeling Procedure
Basic Driveline Equations
Engine: The engine end product torsion is expressed by the drive torsion ( Te ) generated from burning, clash torsion ( Tfric, vitamin E ) and the external burden from clasp ( Tc ) .By Newton ‘s 2nd jurisprudence of gesture, we can accomplish the undermentioned theoretical account:
Where Je is the mass of inactiveness of the engine, is the grouch angular acceleration.
Clasp: By and large a clash type clasp is installed in vehicles with manual transmittal linking to the engine flywheel and input shaft of the transmittal. During clasp battle if we assume no internal clash, Tc = Tt can be obtained. Then the torsion transmitted is map of angular difference ( I±cs – I±c ) and angular speed difference ( ) ensuing in:
Figure: vehicle driveline with matching angle and torsion labels.
Transmission: A transmittal consists of a gear set each with a different operating ratio it taking to relation between input and end product torsion
Where Tp is the transmittal end product and Tfric is the internal clash torsion of the transmittal.
Propeller shaft: The shaft which connects the transmittals end product to the concluding thrust unit in which no clash is assumed which gives us Tp = Tf, ensuing in theoretical account for torsion input to concluding thrust
Concluding Drive: concluding thrust can be considered as a concluding ratio if as for the transmittal taking to input and end product torsions relation
Drive Shafts: The shafts which connect wheels to the concluding thrust are called drive shafts. It can be assumed that both the wheels are revolving at same velocity ( ) . Ignoring the vehicle kineticss, the wheel speed shall be equal to rush of vehicle organic structure ‘s Centre of gravitation.
Therefore, drive shafts can be modelled as one shaft.
Wheels: The forces moving on a vehicle with mass ( m ) and speed ( V ) the longitudinal forces ( FL ) moving on the vehicle gives
Rolling opposition ( Rr ) = f*m*g and Aerodynamic retarding force ( Ra ) =1/2*Af*Cd*I?*V2.
Where, m=mass of the vehicle, g=gravity invariable, f=0.015 ( co-efficient of turn overing opposition ) , Rr=rolling opposition, Ra=aerodynamic retarding force, Af=cross sectional country, Cd=coefficient of retarding force, denseness ( I? ) , V=velocity.
The thrust line theoretical account can be expressed as a system dwelling of revolving lumped inactiveness, conformities, muffling losingss, input torsion and loads moving due to environmental resistive forces. A simple 2 grade of freedom theoretical account ( fig – 10 ) is sufficient to demo the first torsional manner of quivers which lead to jolt of vehicle.
Figure: Free organic structure diagram of a conventional driveline
Where, Teng = engine torsion, route burden = Tload, vitamin E = engine velocity, v = vehicle velocity, Je = mass minute of inactiveness, be = syrupy clash, R = concluding thrust ratio, Ks & A ; CS = thrust shafts flexibleness, Cw = damper, vehicle inactiveness = Jv.
Hybrid Power train Model
As discussed earlier in study, the intercrossed power train consists of extra constituents compared to conventional type which include electric motor, batteries, power electronics which form together the electric thrust unit of the vehicle.
Engine: Engine in intercrossed power train plays a really of import function in footings of fuel nest eggs and vehicle aid. An engine theoretical account to be used for intercrossed power train must be considered for following issues:
The engine theoretical account must bring forth coveted torsion end product irrespective of operating conditions.
The engine ‘s dynamic behavior taking to torque fluctuations generates drive line quivers which in bend affects the driver comfort.
As engine is non speedy plenty to react to command actions implemented externally, the response hold can hold important affect on the vehicles public presentation.
Engine can be modeled in many different ways depending upon the degree of complexness required and the handiness of parametric quantities which can subsequently be used for formalizing the inputs. The basic equation of engine theoretical account has been already discussed earlier which can be applied for the intercrossed power train theoretical account besides.
Electric Motor/ Controller: The electric grip motor and accountant consume the power from the onboard energy storage device like battery to supply the power beginning so as to bring forth the needed torsion for vehicle propulsion. The electric motor can besides be used as starter/alternator or as a generator to retrieve energy during braking which can be used to bear down batteries. The grip motor theoretical account can be described by following equations:
Where idr, iqr are d, q axis rotor current severally ; Idahos, intelligence quotients are 500, q axis primary current severally ; Lm, is common induction ; Lr, LJ are resolved rotor, stator induction severally ; P are poles ; Rr, Rs are resolved rotor, stator opposition severally, ohms ; Vds Vqs are 500, q axis primary electromotive force severally, V ; I»dr and I»qr are 500, q axis rotor tantamount flux severally, V-sec ; I»ds and I»qs are 500, q axis stator tantamount flux severally, V-sec ; I‰e is synchronal frequence, rps ; I‰r is rotor frequence, rps ; & A ; , is rotor acceleration, rps2 ; Ts is electric motor torsion, Nm.
The restricting torsion of the motor can be expressed by:
Where I‰b, is centrifugal base velocity, revolutions per minute ; I‰m is mechanical motor velocity, revolutions per minute ; Prated is the rater motor power, horsepower ; Trated is the rated motor torsion, Nm ; Tm is mechanical motor torsion, Nm.
In add-on to this, equations of gesture for DC electric machine are:
Where is the torque end product of the machine proportional to the armature current, vitamin E is the back voltage of the machine is relative to the speed of the rotor
Drive Shaft: The thrust shaft plays really of import function in the thrust train for conveying the torsion and rotary motion. They are subjected high tortuosity and shear emphasiss and hence must hold must hold high stiffness. Below shown in the thrust modelled utilizing lumped inactivenesss and their corresponding basic equations
TDS =KDS ( I?T – I?W ) + CDS ( T – Tungsten )
Wheels: The forces moving on a vehicle with mass ( m ) and speed ( V ) the longitudinal forces ( Fe ) moving on the vehicle gives
Stationary theoretical account of the vehicle presuming all forces act through the Centre of gravitation and merely in longitudinal way.
Gears: Assuming no losingss in transmittal the basic equation for geartrain is
But in world there are syrupy losingss, sealing & A ; bearings drag contact clash. Losses vary with gear alteration but can be modelled as a loss torsion thallium moving on the transmittal input shaft there can be shown as:
Capacitor: It is device which shops energy an can be modelled by current equation
Battery: Batteries are characterized by energy denseness, C-rating, rhythm life, thermic run off and fluctuations in temperature. Table below shows the comparing among different types of batteries with their proficient specifications available in the market for HEV applications
Cell Voltage Volts
Energy Density WH/Kg
Power Density W/Kg
Maximal Discharge Rate
Useful Capacity DOD %
Charge Efficiency %
Self Discharge % /Month
Temperature Range °C
Cycle Life Cycles
& gt ; 1000
& gt ; 2000
Robust ( Over/Under Voltage )
Cost per kWH
A basic battery theoretical account might include an unfastened circuit electromotive force and internal opposition Rc and Rd
SOCic = initial SOC of the battery ( assume 1 ; to the full charged )
Ibat = battery current that can be both positive and negative
Qbat = battery capacity ( Ah ) , needs change overing to A.s for the simulation
Simulation X is a multi sphere plan for patterning and simulation created by ITI GmbH. Some of its chief characteristics and capablenesss are:
Enables high degree patterning platform for complex systems.
Integrated with CAE design tool
Over 30 standard industry specific libraries including automotive.
Development of user specific libraries based on standard 1s.
Object oriented modelling linguistic communication for simple and efficient modeling.
Execution of user based C codification through external beginnings.
Provides interface between assorted package available in market such as MATLAB/Simulink etc.
Analysis tools available in Simulation X are:
Transeunt Simulation: Capable of calculating additive and non-linear theoretical accounts in the clip sphere.
Steady State Simulation: Analyzing the theoretical accounts in periodic steady province status dependant on a specific mention value.
Linear System Analysis ( Natural frequences and mode forms ) : Efficiently generates damped and un damped natural frequences of the complete system, clip invariables, Eigen vectors, oscillations of province variables related to peculiar Eigen frequences.
Linear System Analysis ( Input – Output Analysis ) : Enables linearization in the current operating point, analysis, export of province infinite matrices
Modeling in Simulation X
The vehicle type selected for the analysis of jolt and its effects is a sport public-service corporation vehicle ( SUV ) powered by a Diesel engine shown earlier in figure 6 dwelling a conventional Diesel engine with crankshaft integrated starter generator ( CISG ) , a DMF, a transmittal cogwheel box, a clasp between the transmittal and the DMF, derived function as a portion of conventional power train and high electromotive force battery battalion with power electronics on board as electric thrust unit for the vehicle. Making simulation theoretical accounts for intercrossed power train requires assorted constituents of power train such as mechanics, fluid mechanicss, electronics and pneumatics including the control aspects involved.