Analysis Of The Cuban Missile Crisis History Essay

Introduction

The Cuban Missile Crisis was an event occurred in October 1962 when the USA detected that the USSR had deployed medium scope missiles in Cuba, which was 90 stat mis off from Florida. It was the period that the cold war reached its extremum because of the possible confrontation between the two world powers, the US and the USSR, at the clip. The Cuban Missiles Crisis was a really of import portion of the universe history because of the hazard of atomic war that could take to the devastation of the universe. Therefore, it is really absorbing to place what go on before the crisis, the causes, the existent events in the crisis, and the impacts of the crisis ( Rich 2003, 416-428 ) .

Prior to the Crisis

The Cuban Revolution, began in 1956, was the result of extended economic subjugation of Cuba by the USA. During Batista ‘s, the pitiless swayer of Cuba, government, Cuba per capita income was twice greater than other states in general. The Cuban economic system was controlled by the USA, which owned 90 % of Cuba ‘s telephone and electronic services, 50 % of Cuba ‘s railroad, and 40 % of Cuba ‘s sugar production ( Johnson 1965, p 443 ) . Furthermore, the USA put a really rigorous controlled on Cuban sugar production. The USA besides controlled Cuban import quota, divided lands in to estates, and forced the Cuban husbandmans to turn monoculture harvest, which was sugar ( Dye & A ; Sicotte 2011, p.674 ) . These USA ‘s investings in Cuba were monolithic. By the terminal of Batista ‘s regulation, Cuba had the highest investing from the USA than any other states in Latin America at that clip ; therefore, Cuba ‘s per capital income was the highest in Latin America ( Johnson 1965, p. 445 ) . However, the distribution of wealth was non every bit distributed. The bulk of people were illiterate, and the mortality rate was really high because the wellness attention system was non extended to the hapless in the rural countries, who remained in poorness ( Mabry 2003 ) . Furthermore, Batista was a corrupted dictator, and a pro western swayer. These political and economic subjugations from Batiste and the USA inspired Fidel Castro, the magnetic revolution leader, to revolt for reforms ( Rich 2003, p. 417 ) .

Between 1956 to 1959, Fidel Castro, Ernesto Che Guevera, and his younger brother Rual used the tactic Guerilla warfare to contend against Batista ‘s ground forces at Mount Sierra Maestra in Cuba where he gained support from the local framers. The guerilla warfare proved to be successful. On January 1959, Castro and his military personnels were able to subvert Batista and his authorities. After the overthrown of Batista authorities, Fidel Castro set up a shadow authorities consisted of major Cuban political figures. Still, the bulk of power was in the manus of Castro. When the shadow authorities failed to set forward his reforms, he dismissed them, and took control of the authorities as he appointed himself Cuba ‘s premier curate ( Rich 2003, p 418 ) .

Two months after the triumph of the Guerrilla force, Castro paid his first visit to the USA where his narrative was romanticized by the media. He was supposed to hold a meeting with Eisenhower ; nevertheless, the President refused to hold a meeting with him, and went to the golf tribunal. He was accommodated by Nixon, who was the frailty president at that clip. During the meeting, he refused to accept USA fiscal support because he believed that it would go on the USA influence in Cuba. After Castro visited the USA, the relation between the USA and Cuba began to worsen ( Rich 2003, 419 ) . One month after the visit, Fidel Castro began his reforms. He nationalized Cuban lands, cowss spread, bank, railwaies, oil, and other public-service corporations, which were one time owned by the USA ( Perez 2011, p. 230-231 ) .

On the other custodies, the relation between the Cuba and the USSR had become more dynamic. In order to make economic independence from the USA, Castro turned to the USSR for support. As a consequence, in 1960, Cuba trade with the USA declined to 0 % ; while, trade with the USSR increased to 43 % ( Leogrande & A ; Thomas 2002, p 325-363 ) .

The Bay of Pig Invasion

The Bay of Pig Invasion, January 3, 1961, was the CIA ‘s program to subvert Castro authorities by establishing 1000 of Cuban expatriates on Cuba ‘s Bay of Pigs believing that merely thousand of trained expatriates would be able to subvert Castro authorities. However, the mission was a entire failure because the Cuban ground forces was already waiting for the Cuban expatriates at the Bay of Pigs. As a consequence, one hundred people were killed and 1000s of people were taken every bit political captives. The Bay of Pigs invasion was the last Eisenhower disposal program, which took action during Kennedy presidential term ( Rich 2003, P. 420 ) . There were several grounds for the causes of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. However, the chief ground was the US insecurity of its diminution in Latin America domination. The USA based their policy on Latin America policy consequently to the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the USA must incorporate its influence in the Latin America ( Perez 2011, P.233 ) . In other words, the thought that the Communist Cuba could act upon other Latin America states to transform their political systems to communism was unbearable for the USA ‘s criterion ( Ferguson 1961, 288-290 ) .

Causes

The Soviet Union ‘s Hidden Agendas

There were several grounds for the USSR to put in missile in Cuba. Harmonizing to Khrushchev, his two chief motivations were to equilibrate the missile spread between the USA and the USSR, and to forestall any farther America invasion on Cuba ( Cimbala 1999, p. 199 ) . Khrushchev believed that the lone manner to forestall Cuba from the USA invasion was to put in missiles in Cuba ( Allyn et al 1989-1990, p.138 ) . He believed that it would protect the Cuban national pride. Furthermore, in 1959, the US installed Jupiter and Thor missiles, intermediate-range ballistic missiles, in Turkey, which pointed straight at the USSR. Furthermore, during the 50s and the 60s the US had advanced the USSR in footings of the arm race, hence, Khrushchev decided to deploy missiles in Cuba as a mean to for the USSR to make symmetricalness with the USA, which would supply him with dialogue power for the missile trade. He wanted to suggest to US that the USSR would take missiles from Cuba if the USA would take missiles from Turkey ( Allyn, Blight & A ; Welch 1989-1990, p.139 ) . His motivation to make symmetricalness in footings of arm race with the USA could be seen as a mean for the USSR to hike its state prestigiousness. If the USA could deploy missiles in Turkey and Italy, the USSR could besides deploy missiles in Cuba, which was 90 stat mis off from the USA ( ibid ) .

However, President John F. Kennedy already planned to take the Jupiter missiles from Turkey. ( Berstein 1980, p. 120-121 ) . Therefore, there should be hidden agendas under Khrushchev ‘s actions. Harmonizing to many American bookmans, the deployment of missiles in Cuba were Khrushchev ‘s programs to prove USA reaction for future war, to show the USSR atomic high quality to the Soviet and Chinese authoritiess, to carry the USA that the arm race was useless, and to increase Khrushchev popularity at place and in the Communist axis, so that he could hold freedom to cut down USSR arm built ( Cimbala 1999, p. 199 ) .

Cuban insecurity

The chief ground for Cuba understanding on the installing of missile with the USSR was its insecurity. After the Bay of Pig Invasion in 1961, the CIA planed many assassin secret plans on Fidel Castro. Harmonizing to the BBC, the CIA and the Cuban expatriates came up with more than 600 secret plans to assassinate him. The secret plans varied from poisoning, auto bombs, to massive submerged detonation. The suspects involved in the secret plan varied from the Mafia to one of Castro ‘s ex lovers ( Campbell 2009, n.d. ) . One of the blackwash secret plans that really took topographic point was a strafe in Havana hotel by Alpha 66, which killed several Cubans and Soviet technicians ( Brenner 1990, p.121 ) . On the same manus, the USA began a serious trade trade stoppage against Cuba. If other states trade with Cuba, they would non have fiscal AIDSs from the USA. The Cuban authorities viewed the US ‘s policy as a mean to weakening the Castro authorities by weakening Cuba ‘s economic system ( Brenner 1990, p. 188 ) . Furthermore, the Cuban intelligent discovered that the CIA planed another invasion on Cuba, Operation Mongoose, which would be more significant than the old invasion. In order for the Cuban authorities to protect Cuba sovereignty, they believed that they need military AIDSs from the USSR ( Brenner 1990, p. 189 ) . Therefore, Castro decided to allow the USSR installed missiles on their island.

The Crisis and the Resolution

In 1962, the USSR sent a lading ship to Cuba. The ship carried 60 missiles with 40 launchers, and 40,000 Soviet technicians for the deployment of in-between scope missiles in Cuba ( Kozak 2009, p. 19 ) . On October 14, the U-2, USA ‘ undercover agent plane, spotted missiles in Cuba, which pointed straight to the US. The US intelligent informed the President on October 17 ( Berstein 1980, p.9 ) . After the President was informed, there was a meeting between President John F. Kennedy and the EXCOMM, the Committee of the national Security. Many programs were proposed during the meeting. One of the most obvious programs was the strategy to utilize air work stoppage to take missiles from Cuba. However, Robert Kennedy, John F. Kennedy ‘s younger brother, advised the President non to utilize air work stoppage because there was no manner to vouch that the air work stoppage could take all of the missiles from Cuba. If the air work stoppage could non take all missiles from Cuba, it would give the Cubans clip to deploy missiles against the USA. Similarly to the air work stoppage, any military work stoppages against the Cuban could take the Cubans to deploy missiles against the USA. Therefore, President Kennedy and his advisers came up with the naval encirclement method as a manner to cover with the Cubans ( Rich 2003, p. 422 ) .

On October 22 John F. Kennedy announced to the media that the Cubans had deployed missiles against the USA with the assistance from the USSR. He informed the media of the quarantine, naval encirclement, as a mean to bloc USSR ship that carried missile to Cuba, and if the USSR did non turn or halt its lading ships from come ining Cuba, there would be effects ( Weimasma, & A ; Larson 1997, p. 13 ) . However, the USSR ‘s lading ships did non turn back, but its lading ships did non interrupt the USA quarantine. It seemed that the confrontation between the USSR and the US could go on anytime ( Weimasma, & A ; Larson 1997, p. 13 ) . However, from October 22 to 28, President JFK and Chairman Khrushchev exchanged several letters. Kennedy received Khrushchev ‘s 2nd missive on October 26. The missive proposed that the USSR would take missiles from Cuba if the USA removed the Jupiter missiles from Turkey and, and that JFK must do a promise in forepart of the populace that the USA would ne’er occupy Cuba ( Thinkquest Cuban missile crisis: letters, 1997 ) . On October 27, one twenty-four hours after Khrushchev 2nd missive was sent, the US ‘s U-2 plane was shot down in Cuba. This act was seen by some of American politician as an invitation to get down war. This is the quotation mark from Secretary of Defense McNamara `This means war with the Soviet Union. ” However, because of the secret meeting between Robert Kennedy and Soviet embassador Dobrynin, the state of affairs was able to chill down. Robert Kennedy assured that the President would take the missiles in Turkey ( Weimasma, & A ; Larson 1997, p. 21 ) On October 28, JFK sent Khrushchev another missive proposed that in exchange for the USSR to uninstall missiles from Cuban dirt within the UN review, the USA would ne’er occupy Cuba, and in secret uninstall missiles from Turkey. Khrushchev accepted the proposal from President Kenndy ; therefore, both states were able to decide their struggles. In kernel, the Cuban Missile Crisis was able to decide because the USA accepted the USSR proposal. It removed missiles from Turkey, and made a public proclamation that it would ne’er occupy Cuba. On the same manus, Khrushchev accepted the USA proposal, and uninstalled missiles from Cuba within inspectors from UN observation ( Thinkquest Cuban missile crisis: letters, 1997 ) . Nevertheless, JFK ‘s motivations to in secret take of the missiles in Turkey and Italy should be emphasized. Why would he necessitate to make it in secret? Harmonizing to many bookmans, he was afraid of national opposition from the authorities and the American citizens every bit good as losing support from them ( Weimasma, & A ; Larson 1997, p. 23 ) .

Impacts

The Cuban Missiles Crisis left several impacts on the USA and the USSR foreign policy. The first impact was the addition in communicating between the US and the USSR. Because of the crisis, both world powers had realized that they needed to better communicating between the two states to forestall any signifiers of crisis from happening once more ( Rich 2003, p.425 ) . As a consequence, a hotline was installed between the USA ‘s president and the USSR ‘s president ( ibid ) . Furthermore, because of the possible confrontation between the two world powers, which could take to atomic war, President Kennedy began to prefer the thought of coexistence ( Billingsley, p.6 ) . Therefore, after the crisis, there was a impermanent period of detente, the period that the cold war heat cools down ( Billingsley p.7 ) . In add-on, in August 5, 1963, the USA and the USSR both signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The pact forbidden the testing of atomic arms on the Earth surface, infinite, and underwater ( Rich 2003, p.427 ) . However, the pact itself was futile because it did non halt the built up of atomic arms, and prevent China from obtaining the atomic arms on the undermentioned twelvemonth ( Rich 2003, p. 428 ) . Subsequently, the USA and the USSR continue the arm race for another 20 five old ages. They besides competed in footings of strategic gaining ( Billingsley p.6 ) . Furthermore, the pact caused the relation between the USSR and China to worsen. Because of the pact, China concluded that the USSR was being weak, and more significantly, sold its psyche to the capitalist cantonment. Hence, China broke out from the USSR ‘s lance of influence and gained the position of world power by itself. This caused the balance of power to go instability ( Rich 2003, p. 428 ) . After the Cuban Missile Crisis, most of the US ‘s oversea policy was focused on the Americanization of Vietnam and the Vietnam War, which required full attending from the USA military resources ( Rich 2003, p. 423 ) .

Decision

In decision, the major events prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis were the Cuban Revolution, and the Bay of Pigs Invasion. The chief causes of the crisis were the Soviet Union hidden dockets and the Cuban insecurity, which was caused by the United States of America. During the crisis, President John F. Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev exchanged many letters before the declaration could be made. The period of the crisis was the period that the cold war reached its extremum because both world powers about confront each other. If they had confronted each other, the usage of atomic arms could hold happened. After the crisis, the USSR removed missiles from Cuba under the UN supervising in exchanged for the USA to take the Jupiter missiles in Turkey, and to ne’er occupy Cuba. The impacts of the Cuban Missile Crisis were the betterment in communicating between the USA and the USSR. A hot line was established between both states ‘ leaders. Furthermore, President Kennedy began to see the USA relationship with the USSR in footings of coexistence. As a consequence, there was a period of detente, and understanding of the Nuclear Test Treaty Ban, which was signed by the USA and the USSR. However, the atomic competition still continued for the following 25 old ages. Furthermore, both states began the competition in the new country, which was the strategic competition.