Analysis Of Rio Tinto And Foreign Direct Investment Finance Essay

This study would offer a brief history of one of the ventures that Rio Tinto plc, a excavation pudding stone, established in the twelvemonth 1873, headquartered in London UK, is be aftering to setup. Rio Tinto plc is be aftering to suggest a Foreign Direct Investment of ? 250 million in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The premier aim of the investing is the extraction of Iron ore from the natural militias of DRC and to export it to the partially owned Steel constitution in China – The Angang Steel Manufacturing Plant.

I have been appointed as a senior analyst for Rio Tinto Plc and have been given the undertaking of critically analyzing the issues refering to the above mentioned investing proposal.

Some of the chief factors what we see in this undertaking is the feasibleness of the investing in footings of fiscal hazard appraisal, the assorted beginnings of funding and besides the Repatriation footings that Rio Tinto plc can set about.

The inside informations of the factors considered for these actions are explicitly provided in the organic structure of the study.



Rio Tinto is one of the universe ‘s taking excavation and geographic expedition companies. The Rio Tinto Group is farther split into two parts, Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited.

Rio Tinto plc is a London Stock exchange listed company headquartered in the UK, whereas Rio Tinto Limited is listed in the Australian Stock exchange and has its executive offices in Melbourne, Australia. Both the companies are joined as double listed companies ( DLC ) and are structured as a individual economic entity, called the Rio Tinto Group.

The list of merchandises that Rio Tinto is presently pull outing consists of assorted metals and minerals such as Iron ore, Bauxite, Aluminium, Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, Diamonds, Uranium, Titanium, etc. The company beginnings these metals and minerals from assorted states such as US, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Indonesia, France, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Madagascar, Namibia, Papua New Guinea and many more including UK and Australia.

Rio Tinto is the universe ‘s 2nd largest manufacturer of Iron ore. Currently Rio Tinto acquires Iron ore from Hamersley & A ; Robe River – Australia, South America, Canada, India and Papua New Guinea. The extraction and excavation of Iron ore and Titanium is handled by RTIT – Rio Tinto Iron and Titanium.

Aim of the study:

Rio Tinto is be aftering to originate a Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) of ?250 million in the Democratic Republic of Congo to mine and pull out Fe ore and ship it to the partially owned Angang Steel Manufacturing Company in China. This study would underscore on the hazards and fringe benefits involved in continuing with this undertaking.

Economic Risk Assessment

An Economic Risk Assessment in this instance would hold to be done to estimate the viability of the undertaking. Every International concern pudding stone intending to put in a foreign state would be foremost concerned with the returns on its investing. So as to anticipate the sum of profitableness in the new venture and besides to understand the possibility of any fiscal losingss that the company can undergo due to Political, economic or any other factors in the hereafter, an economic hazard appraisal is carried out.

Macroeconomic Net incomes for the Democratic democracy of Congo

Average exchange Rate:


CDF/? – ( Congolese Franc per Great Britain Pound )







Average exchange rate for a period of old 3 old ages

= 837.9+851.5+1122.3 = 937.23


Cross-Border Hazard analysis:

Data of Democratic Republic of Congo ( 2009 )

Congolese Franc ( CDF ) ( Billions )

? ( GBP ) ( Billions ) ( Avg. Exc. rate -CDF 937.233/? )




Gross fixed capital formation



Change in Stockss



Depreciation[ 1 ]



Current Account Balance



Net Financial Services



Macroeconomic equation of a state ‘s net incomes and costs can be represented by:

rVt = Xt – Mt + ( Vt+1 – Vermont )


R = the economic system ‘s internal rate of return in foreign currency.

V = the foreign currency value of the economic system.

Ten = the foreign currency value of Exports.

M = the foreign currency value of the Imports.

T = for Time

Pound Sterling value of net incomes generated by the economic system of DRC is given by:

X – M = Current Account Balance – ( Interests and Dividends )

= – ? 1.041 bn – ( – ? 0.217 bn )

= – ? 0.824 bn

Net Investing is given by:

( Vt+1 – Vt ) = Gross fixed Capital formation + Change in stocks – Depreciation

= ? 2.025 bn + ? 0.023 bn – ? 0.231 bn

= ? 1.817 bn

Substituting these figures into the equation, we get:

rVt = Xt – Mt + ( Vt+1 – Vermont )

= – ? 0.824 bn + ? 1.817 bn

= ? 0.993 Billion

Foreign involvement screen:

Foreign Interest Coverage Ratio can be defined as the ability of the foreign state ‘s economic system to run into its duties. This ratio is given by the net incomes before involvement and revenue enhancements for a clip period and divided by the involvement duty of that state for the same clip period. The lower the FIC ratio is, the lower its value is perceived.

Foreign Interest Coverage Ratio:

= recreational vehicle / Interest Duty[ 2 ]= Macroeconomic profits/Interest Duty

= 0.993 / 0.4

= 2.4825

Fiscal Leverage:

The exposure of a state to run into its duties can be measure by the fluctuations of its expected net incomes:

= Macroeconomic net incomes ( due to domestic occupants ) / Entire net incomes

= Macroeconomic net incomes / ( Macroeconomic net incomes + Net fiscal services )

= 0.993 / ( 0.993 – 0.217 )

= 1.28

This is the ratio which is dependent on the per centum alteration in the macroeconomic net incomes accumulated due to the domestic occupants and the entire alteration in macroeconomic net incomes.

The assorted hazards involved in transporting Iron-ore from Democratic Republic of Congo to China ( The Angang Steel Manufacturing Plant ) , can be analysed by the alteration in the trade dealingss and the current maritime developments that have been taking between the two states.

From the early 1960 ‘s, People ‘s Republic of China established strong political dealingss with the Democratic Republic of Congo ( DRC ) . Since so China has provided Democratic Republic of Congo with the necessary economic AIDSs required. Recently China has invested $ 9.0 Billion in the DRC to construct their substructure. Apart from the World Bank which provided DRC with the necessary economic resources to beef up their base, China is the following in line for bettering the criterions in the state. In return, China relies on DRC ‘s exports of its natural resources such as Fe ore, Cu, Co, diamonds, etc. 47 % of all exports from DRC are to China. Therefore this implies that the trade dealingss between the states are comparatively strong. DRC has exports to China of the entire value of around $ 2.9 Billion in 2007 compared to $ 750 Million in 2006. The entire imports from China to DRC were of the value of around $ 450 million in 2007 compared to $ 192 Million. This clearly shows that the trade dealingss between Democratic Republic of Congo and China emphasized more on exports from DRC to China than imports. Therefore, export of Iron ore would be considered as a regularised practise in the DRC.

The other factors which may impact the trading between the two states can be the changeless fluctuation in currency exchange rate.


GBP ( Great Britain Pounds )

CDF ( Congolese Francs )

CNY ( Chinese Yen )

31st March 2008




31st March 2009




31st March 2010




Other external factors which can impact the trade in footings of logistics, between DRC and China can be ever-increasing fuel monetary values, increased Insurance costs, and besides the recent menaces of Somali Pirates commandeering the Cargo Containers. Some of these factors can be overcome by promoting positive efforts of buttonholing with the politicians by the Rio Tinto executives in both the states.

Beginning of Fundss

For an industry every bit huge as the excavation industry the beginning of finance can play a important function in geting and commanding the net incomes. There are two chief standards for the beginning of support in instance of Rio Tinto plc.

The chief beginning of support can be from the parent company itself – Rio Tinto plc – United kingdom, i.e. , using of militias or Equity from the parent company. This would let a greater sense of control over the trade in DRC.

The 2nd agencies of funding involves taking a long term debt from any centralised bank from Democratic Republic of Congo. This would give the sense of security of the investings.

Sing the assorted political and fiscal conditions that Democratic Republic of Congo is undergoing there is a high degree of hazard involved in puting big sums of fundss into the state, such as high degree of public debt, fluctuating involvement rates, rising prices, negative current balance, etc. When assorted factors such as domestic instability, corruptions, rebellions, foreign struggles, invariably fluctuating political and economical clime are besides taken into history, the option of taking a long term debt would be a reasonable option.

The Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) Confidence Index gives Democratic Republic the ranking of 0.7 with China, USA and India taking the charts with 1.93, 1.67 and 1.64 severally. This index comprises of a just apprehension as to how attractive a state is in footings of its investing chances and besides the class of hazard involved and the profitableness of its returns in that peculiar state.

Sing the facts stated above it is advisable for the company to beginning 75-80 % of its financess from a locally based beginning from DRC and the staying can be sourced from the Militias of the parent company itself. This type of investing ratio would guarantee that DRC would retain high bets in this venture, which would in bend guarantee the alone involvement of the frequenters of the state. Inclusion of local spouse ‘s contact and repute would besides heighten the entree of Rio Tinto to the capital market of DRC and the public image of the house being partly owned locally would better its place in the state.

Net income Repatriation:

When any established local company takes Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) as an enterprise in another state, the premier aim of this move would be to tap into the market demand in the new economic system and earn larger net incomes through different schemes. Net income repatriation can be defined as the procedure of conveying the net incomes earned by a company in a foreign state back to the state of its beginning. Every state has specific footings and conditions when it comes to gain repatriation.

Not all the net incomes earned in a company that has been setup in a foreign state acquire repatriated to the parent company. The net incomes are shared between three elements:

The revenue enhancement issues refering to the foreign state, i.e. , Democratic Republic of Congo in this scenario.

Some of the net incomes are diverted towards constructing a strong trade name name and bettering on their CSR in the foreign state ( DRC ) .

Staying net incomes are repatriated to the parent company, to its stockholders in London.

Tax issues:

Part of the net incomes is reverted back to the authorities of Democratic Republic of Congo as Mining revenue enhancements and Profit based revenue enhancements. Mining revenue enhancement or Mining royalty is calculated on the gross revenues realised less assorted other operational disbursals. It is at the rate of 0.5 % for Iron ore and other ferric metals. Whereas Profit based revenue enhancement is at the rate of 30 % of the net net incomes.

There are other revenue enhancement issues like dual revenue enhancement, Annual traffic revenue enhancement, etc. , but Democratic Republic of Congo has bi-lateral understanding with the UK to extenuate many of these revenue enhancement policies.

Corporate societal duty:

Since Rio Tinto is using the natural resources of Democratic Republic of Congo it is indispensable for the company to widen their support to the domestic issues in that state in the signifier of corporate societal duty. Some of the net incomes acquired in the Rio Tinto venture at DRC can be utilized for the improvement of the local vicinities in the Democratic Republic of Congo and besides to instil a alteration in the criterion of life of the local population. Some issues to be considered:

To supply employment chances to the local population and besides warrant just rewards to their services,

Better the health care installations provided to the occupants,

Supporting the NGO ‘s in set uping educational establishments,

To help the clean imbibing H2O undertakings in Democratic Republic of Congo

Supporting the environmental issues, to take up forestation as a CSR to contradict the effects of de-forestation by the excavation operation itself.

These factors would non merely assist to accomplish a better Brand name but besides to make a sense of trust amongst the citizens of Democratic democracy of Congo. This will besides give a positive impact on the Global presence of Rio Tinto in other states.

Net incomes back to the state of beginning:

The chief intent of puting up a excavation operation in a foreign state is to accomplish moneymaking returns by taking the advantage of the demand for the merchandise. Hence it is but natural to repatriate or deviate back the remaining of the financess to the stockholders of Rio Tinto in London. The net incomes are used to pay on-time dividends to its portion holders and by making so ; the company will be able to accomplish the alone support from their stockholders.

Dispute Schemes

In the yesteryear, there have been cases of differences between the excavation companies and the regnant authorities government at Democratic Republic of Congo. Some of the possible hazards that need to be considered are expropriation of financess, inconvertibility, nationalisation, Insurrection or war jailbreaks, backdown of excavation licence, etc.

It is indispensable for Rio Tinto to explicate different schemes to undertake these assorted differences that can happen in the hereafter. One of the grounds to confront any of these difference issues can be breach of contract between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rio Tinto. Therefore complete steps have to be taken to guarantee that there is no breach in any regulations or ordinances stated in by the Bi-lateral understanding between the two states and the besides Rio Tinto plc and DRC.

Some of the excavation disputes late faced by other companies are:

Canada ‘s excavation enterprise of First Quantum minerals in the Democratic Republic of Congo resulted in its licence being withdrawn. The allegations faced by First Quantum minerals was that the agencies and manners it used to get the licence to the “ Frontier ” and “ Lonshi ” Cu mines in the DRC was illegal.

Pacific Rim Mining based in Canada has had differences with the El Salvadorian authorities sing its gold excavation licence. The authorities governments of El Salvador argued that it is the state ‘s right to conserve the environment and human wellness.

As a safeguard Rio Tinto can see choosing for insurance coverage for the FDI against arrogation, nationalisation, expropriation of assets and licence backdown, authorities organic structures similar to OPIC ( Overseas Private Investment Corporation ) which cover for these issues for most of the FDI ‘s that US investors undertake.

Equally far as, non-financial difference issues are considered, such as war jailbreaks, political and societal agitation, declaration of exigency, etc. It is indispensable for Rio Tinto to hold a precautional steps setup in such instances. Use of the positive relationship between the politicians of Democratic Republic of Congo and the executives of Rio Tinto can be made, to acquire an upper manus in these issues. Political lobbying demands to be a major scheme while come ining DRC for trade. Most of the difference issues can be thwarted by using the political contacts in the Democratic Republic of Congo.


An extended appraisal of assorted factors such as state specific hazard, political and economical factors and ongoing domestic convulsion within the state gives us a brief overview whether to travel in front with the investing. Equally far as the economic hazard appraisal is concerned, the macroeconomic net incomes that the state is giving are reasonably low and the Foreign Direct Investment Confidence Index is besides rated at a low ranking.

The ideal Source of funding for Rio Tinto would be to choose for a long term debt in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This would guarantee reduced sum of hazards as seen from Rio Tinto ‘s point of position, it besides brings in a high degree of engagement of the frequenters of DRC and would maintain their involvements vested in undertaking.

The issues sing net income repatriation would non affect any hazardous tactics because the revenue enhancement regulations in Democratic Republic of Congo are rather relaxed, but the company has to rehearse a positive corporate societal duty so as to keep an upper manus in its presence in the DRC. The staying net incomes can be repatriated back to its portion holders so as to hold their support for farther investings.

Equally far as strategic differences are concerned, keeping a positive relationship with the authorities governments i.e. , political lobbying demands to be practised by the Rio Tinto functionaries in the DRC, so as to queer any turbulence that may lift against the company ‘s aims.

Even though the macroeconomic net incomes are projected to be low, the overall state hazard is higher and many other negative issues would look that investing in the DRC would non be honoring, but the positive facet that the state is supplying the company, are the state ‘s natural resources. Since it is an investing in natural resources of a state it can be viewed as a long term investing and would finally get down bring forthing net incomes as the demand for the minerals around the Earth additions.