The planet Earth is one of the nine planets in the solar system and the lone known planet to harbour life and the place of human existences. From the words of Neil Armstrong, one of the spacemans of the celebrated Apollo 11, “ the Earth from infinite resembles a large blue marble with twirling white clouds drifting above bluish oceans. ” About 71 per centum of the Earth ‘s surface is covered with H2O and the remainder is land, largely in the signifier of continents that rise above the oceans.
Beginning of the Earth
The Earth has a alone feature that is suited to back uping life. It is neither excessively hot like planet Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, nor excessively cold like planet Mars.
For 1000s of old ages, human being could merely inquire about the Earth and other discernible planets in the solar system. Many thoughts such as the Earth was a sphere and that it travelled around the Sun were based on superb logical thinking. It was on the development of scientific method particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, that human existences began to garner informations that could be used to verify theories about the Earth and the remainder of the solar system.
In the 2nd half of the twentieth century, more progresss in the survey of the Earth and the solar system occurred because of the development of projectiles that could direct ballistic capsules beyond Earth. Human existences were able to analyze and detect Earth from infinite and orbiters equipped with scientific instruments. Scientists have studied the solar system and tried to explicate how it was formed. Billions of people are inquiring how the immense, lively planet came to be. There are many different theories seeking to give account of how our place planet came to be. One of the most popular theories of the planet ‘s beginning is that of God ‘s creative activity. Many spiritual group every bit good as scientists, embrace the belief that God created the existence and the different stairss actuating stuff and natural development and that these stairss so resulted in the formation of the galaxies, the solar system and being of the Earth. This theory is known as Theist development or as evolutionary creationism. This theory holds the belief that God exceeds common clip and infinite, with nature holding no survival self-sufficient of God ‘s will.
The Theistic Evolution Theory poses many inquiries that can ne’er be answered straight. The beginnings available are books written by worlds.
Most recognized belief is the theory of creative activity in the book of Genesis in the Old Testament. This popular theory provinces that God created the existence in six yearss.The Bible offers no grounds to turn out the narrative ; instead it relies on the religion of the trusters to accept it as truth.
Another popular belief is the Big Bang Theory. This theory supports the thought that the existence came approximately due to a colossal detonation. Harmonizing to the theory, “ the existence goes through a enormously high – velocity rise that expands within a fraction of a 2nd. Then, the inordinate heat of negatrons and other atoms mix. As atoms and atoms charge, still highly hot, they prevent light from reflecting, making a sweltering hot fog. Finally, the negatrons merge with extra atoms to construction atoms of H and He, doing visible radiation to at last radiance. Giant clouds are shortly formed by the H and He gases. Weighty elements that are non clustered together are thrown into infinite to organize stars and planets.
Another theory is developed by Immanuel Kant and given scientific signifier by Pierre Simon Laplace at the terminal of eighteenth century. It is known as the Nebular Theory. It was assumed that the solar system in its first province was a nebula, a hot, easy revolving mass of rare affair, which bit by bit cooled and contracted, the rotary motion going more rapid, in bend giving nebula a planate disk-like form.In clip, rings of gaseous affair became separated from the outer portion of the disc, until the lessened nebula at the centre was surrounded by a series of rings. Out of the stuff of each pealing a great ball was formed, which by shriveling finally became a planet. The mass at the centre of the system condensed to organize the Sun.
Brush or hit theories, in which a star passes a close by or really collides with the Sun, seek to explicate the distribution of angular impulse. Harmonizing to the Planetisimal theory, developed by Thomas Chamberlin and Forest Ray Moulton, in the early portion of twentieth century, a star passed near to the Sun. Huge tides were raised on the surface ; and some of these erupted affairs were lacerate free, and by a cross pull from the star, were thrust organic structures called planetesimals. As their orbits crossed, the larger organic structures grew by absorbing the planetisimals, therefore going planets.
The Gaseous Tidal Theory, proposed by James Jeans and Harold Jeffreys in 1918, is a fluctuation of the planetesimal construct. It suggests that a immense tidal moving ridge, raised on the Sun by a force of gravitation of a passing star, was drawn into a long fibril and became detached from the chief mass. As the watercourse of gaseous stuff condensed, it separated into multitudes of assorted sizes, which by farther condensation took the signifier of a planet. The Dynamic Encounter Theory of Georges Buffon states that the universe was formed out of liquefied stuffs from the Sun that collided with other planets.
Harmonizing to the Solar Disruption Theory by Georges-Louis Leclerc, the Sun and a large star about collided in infinite, which made some parts of the Sun explosion. The pieces formed became planets.
Composition and Structure of the Earth
Geologists divided the Earth into three chief zones: hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere.
Hydrosphere consists of the organic structures of H2O that covers 71 per centum of the Earth ‘s surface. The largest of these are the oceans, which contain over 97 per centum of all H2O on Earth. Glaciers and polar ice caps contain over 2 per centum of Earths ‘ H2O in the signifier of solid ice. Merely about 0.6 is under the surface as groundwater. Groundwater is 36 times more plentiful than H2O found in lakes, inland seas rivers, and in the ambiance as H2O vapour. Most of the H2O in glacier, lakes inland seas, rivers and groundwater is fresh and can be used for imbibing and in agribusiness.
The ambiance is the great cover of gases that surrounds the Earth. It is arranged in five beds: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and exosphere.
Lithosphere refers to all of the Earth, from its surface to its centre. The Earth contains three parts – crust, mantle, and nucleus. Crust is the outmost bed of the Earth. The crust consists of the continents, and other land countries and the basins or floor of the oceans. It has an mean thickness of 25 stat mi.
Mantle is about 800 stat mis thick of solid silicate stone. Core contains Fe and Ni whose outer nucleus is liquid and the inner nucleus is solid.
Changes on the Earth ‘s Surface
Think and Respond
How forces inside the Earth create and alteration landforms? Earth ‘s surface has been invariably altering of all time since the planet was formed. Most of these alterations have been taking topographic point easy over 1000000s of old ages. These gradual alterations resulted in alterations including the formation, eroding, regeneration of mountain scopes, the motion of continents, the creative activity of ace continents and the break-up of smaller continents.
There are factors responsible for the alterations in the Earth ‘s surface. These are:
Weathering. Weathering is the dislocation of stone at and near the surface of the Earth. Most stones originally formed in a hot, high force per unit area environment below the surface where there was small H2O. Once the stone reached Earth ‘s surface they were subjected to temperature alterations and expand to H2O. When stones are subjected to these sorts of conditions, the minerals they contain tend to alter. These alterations constitute the procedure of enduring. There are two types of weathering ; physical weathering and chemical weathering.
Physical weathering includes a lessening in the size of stone stuffs. Freezing and dissolving of H2O in stone states for illustration, splits stones into little pieces because H2O expands when it freezes.
Chemical enduring involves a chemical alteration in the composing of stone. Chemical weathering is of import to adult male because it creates the clay minerals that are of import constituent of dirt, which is the footing for agribusiness.
Erosion. Erosion is the procedure that removes loose and weather-beaten stone and carries it to a new site. Water, air current, and glacial ice combined with the force of gravitation can do eroding.
Soil eroding and gullying in the upper Panuco basin, Sierra Madre Oriental, eastern Mexico
Think and Explain
Why is eroding unsafe? Erosion by running H2O is the most common procedure of eroding. When H2O moves downhill, it can transport loose stones or dirt with it. The force of the running H2O removes loose atoms formed by enduring. In the procedure, gullies and vales are lengthened, widened, and intensify. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is an illustration of the gnawing power of H2O. Over a million old ages the Colorado River has cut a canon that is more than 1 mile deep. The Nile River of Egypt, for illustration, brings rich dirt from the mountains and spreads it along its Bankss. Because of this, the Nile Valley is one of the most fertile countries in the universe. It is the lone portion of Egypt where harvests can turn, a ground why Egypt was known as “ The Gift of Nile. ” On the other manus, the Huang Ho or Yellow River in Northern China frequently overflows its Bankss and inundations farms and places. Over the old ages Huang Ho has done so much harm that people call this river “ China ‘s Sorrow. ”
Erosion can besides happen as glacier, or big organic structures of ice, move across the surface of the Earth. As they move, glaciers change the land destructing woods, carving out vales, changing the class of the rivers and have oning down mountaintops.
Wind is an of import cause of eroding merely in waterless or dry parts. Wind carries sand and soil, which can scour even solid stone. Erosion caused by air current can either aid or ache people. The fields of Northern China for illustration, have a midst, rich type of dirt that is carried by air currents blowing from the comeuppances far to the West. This dirt allows husbandmans in Northern China to raise great sum of wheat and other nutrient harvests.
Think and Explain
How make you account today ‘s flash inundations to dirty eroding?
Many factors determine the rate and sort of eroding that occurs in a certain country. Then clime of a given country determines the distribution, sum, and sort of precipitation that the country receives, therefore, the type and rate of enduring. An country with an waterless clime erodes otherwise than the country with a humid clime. The lift of an country besides plays an of import function by finding the possible energy of running H2O. The higher the lift, the more H2O will flux due to the force of gravitation.
Think and Explain
How do scientists predict when and where temblors may happen? Opposite the grading is a force responsible for raising mountains, and tableland and for making new land masss. These alterations on Earth surface occur in the outermost solid part of Earth, known as geosphere. The lithosphere consists of the crust and another part known as the upper mantle. Scientists believe that the lithosphere is broken into a series of home bases, or sections. Harmonizing to the theory of home base tectonics, these home bases move about on Earth ‘s surface over long periods of clip. These home bases move in different ways in relation to each other.
They pull apart or travel off from each other, they collide or travel against each other, or they slide past each other as they move sideways. These agitating motions of the Earth called temblors explain geological happenings such as volcanic eruptions, every bit good as mountain edifice and the formation of oceans and continents.
Yale Peabody Museum/www.peabody.yale.edu/platetectonics/author
Earth ‘s Physical Features
Earth ‘s Features
The natural characteristics of the Earth ‘s land surfaces are called landforms. These characteristics are used to depict and assist people to turn up specific topographic points.
Think and Explain
Why is the Earth the lone planet for adult male? Landforms are defined as the natural physical characteristics found on the surface of the Earth. Landforms are created as a consequence of the assorted forces of nature such as air current, H2O and ice and besides by the motion of the Earth ‘s tectonic home bases. Due to these actions, the dirt gets eroded and deposited someplace far from the site of eroding, therefore leads to the formation of different landforms. Some landforms are created in a affair of few hours ; others take 1000000s of old ages to look. A group of landforms in a peculiar country is called its landscape.
Geographers and geologists refer to four major landforms. Large level chiefly grassy countries are the fields. Lands with lifts more than 1,000 pess above the environing countries are called mountains. Hills are elevated land multitudes that are less than 1,000 pess above their milieus. Plateaus are level elevated countries perched between 300 to 3,000 pess high. Minor landforms include buttes, canons, vales and basins.
Think and Respond
How make forces inside the Earth create and alteration landforms? These major landforms were formed as a consequence of tectonic activity, or temblors. Other landforms are the consequence of volcanic eruptions. In fact, mountains that were formed by tectonic activity are called fold mountains, while those formed by volcanic eruptions are called volcanic mountains. Still other landforms resulted from the effects of weathering, eroding and the motion of glaciers.
Think and Respond
How did organic structures of H2O such as rivers and seas affect societies? Mountains are possibly the most noticeable of the major landforms and are found on every continent, every bit good as beneath the ocean. The highest mountain is Mount Everest in the Himalayas at 29,028 pess. The largest mountain, by volume, is Hawaii ‘s Maono Loa. The longest concatenation of mountains is the Mid Ocean Range. Both Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean and Iceland are member extremums of this scope.
More than half of the Earth ‘s surface is covered by fields like the Central Plains of the United States and the fields in Eastern China. Some fields that continue to turn in surface country are the deltas that form by land carried in the current and deposited at the oral cavities of major rivers. The largest deltas are the Nile River Delta, Mississippi River Delta and Rhone River Delta.
Plateaus history for approximately 30 per centum of the Earth ‘s surface. They are lifts that terminate in level lands. Some people call them tablelands because of their form. There are frequently beds of both difficult and soft stone in a tableland. These landforms were caused when the Earth ‘s crust was forced upward.
Types and Characteristic Features of Landforms
There are many types of landforms on the Earth ‘s surface. Each landform is characterized by its incline, lift, dirt and stone type, stratification and orientation. Some of the common types of landforms and their features are the undermentioned:
Mountains: Mountains are countries, which are higher than the environing countries and are characterized by a extremum, e.g. The Himalayas. Surprisingly, they are more often present in the oceans than in land. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed due the tectonic motion such as an temblor or a volcanic eruption. A few are resulted due to eroding of the environing countries by the action of air current, H2O or ice.
Tableland: Tableland are big upland level countries separated from the environing countries by a steep incline, e.g. The Tibetan tableland. Plateaus are formed due to assorted actions such as hit of the Earth ‘s tectonic home bases, upheaval of the Earth ‘s crust by the action of magma ; some are resulted due to the lava flow from the volcanic eruption.
Islands: Islands are countries that are wholly surrounded by H2O, e.g. The Hawaiian Islands. Islands are formed either as a consequence of the volcanic eruption or due to the presence of hot musca volitanss on the geosphere.
Plains: Plains are level countries or low alleviation countries on the Earth ‘s surface, e.g. prairies, steppes. Plains are formed due to the deposit of the scoured dirt from the hills and mountains or due to the fluxing lava deposited by the agents of air current, H2O and ice.
Valleies: Valleies are level countries of land between the hills or mountains, e.g. The California Central Valley. Largely they are formed by the actions of rivers and glaciers. Depending upon the form, vale signifiers are classified as U-shaped or V-shaped vale. V-shaped vales are formed by fluxing H2O or rivers, whereas U-shaped vales are formed by glaciers.
Desertss: Desertss are really dry lands with small or no rainfall, for illustration, The Sahara desert. Largely comeuppances are formed in rain shadow countries, which are leeward of a mountain scope with regard to the air current way. Therefore, the mountains block the transition of air current ensuing in small or sometimes no rain.
Loess: Loess are sedimentations of silt and with a small sum of sand and clay. Many a times wind action is responsible for formation of loess ; nevertheless sometimes glacial activity can besides organize loess.
Rivers: Rivers are natural fluxing watercourse of fresh water, e.g. The Nile. They largely flow towards lakes or oceans but sometimes they dried up without making another H2O organic structure. River H2O is collected from the surface H2O overflows, groundwater H2O recharge and sometimes from the H2O reservoirs such as glaciers. Landforms decidedly play an of import function in the formation of rivers.
Oceans: Oceans are the biggest signifier of H2O and are saline, such as The Pacific Ocean. Oceans of the universe covers around 71 % of the Earth ‘s surface and command the conditions and clime of the Earth ‘s surface.
Think and Explain
Are landforms still impacting today ‘s development?
Glaciers: Glaciers are immense slow traveling organic structure of ice. Glaciers are formed due to the compression of snow beds and moves with regard to gravitation and force per unit area. Chiefly there are two types of glaciers- Alpine glaciers, which are formed in high mountains and Continental glaciers, which are formed in cold Polar Regions.
Land surface of the Earth was divided into seven land masss called continents.
Land surface of the Earth was divided into seven land masss called continents. A continent is defined as a big unbroken land mass wholly surrounded by H2O, although in some instances continents are ( or were in portion ) connected by land Bridgess. The seven continents are North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica. The islands in the Pacific are frequently called Oceania.
Illus. 1. The seven continents of the universe.
Geographically, Europe, including the British Isles, is a big western peninsula of the continent of Asia ; and many geographers, refer to Europe and Asia, as the Eurasiatic continent. But traditionally, Europe is counted as a separate continent, with the Ural and the Caucasus mountains organizing the line of limit between Europe and Asia. Europe is a big peninsula with a long irregular coastline with varied mountains, and islands.
The continent of Europe is a comparatively little portion of the Eurasiatic land mass, embracing 3,827,308 square miles.A It is bounded on the West by the Atlantic Ocean, on the South by the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, on the E by Asia, and on the North by the Arctic Ocean.A Europe ‘s highest point is Mt. Elbrus in Russia, at 18,510 pess above sea level.A Its lowest point is the Caspian Sea in Russia, at 90 pess below sea level.A The longest river in Europe is the Volga, which runs through Russia for approximately 2,300 miles.A Besides in Russia is the continent ‘s largest lake, Lake Ladoga, which covers an country of 6,834 square stat mis.
Europe consists of over 40 states, with approximative entire population of 803, 850, 858 in 2009.A Its two major English-speaking states, the United Kingdom and Ireland, are island nations.A Germany and France are the two most thickly settled states of cardinal Europe.A Two of Europe ‘s southernmost states, Greece and Italy are Mediterranean Sea peninsulas.A Four of the continent ‘s northern states – Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden – comprise a part known as Scandinavia.
Illus. 1. Map of Europe hypertext transfer protocol: //rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect6/europe-map.gif
Think and Respond
Why is Europe non considered a continent by many?
Think and Respond
What physical characteristics might hold been a great aid for the Europeans to research and settle in the Philippines? Asia is the largest of the Earth ‘s seven continents, lying about wholly in the Northern Hemisphere. With outlying islands, it covers an estimated 44,391,000 sq kilometer ( 17,139,000 sq myocardial infarction ) , or about 30 per centum of the universe ‘s entire land country. Its peoples account for three-fifths of the universe ‘s population ; in 2009 Asia had an estimated 4.10 billion dwellers.
Most geographers regard Asia as bounded on the North by the Arctic Ocean, on the E by the Bering Strait and the Pacific Ocean, on the South by the Indian Ocean, and on the sou’-west by the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea. On the West, the Ural Mountain serves as boundary between Europe and Asia. Some geographers include Europe and Asia together in a larger Eurasiatic part, observing that western Asiatic states, such as Turkey, merge about unnoticeably into Europe.
The Continental mainland stretches from the southern terminal of the Malay Peninsula to Cape Chelyuskin in Siberia. The lowest and highest points on the Earth ‘s surface are in Asia, viz. , the shore of the Dead Sea which is 408 m/1,340 ft. below sea degree in 1996 ) and Mount Everest which is which is about 8,850 m/29,035 ft above sea degree.
Asia is divided into different regional groups viz. ; Southwest Asia, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central or North Asia.
Southwest Asia spans a huge country that encompasses the undermentioned states ; Afghanistan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates.
South Asia is a big land mass that extends southerly from the continent of Asia into the Indian Ocean it ‘s about 1,591,890 square stat mi or 2,561,351 sq kilometer busying about 10 per centum of the land country of Asia. This part includes the undermentioned states ; Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri-Lanka.
East Asia is separated from the remainder of the Asiatic continent by rugged Highlandss and looming mountain scopes. It comprises the undermentioned states ; China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Southeast Asia covers a land country of about 1.7 million square stat mis or 4.4 million sq kilometer. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the E and the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean to the West and South. The undermentioned states are included in the part ; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
Central Asia/ North Asia is a part from the Caspian Sea in the West to Central China in the E, and from Southern Russia in the North to Afghanistan in the South. It has a varied geographics. The part includes the undermentioned states: Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
Illus. 1. Map of Asia hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect6/750x750_asia_m.jpg
The third-largest continent on Earth is North America. It lies largely between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer. It is about wholly surrounded by organic structures of H2O, including the Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Area: 9,361,791 sq myocardial infarction ( 24,247,039 sq kilometer ) . Population ( 2008 est. ) : 528, 720, 588. It is shaped like an upside-down trigon.To the sou’-east are the Appalachian Mountains and to the West are the younger and much taller Cordilleras. These mountains extend the length of the continent and busy about tierce of the entire land country. The Rocky Mountains constitute the eastern Cordillera. The highest point is Mount McKinley. The Mississippi River basin, including its major feeders, the Missouri and Ohio, occupies more than one-eighth of the continent ‘s entire country. Generally temperate climatic conditions prevail.
Illus. 1. Map of North America hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greece-map.net/north-america/north-america-map.gif
South America, 4th largest of the Earth ‘s seven continents after Asia, Africa, and North America busying 17,820,900 sq kilometer ( 6,880,700 sq myocardial infarction ) , or 12 per centum of the Earth ‘s land surface. It lies astride the equator and tropic of Capricorn and is joined by the Isthmus of Panama, on the North, to Central and North America. The continent extends 7,400 kilometer ( 4,600 myocardial infarction ) from the Caribbean on the North to Cape Horn on the South, and its maximal breadth, between Ponta do Seixas, on Brazil ‘s Atlantic seashore, and Punta Parinas on Peru ‘s Pacific seashore, is 5,160 kilometer ( 3,210 myocardial infarction ) . South America has a 2009 estimated population of 394 million, or 6 per centum of the universe ‘s people. The continent comprises 12 states. Ten of the states are Latin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Two of the states are former dependences: Guyana, of the United Kingdom, and Suriname, of The Netherlands. South America besides includes Gallic Guiana, an abroad section of France. The coastline of South America is comparatively regular except in the utmost South and sou’-west, where it is indented by legion recess.
The Andes Mountain, the 2nd highest mountain scope in the universe is situated, in South America.
The chief lowland is the huge Amazon Basin in the equatorial portion of the continent ; it is drained by the Amazon River, the universe ‘s 2nd longest river. The Orinoco River drains a lowland in the North ; to the south lies the Paraguay-Parana ‘ basin. The lowest point in South America ( 40 m/ 131 foot below sea degree ) is on Peninsula Valdes in eastern Argentina, and the greatest lift ( 6,960 m/22,834 foot ) is atop Aconcagua in western Argentina, the highest extremum in the Western Hemisphere.
Illus. 1. Map of South America hypertext transfer protocol: //kelso.stormfront.org/Kelsoimages/south-america-map.gif
Africa is the 2nd largest of the Earth ‘s seven continents, covering, with next islands, approximately 30,300,000 sq km ( about 11,699,000 sq myocardial infarction ) , or about 20 % of the universe ‘s entire land country. In the mid 2009, some 999 million people, or about 14.72 % of the universe ‘s population inhabited Africa.
Straddling the equator, Africa stretches about 8000 kilometer ( about 4970 myocardial infarction ) from its northernmost point, Cape Blanc ( ar-Ras al-Abyad ) in Tunisia, to its southernmost tip, Cape Agulhas in South Africa. The maximal breadth of the continent, measured from the tip of Cape Verde in Senegal, in the West, to Ras Hafun in Somalia, in the East, is about 7560 kilometer ( about 4700 myocardial infarction ) . The highest point on the continent is the perpetually snowcapped Mt. Kilimanjaro ( 5895 m/19,340 foot ) in Tanzania, and the lowest is Lake Assal ( 153 m/502 foot below sea degree ) in Djibouti. Africa has a regular coastline characterized by few indentures. Its entire length is merely approximately 30,490 kilometers ( about 18,950 myocardial infarction ) ; the length of its coastline in proportion to its country is less than that of any other continent.
Think and Respond
Why are the people in the desert normally nomads?
The main islands of Africa include Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pemba, Mauritius, Reunion, the Seychelles, and the Comoro islands in the Indian Ocean ; Sao Tome , Principe, Annobon, and Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea ; Saint Helena, Ascension, and the Bijagos islands in the Atlantic ; and the Cape Verde, Canary, and Madeira Islands in the North Atlantic.
Africa may be divided into three major parts: the Northern Plateau, the Central and Southern Plateau, and the Eastern Highlands. Low-lying coastal strips, with the exclusion of the Mediterranean seashore and the Guinea seashore, are by and large narrow and lift aggressively to the tableland.
The outstanding characteristic of the Northern Plateau is the Sahara, the great desert that occupies more than one-fourth of Africa.
At the boundary line of the Northern Plateau are several cragged parts. To the Northwest lies the Atlas Mountain, a concatenation of rugged extremums linked by high tableland, which extend from Morocco into Tunisia. Other outstanding highlands are the Futa Jallon, on the Southwest, and the Adamawa Massif and the Cameroon mountain scope, on the South. The Lake Chad Basin is situated in the approximative centre of the Northern Plateau. The Central and Southern Plateau is well higher than the Northern Plateau and includes west cardinal and South Africa. It contains several major depressions, notably the Congo River Basin and the Kalahari Desert. Other characteristic South of this tableland is the Drakensberg Mountain.
The Eastern Highlands, the highest part of the continent, prevarication near the E seashore, widening from the Red Sea South to the Zambezi River. South of the Ethiopian Plateau are a figure of looming volcanic extremums, including Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Kenya, and Mt. Elgon. West of the Great Rift Valley is the Ruwenzori Range.
Illus. 1. Map of Africa hypertext transfer protocol: //allonsy.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/africa-map.jpg
The “ continent ” of Australia/Oceania links together the Continental land mass of Australia with the immense figure of widely scattered islands across the Pacific Ocean. This continent includes New Guinea, Tasmania, New Zealand, Hawaii, and the infinite islands of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
The continent of Australia is such a comparatively low and level topographic point. Although the Great Dividing Range has some interesting countries such as the Blue Mountains country, and there is some nice mountain scenery, the majority of the continent is merely merely non cragged at all. The highest point on the Australian land mass is Mt. Kosciusko ( 7310’/2228m ) , a extremum with a route to the top.
The continent of Australia/Oceania holds a respectable sum of serious mountains situated in the “ Oceania ” . In New Zealand and New Guinea are first mountain scopes: Puncak Java, which is 5,030 metre, and in New Guinea is the highest acme in this portion of the universe. There is besides the Southern Alps of New Zealand, which is a craggy, snowy scope that challenges the best climbers in the universe.
Many other islands of Oceania hold mountains that are either higher or more interesting that those of mainland Australia ; high spots include the scopes of Tasmania, Tahiti, Fiji, the Solomon Islands, and the monolithic shield vents of Hawaii.
Illus. 1. Map of Australia, Oceania hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greece-map.net/oceania/oceania-map.gif
Antarctica is the 5th largest of Earth ‘s seven continents. Antarctica surrounds the South Pole and is a topographic point of extremes. It is the southernmost, coldest, iciest, driest, windiest, most remote, and most late discovered continent. About the full land mass lies within the South-polar Circles. Air temperatures of the high inland parts fall below -80A°C ( -110A°F ) in winter and rise merely to -30A°C ( -20A°F ) in summer. Massive ice sheets built up from snow over 1000000s of old ages cover about all of the continent and float in immense ice shelves on coastal Waterss. In winter, frozen saltwater ( sea ice ) more than doubles the size of the Antarctic ice cap. Antarctica ‘s huge countries of ice on land and on sea drama a major function in Earth ‘s clime and could be strongly affected by planetary heating. The thaw of Antarctic ice could dramatically raise planetary sea degree.
Antarctica means “ opposite to the Arctic, ” Earth ‘s northmost part. Antarctica is wholly encircled` by the Southern Ocean. The full country South of the Antarctic Convergence is referred to as the South-polar part.
Illus. 1. Map of Antarctica hypertext transfer protocol: //www.wordtravels.com/pro/images/sample_maps/Antarctica_map.jpg
Changes in the Earth ‘s Surface
Composition and Structure
Home plate Architectonicss
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.quia.com
Supply the right replies to finish the mystifier.
The belief that the procedure of development was divinely supervised ( Theist Development )
A theory saying that the Earth was a merchandise of an detonation of a individual highly heavy mass of affair ( Big Bang )
A once held theory that the solar system evolved as a hot, revolving, flattened gaseous nebula. ( Nebular Theory )
It is besides known as planetisimal theory ( Collision Theory )
The force of gravitation of a star which passed closed to the Sun, caused the several gases to be torn off which in bend as they cooled off bit by bit and condensed, they came to organize planets.
( Tidal Theory )
How does earth differ from other planets?
Choose one that does non belong to the group:
a. troposphere b. stratosphere c. mesosphere d. hydrosphere
a. atmosphere b. hydrosphere c. lithosphere d. stratosphere
a. nucleus b. mantle c. crust d. home base
a. eroding b. enduring c. home base tectonics d. Heat
a. Colorado River b. Nile River c. Pasig River d. Yellow River
“ Volcanic eruption may do alterations in the physical characteristics of the Earth. ”
Expression for the physical characteristics of the Earth inside the tabular array. Pull a horizontal/vertical line to organize a word. Use the hints below as your usher.
A natural characteristic of the Earth ‘s surface such as vale, mountain, or hills
They are seven uninterrupted land multitudes that constitute most of the dry land on the surface of the Earth
A narrow strip of land that joins two larger countries of land
An country of land, normally rounded in form, that is higher than the encompassing land but non every bit high as mountain
An country of high land with reasonably flat surface
A high country of land mass with steep or inclining sides
An country of land, smaller than a continent, that is wholly surrounded by H2O
A long low country of land, frequently with a river or watercourse running through it, that is surrounded by higher land
An country of land, normally in really hot climes that consist merely of sand, crushed rock, or stone with small or no flora, no lasting organic structures of H2O, fickle rainfall
A natural watercourse of H2O that flows through land and empties into a organic structure of H2O such as an ocean or lake
Explain your reply:
How are landforms formed?
What type of landform is most suited for adult male ‘s habitation? Why?
Identify the correct reply.
The highest point in North America is ____________ .
A piece of land on the north connection South America to North America is ____________ .
A mountain dividing Europe and Asia is ____________ .
The lowest point on the E found in Asia is ____________ .
The highest point in Africa is ____________ .
The highest point in Europe is Mt. Elbruz and is found in ____________ .
Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are normally known as _____________ states.
A continent whose name means opposite to the Arctic is _____________ .
A desert busying about A? of Africa is _____________ .
The continent where Blue Mountains is found is called_____________ .
Response to the Essential Question
Biblical and scientific theories tried to explicate the Earth ‘s beginning
Water and Wind are major causes of eroding in most portion of our state. What can you make as a Social Studies and civic minded pupil to assist forestall dirt eroding?