An assessment of the London Stock Exchange

The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in London, United Kingdom. At December 2010, the Exchange had a market capitalisation of around US $ 3.6 trillion, giving it a topographic point as one of the largest stock ( 4th ) exchange in the universe by this measuring ( largest in Europe ) .

The London Stock Exchange is one among the universe ‘s oldest stock exchanges and its operation is estimated over 300 old ages. It began runing in the java houses of London ( around 17th century ) , which forced it rapidly to turn and go the City ‘s most of import fiscal establishment. Over the undermentioned centuries, the Exchange developed into a strong, good regulated stock market that today lies at the bosom of the planetary fiscal community.

Here is a brief historical reappraisal by Year:

1698 John Castaing begins to publish “ at this Office in Jonathan ‘s Coffee-house ” a list of stock and trade good monetary values called “ The Course of the Exchange and other things ” . ( It is the earliest grounds of organized trading in marketable securities in London )

1698 Stock traders are expel from the Royal Exchange for rowdyism forced them runing in streets and java houses nearby, in peculiar in Jonathan ‘s Coffee House in Change Alley.

1720 The moving ridge of bad febrility known as the “ South Sea Bubble ” explosions.

( The Change Alley exchange thrived. However, it suffered a reverse in 1720. )

One exciting effort was by the South Sea Company, stoked by agents, the company ‘s proprietor John Blunt and the authorities, in a manner to alter the old nine twelvemonth unprofitable company, the authorities hoped to dispatch the big debts by offering portions to the populace.

Shares in the company, which were at an sum of ?128 each at the beginning of the twelvemonth, end up as ?1,050 at June. The bubble necessarily burst, with portion monetary values immersing to ?175, so ?124.

The call that was caused, forced the authorities to go through statute law to forestall another bubble, and took a long clip for stock exchange recover from this.

1748 Fire expanses through Change Alley, destructing most of the java houses. They are later rebuilt.

1761 A group of 150 stock agents and middlemans form a nine at Jonathan ‘s to purchase and sell portions.

1773 The hard-on of agents won edifice in Sheeting ‘s Alley, with a covering room on the land floor and a java room above. Widely known as “ New Jonathan ‘s ” . ( Name was changed after a piece to “ The Stock Exchange ” . )

1801 The modern Stock Exchange is borne, under a formal rank subscription footing, the first regulated exchange being in London.

1802 In Capel Court is the new edifice.

1812 The creative activity of the first regulation book.

1836 The gap of the first regional exchanges in Manchester and Liverpool.

1845 The “ Railway passion ” – dominates into the state.

1854 The rebuilt of Stock Exchange.

1876 A new Deed of Settlement for the Stock Exchange comes into force.

1914 The Great War means the Exchange market is closed from the terminal of July until

the new Year. The Stock Exchange Battalion of Royal Fusiliers is formed – 1,600

volunteered, 400 ne’er returned.

1923 The Exchange receives its ain Coat of Arms, with the slogan “ Dictum Meum Pactum ” ( My Word is My Bond ) .

1939 Start of World War Two. The stopping point of the Exchange for 6 yearss long and reopens on 7 September.

1972 Her Majesty the Queen opens an Exchange ‘s new 26-storey office block with its 23,000sq ft trading floor.

1973 First female members appearence to the market. There were 11 British and Irish regional exchanges amalgamate with the London exchange.

1986 Deregulation of the market, known as “ Big Bang ” :

Ownership of member houses by an outside corporation is allowed.

All houses become broker/dealers able to run in a double capacity.

Minimal graduated tables of committee are abolished.

Individual members cease to hold vote rights.

Trading moves from being conducted face-to-face on a market floor to being performed via computing machine and telephone from separate dealing suites.

The Exchange becomes a private limited company under the Companies Act 1985.

1991 The regulating Council of the Exchange is replaced by a Board of Directors drawn from the Exchange ‘s executive, client and user base. The new trading name is: “ The London Stock Exchange ” .

1995 The launch of AIM ( international market for turning companies ) .

1997 SETS ( Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service ) is launched to assist the market get a greater velocity and efficiency.

2000 The transportation of function as UK Listing Authority with HM Treasury to the Financial Services Authority ( FSA ) . After the Shareholders ballot for going a populace limited company ( London Stock Exchange plc ) .

2003 The creative activity of EDX London, a new international equity derived functions concern, in partnership with OM Group. The acquisition of Proquote Limited, the new provider of real-time market informations and trading systems.

2004 The new central offices move in Paternoster Square.

2007 The London Stock Exchange merges with Borsa Italiana, making the London Stock Exchange Group.

Beginning of portion trading

The trade in portions in London began by the demand of financing two transportation ocean trips ( The Muscovy Company ‘s effort to make China via the White Sea North of Russia, and the East India Company ocean trip to India and the E ) . The trading in the stocks of the 2nd company began in 1688.The demand of financing these two expensive journeys in private, the companies raised the money by selling portions to merchandisers, giving them a right to a part of any net incomes finally made.

Licensing of agents

In 1697, a jurisprudence was passed to “ keep the figure and ill-practice of agents and stockjobbers ” following a figure of insider trading and market-rigging incidents. It required all agents to be licensed and to take an curse promising to move legitimately.

Membership of aliens

Previously, all members of the London Stock Exchange had to be British as per Rule 21. The nationality demand was lifted in 1970. This allowed aliens to go members of the London Stock Exchange, the first approved rank being that of Egyptian prince Abbas Hilmi.

Merchandises and services

The London Stock Exchange has four chief countries:

Equity markets: enables companies from around the universe to raise capital. There are the four primary markets:

The Main Market.

The AIM, which was established in 1995 ( conserning smaller companies ) .

The Professional Securities Market, for raising capital through debt securities or depositary grosss.

The Specialist Fund Market “ which was designed merely for the demands of extremely specialised investing entities institutional, professional and extremely knowing investors. ”

Trading services: market for trading in a scope of securities that include: UK and international equities – debt – covered warrants – exchange traded financess ( ETFs ) – Exchange Traded Commodities ( ETCs ) – reits – fixed interest- contracts for difference ( CFDs ) and depositary grosss.

Information Servicess: the proviso of real-time monetary values, intelligence and other fiscal information.

Derived functions: the Exchange manages EDX London, a subscriber to derived functions concern which created in 2003 aiming in conveying the hard currency equity and derived functions markets together.

Opening Hours of the Stock Market

Normal trading Sessionss are from 08:00 to 16:30 every twenty-four hours of the hebdomad except Saturdays, Sundays and vacations declared by the Exchange in progress.

The agenda is as follows:

Trade Reporting 07:15 – 07:50

Opening Action 07:50 – 08:00

Continuous Trading 08:00 – 16:20

VWAP 16:20 – 16:30

Closing Auction 16:30 – 16:35

Order Care 16:35 – 17:00

Trade Reporting Merely 17:00 – 17:15

Vacations are presently: New Year ‘s Day, Easter, May Bank Holiday, Spring Bank Holiday, Summer Bank Holiday, and Christmas.

Note that UK Time is Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT ) , with daylight-saving clip observed.

The Company Levels

As at 31 July 2010, the Exchange listed 2,713 companies, dwelling of:

The companies that operate in UK Main market: 1.114

The companies that operate in International Main Market: 327

The companies that operate in AIM: 1.222

The companies that operate in Professional Securities Market ( PSM ) : 44

The companies that operate in Specialist Fund Market ( SFM ) : 6

Companies that operate in London Stock Market

( Here are top 9 FTSE 100 companies by Market Capitalization at the terminal of January 2010 sums in ?millions ) and major Stockholders.

Operating companies







Market Capitalization

1. Royal Dutch Shell Energy ( Oil/Gas )


2. HSBC Financial ( bank )


3. BP Energy ( Oil/Gas )


4. Vodafone Group Telecommunications ( Mobile )


5. GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals ( inc. research )


6. BHP Billiton ( Mining )


7. Rio Tinto Group ( Mining )


8. British American Tobacco ( Tobacco )


9. AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals ( inc. research )


Major stockholders

Borse Dubai





20.6 %

Qatar Investment Authority

15.1 %


6.0 %

Intesa Sanpaolo

5.3 %

FIL Limited

5.0 %

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5.0 %

Trading system

Given London ‘s assorted trading history, does non surprise us that many UK companies listed on the London Stock Exchange are have a geographically diverse with a wide scope of their chief concern involvements. Furthermore this fact has been a reflected in the beginning of net incomes and the locations of operations for the companies that are listed on the Main Market. That makes the London fiscal Centre as a immense different offering from most other markets, which most of them taking in domestic securities and provides a chief reappraisal of the local economic system. The UK ‘s headline tradable index FTSE 100Index is the chief illustration of the different nature of the companies listed on the Main Market. Its most components ‘ operations are non limited merely to the UK, with companies, including GlaxoSmithKline and Vodafone ; alternatively it is endeavoring in corporate construction which reaches across the Earth. Although the FTSE 100 is frequently thought of as a yardstick for the UK economic system, its chief intent is to capture the returns of the largest 100companies domiciled in the UK.

It was the lone unfastened market during the center of the universe twenty-four hours, and took alone exposure around the universe due to its trading hours. As a worldwide recognized index supplier, FTSE ‘s UK Index Series is by no agencies confined to domestic investing, being widely followed by both retail and institutional investors. This ensures that no individual group of investors dominates the portion registries of UK listed companies. The combination of this planetary economic exposure and attractive force of planetary financess ensures that the UK is less exposed to specific conditions refering to any one economic system. In recent old ages, such factors have led to a wealth of companies demoing an involvement in Premium Listings to measure up for the FTSE UK Index Series, peculiarly the top two tradable indices the FTSE 100 Index and FTSE 250 Index. Inspiring investor assurance as a fiscal market, London imposes some of the highest criterions in the universe for administration and investor protection. This inspires assurance in investors following the UK market and its major indices. Governance comes in the signifier of listing regulations, company jurisprudence and market pattern, all of which are designed to protect stockholder involvements and let them to keep direction to account.

This includes regulations such as preemption rights, which offer stockholders any new issue of portions before being offered to non-shareholders. The intent of this regulation is to guarantee that stockholders are able to forestall their interest from being diluted

by new issue.

Similarly, factors such as rigorous revelation, which are included in company jurisprudence and the UK ‘s Listing Rules, are of import, as they allow investors to

Buttocks companies in an accurate and timely mode. This focal point on transparence remains the key to edifice trust amongst investors, which intern leads to strong market activity, making a more liquid market.

As an award-winning index supplier, FTSE creates market-leading indices utilizing robust informations and methodological analysiss, maintaining tradability forepart of head through the usage of tough liquidness and market capitalisation testing. By making so, FTSE guarantee that its indices are extremely suited for the creative activity of fiscal merchandises such as Exchange Traded Funds ( ‘ETFs ‘ ) , derived functions and structured merchandises. The handiness and proliferation of these merchandises has non merely increased chances for investors to measure it against the relevant demands. This procedure is usually undertaken good before the publication of the prospectus, giving the company adequate clip to understand the stairss it may necessitate to take to guarantee its eligibility for inclusion in the index series. The demands these companies must run into include a wealth of coverage demands, conformity with the UK Corporate Governance Code and the City Code for Takeovers and Mergers.

By run intoing these standards, companies show their ability to adhere to good pattern across several elements of concern including: board construction, answerability and dealingss with stockholders. In order to be included in an index in the FTSE UK series, companies without a UK incorporation must be incorporated in a developed market or other legal residence approved by FTSE, every bit good as holding a minimal 50 per cent free float. Though the demands for a Premium List are the toughest in Europe, the benefits of come ining the liquid and internationalized UK market, every bit good as accomplishing FTSE 100 position, frequently far outweigh every bit good as justify these, particularly amongst more ambitious companies.

The FTSE UK Index Series has been designed to stand for the public presentation of UK-domiciled companies with a Premium Listing on the Exchange ‘s Main Market. Investors are provided with a comprehensive and complementary set of indices that measure the public presentation of a scope of capital and industry sections within the UK equity market. In add-on to the standard UK series detailed below, FTSE has besides launched a scope of investing scheme versions, such as the FTSE 100 and FTSE 250 Short and Leveraged indices. These enhanced indices are created with FTSE ‘s

Quantitative expertness and supply investors with new inactive schemes and hazard direction chances.

Rules and ordinances

The attraction of the Exchange ‘s markets is maintained by supplying an efficient and good regulated market topographic point. As a Recognized Investment Exchange ( RIE ) , the Exchange besides has to fulfill the demands detailed in the Financial Services Authority ‘s RIE. Orderly markets are maintained via regulations, counsel and through the monitoring of trading and market activity. Stock Exchange Notices disseminate amendments to market regulations and counsel.

The Exchange ‘s primary purpose is to supply issuers, mediators and investors with attractive, efficient and well-regulated markets in which to raise capital and carry through investing and trading demands.


All London Stock Exchange member houses are bound by the Rules of the London Stock Exchange ( “ the regulations ” ) and must guarantee conformity with these rules.A The regulations were to the full updated in 2007 in preparedness for the debut of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive.A The revised Rulebook besides aligned the regulations more closely with the construction of the trading systemA and simplified them where possible to do them more user-friendly.

Prediction for Markets in the extroverted old ages ( Including Global Market )

As the post-war country has been characterized by three distinguishable stages in the planetary economic system. The first roar that ended with the autumn of oil monetary values in the fall of 1973 during the Arab-Israeli war. Another long roar but really different in its form and in the division of the spoils that besides lasted for a one-fourth of a century and took topographic point between 1982 and 2007. In the center, there was a nine-year period in which policymakers got advantage with stagnating growing and the rise of rising prices.

It ‘s alluring to handle the current crisis as merely another of the mini-problems that punctuated the 1982-2007 upswings, but this is different from the stock market clang of 1987, the US nest eggs and loans fiasco of the 80s, the mild recession of the early 90s or any of the clangs in emerging markets during the 90s. All the old crises could be alleviated by inexpensive money policies to make a spot more debt or shrugged off as peripheral events. We can state though that this crisis is different, that occurs from the fact that it has stroked into the bosom of the planetary economic system.

This is a immense daze significance that the accommodation period will be merely every bit long as it was in the 70s and early 80s, when the occasional flash of bluish sky was rapidly blotted out by a new cumulonimbus. At least the response to the crisis has been unprecedented, and finally helped to forestall a deep recession from turning into something a batch worse. There is some comfort to be drawn from the V-shaped recovery enjoyed by China and some of the other Asiatic economic systems, which suggests a decoupling between the developed economic systems of Europe and North America and the aggressive rising universe. The fact is that the structural failings that caused the major crisis, the great impacts between creditor and debitor states, the over-reliance on debt, is unluckily a fiscal sector that has lost sight of its chief intent and remains unchained.

Fiscal markets have been coggling since the bend of the twelvemonth, fearful that the primary pick-up in activity from the spring of 2009 was finally an early remodeling of the markets activity.

The strength of the recovery in the United States is flattered by concerns reconstructing stocks run down during the early, barbarous months of the downswing. The lodging market is weak and will stay so until unemployment starts to come down. Officially, the US has a idle rate of 10 % but it is much higher one time the figure of parttime workers who would prefer to work full clip is taken into history. Unsurprisingly, consumer assurance is low.

Europe is already into the 2nd stage of a double-dip recession. The economic convergence that the individual currency was designed to convey about has happened: unluckily the aggressive states on the periphery have been dragged down to the slow gait of those at the nucleus instead than frailty versa.

As for the UK, do n’t be misled by the upward alteration to growing in the concluding three months of 2009. Downward alterations to old quarters of last twelvemonth mean that the extremum to trough autumn in end product was even bigger than antecedently thought at 6.2 % , while the encouragement to activity between October and December was partially the consequence of strong authorities disbursement and partially the consequence of consumers conveying frontward disbursement to crush the return of VAT to 17.5 % . There is a existent possibility – looking at the latest official information for high-street disbursement and for unemployment – of a backsliding in the first one-fourth of 2010.

As told UK is well-placed to take advantage of the recovery in the planetary economic system. The depreciation in sterling agencies that the focal point of growing will be switched from domestic demand to exports. But in fact more than half of Britain ‘s seeable exports go to a portion of the universe – Europe – that is hardly turning. Less than 5 % go to the large emerging markets of China, India and Brazil. UK exporters have surely been helped by the bead in the value of the lb, but have responded by flesh outing their net income borders instead than by selling more goods. The excess hard currency flow is maintaining them in concern but non motivating extra disbursement on new kit. Last weekHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: // ” ‘HYPERLINK “ http: // ” s investing figures were genuinely hideous, with capital outgo in fabricating down by more than a 3rd between the 4th one-fourth of 2008 and the same period of 2009.

The deficiency of investing will demo up in Britain ‘s tendency rate of growing, the rate at which the economic system can spread out without inflationary force per unit areas come uping.

In the pre-crisis period, the Bank and the Treasury thought the tendency rate of growing was about 2.5 % -2.75 % , but the recession has left deep cicatrixs. Capital has been scrapped and is non being replaced. The tendency rate of enlargement will hold fallen at a clip when there is a demand to cut down the mountain of public debt. That will do the shortage cutting procedure even longer and even tougher.

All this comes at a clip when force per unit areas on public disbursement are bound to escalate as a consequence of higher medical and long-run attention costs of an ageing population, and the demand to “ brain-up ” the work force.

Apart from anything else, the involvement payments on the national debt are raising fast, and every lb spent paying off the UK ‘s creditors is a lb unavailable for schools, infirmaries and attention places.

As a consequence, the following decennary will be marked by higher revenue enhancements and restraint on public disbursement. Consumer demand and authorities investing will turn far more easy than in the roar old ages. Finally, resources will be diverted into investing and exports. Avery bad organized and unhealthy economic system that will take a long to be restructured and wealth to be redistributed.