Alexander the Great
A vanquisher is person who uses powerful military forces to take ownership of huge sums of land. A great illustration of a vanquisher is Julius Caesar of the great Roman Empire. Julius Caesar conquered much of Gaul ( Modern twenty-four hours France ) . Another good illustration of a vanquisher is Alexander the great. Alexander had held land from Macedonia to the boundary lines of the Indus vale. Through the conquering of Egypt, Persia, and the northern boundary lines of India, Alexander the Great was one of the greatest vanquishers of all clip.
“ My O my boy, look thee out a land equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is excessively small for thee ” ( Plutarch 10 ) . My male parent, King Philip II, said merely after he found out I was born. I was born a boy around 356 BCE, to, my male parent, King Phillip II, of Macedon ; and, my female parent, Olympias ( “Alexander the Great” 2 ) . My female parent, Olympias was the princess from Epirus, West of Macedonia ( Martin 66 ) . My male parent believed that his household descended the Greek God Hercules ( Plutarch 2 ) . My female parent believed her household was descendant from Achilles ( Plutarch 2 ) .
King Philip saw to it that I would have merely the best instruction. One of my first instructors was hired to develop me in arithmetic, horsemanship, and archery ( Plutarch 18 ) . My fright that one twenty-four hours I would non go the male monarch of Macedon, made it hard for my coachs to command my fury ( “Alexander the Great” 4 ) . King Philip II ordered Aristotle to tutor me in Grecian doctrine ( Knox “His Education and Character” 1 ) . Aristotle educated me for three old ages. Durring my instructions, Aristotle, put together the heroic poem verse form by home run, the Iliad, an heroic poem verse form written by the celebrated Greek narrator, Homer ( “Alexander the Great” 4 ) . I ever kept this edition with him because I wished to one twenty-four hours be a great vanquisher ( Martin 66 ) .
After my instruction ended in 340 BCE, I decided to fall in the Macedonian Army and battle for my male parent ( “Alexander the Great” 6 ) . My male parent ‘s general, Antipater, carefully but severely mentored me, but other generals looked on me as game piece, merely a knight in their ain game of cheat. They thought that I would be much easier to pull off than Philip. Within a twelvemonth, I started my first journey to suppress the Thracian folk, and in 338 BCE, I helped my father take complete control of the Athenian and Theban forces ( “Alexander the Great” 6 ) .
The relationship between my male parent and me declined non long after he had conquered all the Grecian provinces except Sparta. Philip, my male parent, had started the Corinthian League as the military leader. The relationship between my male parent and me eventually ended when Philip married his general, Attalus ‘s, girl, Cleopatra, he had abandoned my female parent and me. My female parent, my close friend, and I went back to my female parent ‘s place town of Epirus to populate with her household ( “Alexander the Great” 7 ) .
During my sister ‘s nuptials, in the in-between summer of 336 BCE, my male parent, Philip, was assassinated ( “Alexander the Great” 8 ) . I was angry and had wished to carry through my male parent ‘s uncomplete ends and conquer Persia, but before I could make so, I needed to be recognized as the male monarch of Macedonia, by the League to Thermopylae, an confederation set up by Sparta to guarantee peace in Greece ( “Alexander the Great” 10 ) . The League gave me limitless military powers to follow in my male parent ‘s footfalls, and run against Persia ( “Decline and Fall of Ancient Greece” 67 ) .
The ground forces I led consisted of a formation called the Macedonian phalanx. The Macedonian phalanx was a formation which included 16 work forces on each side in a unit of 256 work forces in entire. They would either be lined up in a square or a wedge form. Each soldier was equipped with a 13 pes lance. These soldiers were trained to react to flag signals and cornet sounds ( Knox “The Macedonian Army” 3 ) . In add-on to the phalanx formation, another strong component of our ground forces was the horse.
My male parent left me with a great land, for which I would utilize to get down my imperium ( Knox “The Macedonian Army” 1 ) . Like most generals of that clip period, I led my military personnels into conflict alternatively of commanding from the out of boundss. I led the horse, which was to the right of the formation ; and my sure general Parmenio controlled the phalanx formation. Parmenio ‘s occupation was to merely near the enemy and clasp, while the horse ; I led, swept in ( Knox “The Macedonian Army” 7 ) .
After my male parent ‘s decease I removed Iranian engagement in Grecian associations ( “Alexander the Great” 12 ) . Although I remained a Macedonian male monarch, I was so considered the swayer of all Greece, a Panhellenic leader ( Martin 66 ) . In the spring of 335, I secured Macedon and its northern lodgers.
In October 335 BCE, I returned to Macedon and prepared my journey through Persia ( “Alexander the Great” 16 ) . In military personnels, ships, and wealth, my supplies were outmatched by Darius III, swayer of Persia ( Plutarch 27 ) . Our powerfull ground forces passed the Hellespont ( Modern twenty-four hours Dardanelles ) , which lead us into the ancient metropolis of troy early spring of 334 BCE ( Martin 67 ) . By fall, I had conquered the southern seashore of Asia Minor, and Parmenion began to suppress Phrygia ( Martin 68 ) . By the late summer of 333 BCE, I had made my manner to Cilicia ( an island off the seashore of modern twenty-four hours Turkey ) , South of Darius and his ground forces ( “Alexander the Great” 20 ) . In January 332 BCE, I prepared for a long and hard invasion of Tyre. I employed undercover agents to the metropolis, reinforced besieging machines to strike hard down enemy walls, fought off the powerful Tyrian naval forces and ground forces, and eight took complete control of the metropolis eight months subsequently ( Plutarch 34 ) . In September 331 BCE, during the Battle of Gaugamela, I defeated the Iranian ground forces at Arbela ( modern Erbil in Modern twenty-four hours Iraq ) . As The Iranian ground forces collapsed, I pushed Darius into the Kurdish mountains ( modern twenty-four hours Iraq ) .
Abandoning the Hunt for Darius, I steadily explored Babylonia ; I could n’t believe all the farming areas, castles, and exchequers which Darius had abandoned. I celebrated the New Year ‘s Festival to honour the God Marduk, In Babylon. I started to go known by many names such as “ King of Babylon, King of Asia, and King of the Four Quarters of the World” ( “Alexander the Great” 26 ) . Susa and its exchequers was no lucifer for me and my work forces, for we took it over and it was now under our control. I prepared for our following mark: Persepolis, the capital of the Persian Empire. To penalize Persia for the devastation of Athens in 480 BCE, I, directing a harsh but ferocious lesson, burned Persepolis. In the spring of 330 BCE, I set out for Ecbatana ( modern Hamadan ) , Darius ‘s last capital. I so left the tremendous and powerful exchequers and all communications to Parmenion, and so I set off in Hunt for Darius after he escaped past the Caspian Gates ( “Alexander the Great” 27 ) .
When I caught up with Daruis in July 330 BCE, he had been assassinated by his ain work forces. I ordered a royal, honest funeral for my long clip enemy. To take retaliation for the decease of Darius, I arrested the bravos involved in his slaying and punished them harmonizing to Iranian jurisprudence. I am considered a Iranian male monarch, so I began to accommodate to Iranian civilization and began to have on Iranian royal vesture and adopted the Iranian tribunal rites ( “Alexander the Great” 28 ) .
In the spring of 327 BCE, we took complete control of the about indestructible high stone garrison of Ariamazes. I marched to the Punjab and the Indus Valley In the summer of 327 BCE. My first boy died in India the undermentioned twelvemonth. I defeated the strong forces of King Porus in northern India. By July 325 BCE, our fleet had reached the Northern Borders of India ( “Alexander the Great” 30 ) . The fleet marched north, in the Persian Gulf, while our ground forces began to process along the hostile and unfriendly seashore. Hardship and decease brought upset to the ground forces, which caught up with the fleet hebdomads subsequently. In January 324 BCE, we reached Persepolis, which I had left five old ages earlier, and in February I was in Susa, but convulsion had spread throughout the imperium during my runs in the East.
At Susa, I ordered 80 of my work forces to get married Iranian princesses. When I drafted 30,000 Persians into the ground forces, and articulation forces with us, my work forces complained. I decided to dispatch my old, hurt, and ill Macedonian soldiers, At Opis that summer, when the angry soldiers damned my Iranian military personnels. I arrested 13 of their leaders who acted up and executed them. I so addressed the ground forces and tried to actuate them to go on frontward. I believe I said:
I observe, gentlemen, that when I would take you on a new venture you no longer follow me with your old spirit. I have asked you to run into me that we may come to a determination together: are we, upon my advice, to travel frontward, or, upon yours, to turn back? ( Arian 1 )
After three yearss, the Macedonians apologized, and the Persians joined our Macedonians as forces of me, but non as friends.
In the spring of 323 BCE, I moved to Babylon, and I made programs to research the Caspian Sea and Arabia, and so to suppress northern Africa ( Martin 73 ) . On June 2, 323 BCE, I was ill with malaria, and 11 yearss subsequently, at the age of 32, I was nil but a memory ( “Alexander the Great” 35 ) . A few months subsequently my married woman, Rhoxana, gave birth to my boy, who was assassinated in 309 BCE, and will ne’er hold the opportunity to populate up to the bequest I had left for him ( “Alexander the Great” 36 ) .
Through the conquering of Egypt, Persia, and the northern boundary lines of India, Alexander the Great was a great vanquisher. Alexander conquered more land than any male monarch of his clip in merely 13 old ages. He was crowned a male monarch, Panhellenic leader, in Greece ; was called a Pharaoh, God amongst work forces, in Egypt ; and was the Maestro of Asia, by cutting the Gordian knot. He was non able to carry through his programs to suppress North Africa due to an unexpected decease in the summer of 323 BCE. Alexander spread a Hellenic civilization across the universe. Alexander had a great impact on the country he conquered and the universe today.
* “Alexander the Great.” Encyclopedia of World Biography 1.2ndEd. 2004. P137-141. Database. 9 Nov 2009. Virtual Reference Library. Gale. 2009. Retrieved at Vernon Hills High School. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: go.galegroup.com & gt ;
* Arrian. “Speech of Alexander the Great, from The Campaigns of Alexander.” Ancient History Sourcebok. second Century CE. Fordham University, Web. 9 Nov 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/arrian-alexander1.htm & gt ;
* Knox. Skip. “Asia Minor.” Alexander the Great. Web. 15 Dec 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.boisestate.edu/coourses/westciv/alexander/05.shtml & gt ; .
* Knox. Skip. “His Education and Character.” Alexander the Great. Web. 15 Dec 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.boisestate.edu/coourses/westciv/alexander/03.shtml & gt ; .
* Knox. Skip. “The Macedonian Army.” Alexander the Great. Web. 15 Dec 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.boisestate.edu/coourses/westciv/alexander/04.shtml & gt ; .
* Martin, Thomas. “Alexander his Impacts and Conquests.” The Decline and Fall of Ancient Greece. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenheaven Press, 2000. Print
* Plutarch. “Alexander.” The Internet Classics Archive. 75 B.C.W. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Web. 9 Nov 2009. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/alexandr.html & gt ; .