Air Pollution In Sri Lanka Engineering Essay

1. Air pollution in Sri Lanka has become an unmanageable jeopardy specially in Colombo metropolis country even after presenting of vehicular emanation trial. At around 2 million vehicles are driven on the roads in the state and 60 % of them are driven at the Colombo metropolis country. The air pollution is concerned there are figure of factors affect on the jeopardy. When compared with the other factors which are impacting to the air pollution such as combustion of dirty wastes, industrial emanation, dust in the country due to building works the vehicular emanation is the great.

2. The air pollution is concerned it is three times greater than the restrictions given by WHO and it besides most researches show that exposure to the dirty smoke increase the figure of diseases, asthma, cardiovascular diseases etc specially in Colombo country.

4. It besides demonstrable fact that other types of air pollution are more governable than vehicular emanation as alternate solutions such as recycling of waste etc are available. But emanations from vehicles are somewhat unmanageable fact.

5. The ground for the higher air pollution degree in Colombo country is inter- connect with figure of factors. Colombo is the chief commercial and administrative centre of Sri Lanka ; As a consequence of that most of people are day-to-day travel to Colombo for their employment and besides for assorted administrative committednesss.

6. Therefore due to higher figure of employees and riders during forenoon and eventide hours there are immense traffic congestion can be observed and during literature survey it was understood that vehicular emanation is greater during such hours.

7. Largely the public transit system, Three Wheelers, Motorcycles, and heavy vehicles ( container bearers ) etc are extremely available in roads and during peak hours traffic congestion is besides really high. As the current scenario Colombo metropolis country is affected with all above facts and might be every bit contribute to the air pollution.

8. Through the literature survey it was understood that air pollution due to vehicular emanation is largely occur due to inefficient burning of crude oil fuels.

9. Basically composing of vehicular is consist of followerss

a. Carbon Monoxide – Carbon monoxide

b. Hydro Carbon – HC

c. Nitrogen Oxide – Nox

d. Surfer Dioxide – SO2

e. Particular Matters – Autopsy

f. Lead – Lead

10. The quality of air, particularly in urban metropoliss ( Colombo, Kandy, Nuwar Eliya etc ) were making to an dismaying degree during last decennary. During assorted scientific researches identified the above six major pollutions which affected on wellness and good being of the people, workss, animate beings every bit good as edifices, mountains, H2O resources etc. Smog and other air pollutant cause many environment jobs such as acerb rain, planetary worming ( Green house consequence ) and decreasing the protective ozone beds in the super ambiance.

11. Therefore pollutants have risk on human and other populating things in the Earth and some of good identified menaces are as follows

a. Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) : CO emits from largely cars, little engines and industries. The higher degree of CO emanation is identified as vehicular emanation. It can impact on O transit to critical tissues, and chiefly job occurs on cardiovascular and

nervous systems. Higher concentration of CO can do symptoms such as giddiness, concern and weariness.

B. Particular Matter ( PM ) : PM besides emit from vehicles, firing industrial fuels, dust from paved and unpaved roads, building undertakings and a agricultural activities. It can do to increase respiratory disease and lung amendss and possibility to premature deceases. Peoples who are enduring from asthma are particularly on higher hazardous status.

c. Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2 ) : NO2 emits from firing fuels of burners and boilers and vehicles. It may do to increased respiratory unwellness such as thorax cold and coughing with emotionlessness. For asthmatics, can do increased external respiration jobs.

d. Sulfur Dioxide ( SO2 ) : Addition to industrial emanation and vehicular emanation SO2 emits from crude oil refineries and Millss and chemical workss. SO2 can do respiratory jobs particularly among asthmatics.

e. Lead ( Pb ) : Chiefly Pb emit from combustion of fuels which includes Pb, and coal burning, auto battery workss and combustion of Pb incorporating refuse and can adversely impact mental development and public presentation, kidney map and blood chemical science. Particularly kids are at high hazard status due to susceptibleness of immature tissues and variety meats to Pb.

Under mentioned study shows the information analysis done for a Medical research on 1996 in Colombo country and which shows the addition of Lead content in people who extremely expose to extremely vehicle goaded country are high.

Capable Group

Avg value of Pb in blood in mg/ deciliter

School Children ( 4 and 5 Old ages )

5

Motorcycle riders

12

Street sellers

13

T-Wheel drivers

15

Traffic constabularies

53

Control for the grownup group

9

12. As a consequence of higher air pollution a citizen went to the Supreme Court in 1998, to acquire an confidence of breath of fresh air and after 10 old ages from that, the authorities has introduced the vehicular emanation proving plan as an attempt to command and cut down the emanation of jeopardies gases to the

environment. Because figure of research workers proved that the vehicular emanation is the most conducive factor ( about 60 % ) for air pollution in Sri Lanka.

13. On 20th November 2007 the plan was officially commenced and a policy has published in gazette. Harmonizing to the Act it is compulsory to send on the vehicle emanation trial certification to obtain one-year gross licence for the vehicles.

14. The authorities ( Ministry of Environment & A ; Natural Resources ) has initiated the undertaking to under reference two companies and they are to publish vehicular emanation trial certification after proving the vehicle. Initially there were 32 lasting centres and 80 nomadic proving units established under following companies.

a. CleanCo Lanka ( Pvt ) Ltd

b. Laugfs Eco Sri ( Pvt ) Ltd

15. Addition to the implementing of vehicular emanation trial it besides planned plans to guarantee the quality of fuel, workshops for vehicle proprietors educate them on relevant care, trim parts traders to guarantee quality trim parts and technicians to utilize of the trial equipment and to place defects.

Chapter 2

Methodology

Purpose

1. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze, analyze and compare the composing of the ambient air in the Colombo country before and after the implementing of the vehicular emanation trial, in order to mensurate the degree of control of the air pollution in Colombo and to place the barriers impacting on the same.

2. It besides expects to propose necessary counter steps to get the better of the identified barriers on the execution.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

3. The vehicular emanation occur as a consequence of inefficient burning of fuel in vehicles and chiefly due to following grounds

a. Technology, status of the engine, quality of trim parts used

Traffic congestions in the roads during extremum hours

Quality of the fuel

4. Hence all above factors to be controlled to cut down the vehicular emanation and the vehicular emanation trial aid to command the status of the engines and related jobs and if the same could be achieves the vehicular emanation can be controlled up to satisfactory degree. Therefore it is require to ask that the vehicular emanation trial was able to command that up to satisfactory degree ( by 5 % yearly as implemented by the authorities ) since the same is commenced.

Justification

5. At the debut phase the trial is carryout for really low cost as a motive factor and to corroborate each and every vehicle subjected to the trial the authorities made a policy on it. As per the policy it is a compulsory demand to regenerate the vehicle gross licence yearly.

6. However was observed that vehicle proprietors and fix workshops technicians apply assorted alternate methods to go through the trial when the vehicle is non in good status. It besides observed that there are figure of vehicles driven in the Colombo roads with wash uping black fume and which is an

grounds for uncontrollability of air pollution. Hence it is compulsory to place the failings of on traveling procedure and demand to use disciplinary steps instantly.

Scope OF THE STUDY

7. At the debut it is indispensable to carryout random cheques of on traveling procedure to place the failings of the execution in order to take disciplinary actions. Hence this survey will be helped to happen out whether there are any failings in the present vehicular emanation trial process and to propose some counter steps on the same.

Aim

8. General and specific aims of this paper are listed below.

a. General Aims

1 ) To analyze and analyse the effectivity of the vehicular emanation trial enforced in Sri Lanka at present and to suggest suited disciplinary steps to meet the bing barriers. .

B. Specific Aims

1 ) To analyze and analyse the undermentioned countries on the vehicular emanation testing.

a ) Type of air pollutants in ambient air in the Colombo City

B ) Increasing/decreasing forms of air pollutants with the execution of the vehicular emanation trial

2 ) To demo the vehicular emanation trial in force in Sri Lanka today is uneffective

3 ) To find grounds for such ineffectualness

4 ) To urge steps to turn to these grounds

Hypothesis

9. The present system for vehicular emanation proving in Sri Lanka is uneffective.

Sampling AND SAMPLING METHOD

10. This research was done on two phases and primary portion was to mensurate the degree of pollution controlled after the execution of vehicular trial and the 2nd phase was to place the barriers

which affect on the affair if the pollution was non controlled well. For the primary phase statistics of ambient air in the Colombo metropolis country is used

11. The population for trying for the 2nd phase is the vehicle proprietors and Technicians who carryout the emanation trials at the trial Stationss. The survey focused on inquirers filled by above forces and questioning the direction of the responsible organisations every bit good as other forces who are indirectly involve with the trial.

Although the figure of vehicles proprietors high and the figure of technicians are low and hence sensible figure of forces from both parties was selected for the sampling. The sampling was carried in two groups are as follows

Sample No 1

Sample size

Type of vehicle

Factors

50

Cars ( gasoline )

Trial Results ( pass/fail )

50

Cars ( Diesel )

Care patterns

50

T-Wheelers

Cognition

50

Motor rhythms

Method

50

Buss

50

Duel intent vehicles

50

Heavy vehicles

Sample No: 2

Trial Station

Sample size ( Technicians )

Factors

Kohuwala

8

Cognition

Wellawattha

8

Method

Moratuwa

8

Attitude

Kiribatgoda

8

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

13. For the primary portion of the research the informations were collected for Central Environment

Authority and Department of Motor Traffic in order to analysis the quality of the ambient air in Colombo country and to analysis the vehicle statistics which were subjected to vehicular emanation trial.

14. Addition to those interviews carried out with the direction of both organisations for farther inside informations.

15. The following statistics from CEO and Department of Motor Traffic in order to compare the province of the air quality in Colombo metropolis prior to execution of Colombo the vehicular emanation trial and present status.

a. Ambient Air Quality Report of Central Environment Authority

B. Entire vehicle population from 2001 to 2009

c. Number of unregistered vehicles increased from 2001 to 2009

16. For the secondary portion of the research two inquirers were distributed among vehicle proprietors and Technicians who are in Test Stationss, and besides carried out a unsighted trial as the replies of the both parties showed ambiguity.

17. Interviews were carried out with direction of the authorised two companies for farther inside informations.

DATA ANALYZES TECHNIQUES

18. In this research paper both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse the Samples.

Chapter ORGANIZATION

19. Chapters in this paper are organized as follows.

a. Chapter 1. This is the introductory portion of the research paper

B. Chapter 2. Methodology

c. Chapter 3. What is vehicular emanation trial and its ‘ process

d. Chapter 4. Descriptive analysis of informations obtained through questionnaire, statistics and interviews

e. Chapter 5. Decision

Chapter 6. Recommendations

Restriction

20. This research survey was completed with in two month of period and with limited clip. Hence it was hard to cover all the pollution proven countries in Colombo country. Therefore the computation might be showed little difference if comparison with another research. It besides faced the trouble of deriving echt replies from the populace. Chiefly it was observed that the two Organizations who are involved with the plan have large competition among each other and its ‘ higher direction are loath to give information besides.

21. Addition to that testing of air samples for place the quality of the ambient air, was non carried out as limited clip and presuming truth of the CEO hebdomadal ambient air choice study this research has completed.

Chapter 3

WHAT IS VEHICULAR EMISSION TEST AND METHOD OF TESTING ITS EFFECTIVENESS

1. Vehicular emanation trial is the method which can follow to mensurate the gases ( CO, HC, NO2, SO2 Pb, and PM ) , fumes, bluess and olfactory property get awaying from the engines of the vehicles during its burning procedure.

2. During the trial, vehicle is speed uping to its maximal RPM and by utilizing trial equipment analysis the composing of the exhaust air emit from the vehicle.

3. The trial is carryout by utilizing particular trial equipment and standard trial process is adopted. The trial process is as follows

a. Bring the vehicle to normal operation temperature.

B. If the vehicle is a diesel vehicle flush the vehicle fumes system by pressing the gas pedal quickly, merely before the testing, in order to take the fume in the system.

c. Once in line for proving, turn off all the accoutrements ( air conditioner, visible radiations, wipers, warmer, wireless etc. ) and maintain engine running to keep normal runing status.

d. The investigation of the trial equipment inserts to the Exhaust air tubing ( Silencer ) of the vehicle and RPM pot connect to the engine to mensurate the Engine RPM during the trial.

e. Then speed up the engine to Both Idling and 2500RPM/ no burden status and the exhaust air is analysis by tha air analyser.

4. During the trial the exhaust air of the peculiar vehicle is analysis and its composing is to be harmonizing to the undermentioned criterions.

Emission Standards for Petrol and LPG- ( Both Idling and 2500RPM/ no burden )

Air Pollutants

Type of vehicle

Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) ( % v/v )

Hydro-Carbons ( HC ) ppm v/v

Petrol vehicle other A than motor cyclesA & A ; motor trikes

3.0

1000

A Petrol motor rhythms

4.0

6000

Petrol motor A trikes

4.0

6000

A

Abbreviations:

% v/vA – Percentage by volume

A ppm v/vA – Partss per million by volume

RPMA – Revolutions per minutesA

Emission Standards for Diesel vehicles

Type of vehicle

Smoke Opacity on Snap Acceleration

K factor ( lm-1 )

Diesel Vehicles

4.0

A K factorA – Absorption Coefficient

Snap AccelerationA – has the same significance as defined InA SAE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE J1667

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR VEHICULAR EMISSION

Vehicular emanation are influenced by figure of factors ( Technical and not proficient ) such as

status of the vehicle, quality of fuel usage and runing status during traffic congestion etc. Therefore alterations of any of these factors will impact on the emanation degree of an engine. Therefore three

of below parametric quantities are every bit contribute to the vehicular emanation.

a. Condition of usage

The inadequate traffic direction directs to drive the vehicle at low mean velocity. It is

a dramatic addition of breathing CO and HC from gasoline -fuelled vehicles and NO2 from Diesel fueled vehicles.

B. Fuel Quality

The features of fuel are extremely consequence on the vehicular emanation. Unleaded gasolene has allowed the usage of catalytic convertors that in bend have reduced Carbon monoxide, oxides of N, Hydrocarbon and other toxic emanations from gasolene engines. Reducing concentrations of Sulfur in Diesel is cardinal to cut downing diesel vehicle emanations, which is critical in the urban context as the population of Diesel vehicles is turning faster than that of gasolene vehicles in Asiatic metropoliss.

Condition of the engine and care patterns

It is straight affect on vehicular emanation. Mainly engineering and the care of under mentioned countries are helped to avoid the vehicular emanation

Air to fuel ratio

Air injection

Exhaust -gas recirculation

Oxidation accelerator

Condition of the carburettor

Condition of the Injector pump

6. As this research is focused to mensurate the effectivity of the vehicular emanation trial merely the under mentioned factors were considered and taken the same as independent variables.

a. Care patterns

Vehicle proprietors are to ever be considered to make preventative care than fixs. As improper fuel injection, over used air and fuel filters, improper refilling of lubricating on clip will be guide to vehicular emanation every bit good as inefficient fuel burning of the vehicle. Therefore preventative care patterns are ever help to salvage money every bit good as the environment.

B. Attitude

Attitude of the vehicle proprietors, technicians, higher direction every bit good as the authorities to be positive and all are to be work together to accomplish the end jointly.

c. Knowledge

The vehicle proprietors are to hold equal cognition of ain vehicle every bit good as the impact on the environment. Without that knowledge the procedure can non be progress successfully. Technicians are to knowledgeable adequate to carryout proper trial and besides they are to capable of placing the incorrect patterns apply by the proprietors to go through the trial.

d. Method

Method applies for proving to be both efficient and effectual. The trial equipments are to be sensitive plenty to observe to inadequate criterions.

Therefore after placing the degree of control of the air pollution of the Colombo metropolis country the above independent variable factors will be analysis in order to happen out the effectivity of the vehicular trial which is consider as dependant variable factor.

Chapter 4

DATA ANALYSIS

Datas OBTAINED FROM CENTRAL ENVIRONMENT AUTHORITY

Datas obtained from cardinal environment authorization was helped to mensurate

the degree of ( CO, SO2, HC, and PM ) air pollution in Colombo country. Although CO, SO2, HC and PM are given with standard value Lead ( Pb ) is non given with standard value and even non see in hebdomadal ambient air study. Therefore the degree of the Pb in ambient air was compared with the highest standard value among other parts in the universe ( Canada )

a. Nitrogen Dioxide

NO 2 province in the air has decreased, but still 33 times greater than standard value.

Calculations: ( See Annex A )

COMPARISON OF NO2 IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 1

NO2 LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 2

b. Hydro Carbon

HC province in the air has decreased up to the needed criterions.

Calculations: ( See Annex A )

COMPARISON OF HC IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 3

HC LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO

Figure 4

c. Sulfur Dioxide

SO2 province in the air has decreased but non up to the needed criterion. The Figure shows that SO2 composing in ambient air is 33 times greater than standard value.

Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF SO2 IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 5

SO2 LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 6

d. Carbon Monoxide

CO province in the air has increased and 1.15 times greater than standard value as shown in figure 7.Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF CO IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 7

CO LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 8

e. Lead ( Pb )

Lead ( Pb ) province in the air has increased and Central Environment authorization was non indicated a standard value. Hence the highest standard value for Lead per centum in ambient ( standard at Canada ) was consider to compare and establish that it is greater than 34 times to the same.

Calculations See Annex A

State OF LEAD IN AMBIENT AIR

Figure 9

LEAD LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 10

f. Particular Matters

As per the criterion given by Central Environmental Authority PM province in the ambient air is on dismaying province.

Calculations: See Annex A

COMPARISON OF PM IN AMBIENT AIR AND STANDARD VALUE

Figure 11

PM LEVEL IN AMBIENT AIR FROM 2000 TO 2009

Figure 12

2. Therefore the above analysis proved that the quality of ambient air is non improved after the execution of the vehicular emanation trial. It was observed that per centum of NO2 ( greater than 33 times ) , SO2 ( greater than 33 times ) CO ( greater than 1.15 times ) and PM ( greater than 1.2 times ) and Lead ( Pb ) in ambient air non even standardized. Hence it shows except HC per centum all other pollutants are still in dismaying status. Therefore the primary portion of this research proves the epistasis of ‘the execution of the vehicular emanation trial is uneffective ‘ .

Analysis OF DATA OBTAINED FROM DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR TRAFFIC

3. Entire vehicle population of the Colombo country was analyzed as per the chart below and it was understood that figure of Three Wheelers ware increased four times since last ten old ages of period. Hence the care patterns, attitude and cognition of the Three Wheel proprietors will be extremely affect on the control of air pollution in Colombo country.

Addition to that harmonizing to the Figure 13, the figure of bikes were doubled during last 10 old ages and care and other factors of bikes will be affect on the control of air pollution of the country.

Entire VEHICLE POPULATION IN COLOMBO AREA ( 2001-2009 )

Figure 13

5. When analysing the trial consequences of the vehicular emanation trial Annex B the under mentioned chart shows that high per centum of Motor autos and Duel purpose vehicles were fail the trial. However the when comparing the vehicle population of twelvemonth 2010 and figure of vehicles freshly registered during twelvemonth 2009 there is a different and it shows that the vehicles which failed the trial besides still running after retesting. But it can non be warrant whether such vehicles are to the full repaired to command the emanation, and if non those vehicles are still lending to the air pollution.

Statistics OF VEHICULAR EMISSION Trial

( FROM JANUARY 2009 TO JANUARY 2010 )

Figure 14

Analysis OF DATA COLLECTED FROM QUESTIONNAIRES

6. When mensurating the effectivity it is required to see both qualitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative information analysis demo how far the job has solved and qualitative information analysis aid to do betterment for the on-going procedure. Therefore the inquirers were helped to happen out the quality of the procedure.

7. The informations were collected through administering inquirers among vehicle proprietors, technicians in trial Stationss. The inquiries were focused on the care patterns ; cognition, attitude and method as the prosperity of the procedure is defend on the same.

8. Questioner 1 was distributed among vehicle proprietors and sample size was 50 for each type of vehicle. The following were observed by analysing the replies

Trial Consequence OF THE VEHICULAR EMISSION Trial

Figure 15

See Annex E ( Table 1 ) :

9. Harmonizing to the vehicle emanation trial consequences it is seeable that chiefly high per centum of three Wheelers and Motor rhythms were failed the trial at first clip and it is seeable that 40 % of Three Wheelers and 44 % of Motor rhythms were failed the trial at first clip. All other types of vehicles less than 40 % were failed the trial. However harmonizing to the statistics obtained for Department of Motor Traffic and day of the month collected through Questioner are somewhat differ from each other as it shows Motor autos are the category of vehicles which has higher failed rate. Hence if considered the worst state of affairs, autos, Three Wheelers, Motor rhythms, Duel intent vehicles and coachs are which are still contribute for the air pollution.

MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

Figure 16

See Annex E ( Table 2 )

When analysis the care patterns of the vehicles it is realized that the vehicles which

hold higher rate of fail the vehicular emanation trial besides have higher rate of improper maintain patterns. The above chart shows that 52 % of T/wheelers and 36 % of M/Cycles were non maintain decently. When consider the other vehicles besides visible that higher per centum of auto proprietors maintains their vehicles decently. However as the statistics of Department of Motor Traffic shows the height per centum of motor autos are retest. Therefore it can find that the status of the autos besides affect on the emanation as if the vehicle non in good status, care patterns will non be command the emanation.

KNOWLEDGE

Figure 17

See Annex E ( Table 3 )

11. It is seeable that really high per centums of auto proprietors are knowing about the procedure and other types of vehicle proprietors do non hold cognition of the importance of the procedure to protect the environment. As a per centum, 48 % of norms Numberss of vehicle proprietors do non hold sufficient cognition of the vehicular emanation trial and its importance to the environment. It besides proves that although the auto proprietors maintain their vehicles decently, and knowledgeable on the job they are unable to command the emanation. Again it is grounds to the handiness of hapless learned vehicles in Sri Lanka.

12. The Chart below shows that except Car proprietors ‘ mean 25 % of other types of vehicle

Owners were used other methods to go through the trial and hence at least 25 % of vehicles have the emanation after base on balls the trial. But harmonizing to DMT statistics the higher figure of auto categorized to retest. Hence the replies given by the auto proprietors can non be guaranteed. Therefore it can surmise that they might utilize other methods to go through the trial after recommended for rhenium testing.

APPLICATION OF CORRECT METHOD

Figure 18

See Annex E: Table 4 ( Method )

DATA COLLECTED FROM Q-2

13. Questioner 2 was distributed among trial Stationss employees and sample size was 32. The following were observed by analysing the replies

KNOWLEDGE

Figure 19

Knowledge of the technicians is non satisfactory as 62 % of them were non cognizant of the

harmful consequence of the vehicular emanation and besides they have given merely developing on usage of equipment. When they are questioned on alternate method which can utilize by vehicle proprietors, their replies showed that they are non cognizant of such countries.

Method

Figure 20

Chiefly it was found that the method of the trial is uncomplete as the trial is limited to

look into the degree of Hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and fume opacity merely. The above chart shows that the current method besides non satisfactory as technicians is non use the correct and complete process for the trial.

Attitude

Figure 21

c. It was identified that 34 % of technicians are non in positive attitude to carry through their duty and most of them were accepted alternate methods for money. It besides found that

as they are non provided with sufficient cognition on proper processs, end to accomplish and malpractices which can be applied by the vehicle proprietors. They are non cognizant of the value of this undertaking and which caused to their attitude.

Analysis OF THE DATA OBTAINED BY INTERVIEWS

14. CleanCo Lanka ( Pvt ) Ltd

The higher direction of the CleanCo Lanka ( Pvt ) Ltd was loath to supply

statistics of the vehicles as they try to maintain their statistics hide from Eco Sri Company.

They are satisfactory with the present province and program to inspect the other types of pollutants ( SO2, NO2, Pb etc ) in future, but they do n’t hold exact day of the month, Month or a twelvemonth to implement the same. During the interview it was understood that there are immense competition between two companies to catch the market. But they are non transport out quality circles and scrutinizing plans to readapt the failings and showed that they have merely net income devising ends.

15. Laugfs Eco Sri ( Pvt ) Ltd

Eco Sri ( Pvt ) Ltd besides showed merely the purpose of sustain in the market merely and

still non implemented any monitoring procedure. As mentioned in execution they are non carry oning awareness plans for the vehicle users. They besides do non be after to better the method to prove the other pollutants and hope to go on the current procedure.

16. Central Environment Authority

Due to limited clip an interview was carried out over the telephone and it was

understood that they are non satisfactory with the on traveling procedure. As its higher direction said both above two companies are still non provided statistics of the trial since commence of the undertaking. They besides said that authorities has planned to web the Central Environmental Authority ( CEO ) with above two companies to supervise the procedure and still the same has non commenced until to day of the month. Therefore those companies are non provided the statistics to the CEO and advancement of the procedure has non monitor by them. They besides stated that higher traffic congestion during extremum hours, and quality of fuel

import to Sri Lanka besides increase the air pollution and the authorities has still non react on the affair.

17. The Department of motor traffic

As per the direction of the Department of the motor Traffic there are considerable figure vehicles available in Sri Lanka which are non required to regenerate the gross licence yearly. Largely the vehicles which belong to Military forces and other authorities section are in this class and most of such vehicles are non in good status.

18. Motor traffic Police- Colombo

The Motor traffic section of the Colombo has stated that during the execution of the procedure the authorities was stated the duty of the Motor Traffic constabularies to command the pollution by

random checking of vehicles for vehicular emanation. But still they are non provided with trial equipment to implement the same.

19. At the initial province it was proved that the quality of ambient air is non improved after the execution of the vehicular emanation trial. It was observed that per centum of NO2 ( greater than 33 times ) , SO2 ( greater than 33 times ) CO ( greater than 1.15 times ) and PM ( greater than 1.2 times ) and Lead ( Pb ) in ambient air are higher than standard values. Hence it shows except HC per centum all other pollutants are still in dismaying status, the execution of the vehicular emanation trial is uneffective.

20. Ineffectiveness of the execution is concerned due to miss of cognition of the vehicle proprietors, they are non keep the vehicles decently. It besides found that except the vehicles use for forces demand other vehicles are ill maintained. Specially vehicles use for public conveyance and lading conveyance are non maintain decently and used alternate methods to go through the trial. When interview them it besides identified that most of Three Wheeler proprietors and motor rhythm proprietors can non afford the disbursals required to regenerate the gross licence and with new process they have to pay more. Therefore they are use options to salvage money by avoiding fixs.

21. Addition to that deficiency of communicating CEO, and authorised companies is a major barrier to take disciplinary steps for the execution and it shows that denationalization of such a societal duty is non to be done as the private sector companies are chiefly focused on net income devising ends and to derive the market high quality. It besides found that, inaccessibility of uninterrupted monitoring procedure besides affect on the ineffectualness. On that affair the Traffic constabularies can play major function but the authorities has n’t utilize them.

Ceylon Petroleum Cooperation

22. As mentioned by Chief Chemist of the CPC, although the quality of fuel extremely impact on the vehicular emanation the authorities has non taken the same as major cause to be controlled choice confidence reviews are limited merely for entering intents. As per their point of position chiefly the quality of the fuel to be monitored and with that, this process will be effectual.

23. Finally it is proved that the vehicular emanation proving method is limited merely to mensurate the CO, HC and smoke opacity of the burning air.But there are figure of more harmful pollutant are emit by vehicles and the same are non see for the trial. It besides showed that merely the Hydro Carbon degree was controlled and Carbon Monoxide degree ( 30.12 ppm ) in the ambient air is still higher than standard degree ( 26 ppm ) .

24. Therefore this research paper prove that the execution of vehicular emanation trial is uneffective due under mentioned grounds

a. Failings of execution

B. Lack of cognition and duty of vehicle proprietors and technicians

c. Lack of communicating between CEO, authorized companies and section of Motor Traffic and Traffic constabularies

d. Competition between authorized companies.

Summary OF DATA ANALYSIS

25. During the survey the two types of analysis were done. Primary survey was focused to compare the quality of ambient air in Colombo country before and after the execution of the vehicular emanation trial. That analysis proved that merely the per centum of Hydro Carbon has decreased satisfactorily and every other pollutant is still at higher degree. Therefore the primary survey was proved the hypothesis.

The under mentioned diagrams show the, degree of air pollutant on ambient air and criterions degrees of the same during twelvemonth 2009.

Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 24

26. The secondary portion on the analysis was done to place the factors impacting on the ineffectualness of the execution and the undermentioned were determined

a. The trial is limited to mensurate the Hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide, degree of the exhaust air and other are non considered.

B. Poor vehicle care patterns

c. Lack of cognition of vehicle proprietors and technicians

d. Privatization of societal duty

e. Lack of communicating between relevant governments

Chapter 5

Decision

1. Air pollution is a major jeopardy in the universe and as a underdeveloped state substructure of Sri Lanka is non extremely environment protection sensitive. But the authorities has identified the issue which should be addressed without hold and as a consequence of that above trial was implemented. To corroborate the every vehicle topic to the trial Government ordinance were made and the trial consequence certification is a compulsory demand to regenerate the vehicle gross licence yearly. However there are no any monitoring processs to corroborate after the trial and hence by proving a vehicle yearly it can non be guaranteed that the same is non contribute for the air pollution.

2. Addition to that it was identified that the fuel import to the state besides non capable to proper reviews to look into the criterions and it merely limited to record intents. Therefore the vehicular emanation trial enforced in Sri Lanka will non be effectual until the quality of fuel is improved.

2. All of above facts proved that the environmental pollution can non be controlled by one party. As a state whole society is responsible for the jeopardy. Therefore chief duty goes to the authorities to implement tightened processs to command the air pollution in Sri Lanka. Addition to that it is required to carryout this trial as a public service as private companies are mix-up the precedences.

Chapter 6

Recommendation

1. Harmonizing to the informations analysis on primary portion of the research the quality of ambient air to be monitored and following recommendation can be made

a. The proving process to be revised

B. Standard to be made on acceptable degree of Lead composing in ambient air

c. Quality of the fuel import to Sri Lanka to be closely monitored and usage of Leaded fuel to be stopped.

2. The secondary portion of the research the societal issues which are affect on the job were identified and the undermentioned remedial action can be recommended

a. Awareness plan to be conducted for every societal category of people on the importance on the environment pollution.

B. The procedure non to be privatized it should be carryout under the close supervising of the Central Environmental Authority.

c. The City Motor Traffic Police to be provided with trial equipment to transport out random review at the roads and punishment process to be adopted for the vehicle proprietors.

d. The technicians to be more educated on the process and their duty to carry through the undertaking as a societal duty.

e. Quality audit to be carry out by independent parties to place the failings

ANNEX A

1. Nitrogen Dioxide

Avg NO2 Composition in ambient air before Year 2008

3.17 + 3.99+ 4.34 + 4.47 + 4.78 + 5.35 + 5.57 + 5.73 + 5.83 = 4.79 ppm

9

Avg NO2 Composition in ambient air after 2008 = 4.37 ppm

2. Hydro Carbon:

Avg HC Composition in ambient air before 2008

20.14 + 24.14 + 26.61 + 27.83 + 28.73 + 30.96 + 31.97 + 33.45 + 34.92 = 28.73 ppm

9

Avg HC Composition in ambient air after 2008

20.32 + 12.55 = 16.43

2

A-1

3. Sulfur Dioxide

Avg SO2 Composition in ambient air before 2008

1.72 + 2.17 + 2.36 + 2.62 + 2.71 + 2.93 + 3.13 + 3.47 = 2.64 ppm

8

Avg SO2 Composition in ambient air after 2008

3.51 + 1.52 = 2.51 ppm

2

4. Carbon Monoxide

Avg CO Composition in ambient air before 2008

20.14 + 24.15 + 25.34 + 27.23 + 28.92 + 30.97 + 32.56 + 33.12 = 27.8

8

Avg CO Composition in ambient air after 2008

35.12 + 28.12 + 27.12 = 30.12

3

5. Lead ( Pb )

Avg Pb Composition in ambient air before 2008

123.66 +148.82 + 150.52 + 156.78 + 171.42 + 191.46 +198.31 + 200.79 = 167.72

8

Avg Pb Composition in ambient air before 2008

A-2

200.92 + 200.57 + 116 = 172.5

2

6. Particular Matters

Avg PM Composition in ambient air before 2008

81.67 + 102.91 + 113.92 + 118.42 + 125.71 +138.35 + 139.35 +139.82 = 120.01

8

Avg PM Composition in ambient air after 2008

137.27 + 87.72 + 116 = 113.66

3

A-3

ANNEX B

Entire VEHICLE POPULATION IN COLOMBO AREA ( FROM 2001-2009 )

Class of Vehicle

Year

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Motor autos

144866

152068

164779

176248

186618

203164

216727

228869

241011

Motor Tricycle

67343

79869

101591

127865

152516

191195

217036

243919

270801

Motor Cycles

521223

554080

606206

680891

759308

853284

962789

1056360

1149931

Buss

39764

40621

41791

43091

44332

46340

47922

48630

49338

Double intent vehicles

84898

90052

98013

104455

108565

112912

116028

117742

119455

Lorries

107671

112570

119265

125687

134244

146506

157550

165973

174396

Entire

965765

1029260

1131645

1258237

1385583

1553401

1718052

1861493

2004932

ANNEX C

VEHICLE EMISSION TEST RESULTS -2009

Vehicle Class

Fuel Type

Entire

Percentage

%

Gasoline

Diesel

Laugfs

Cleanco

Laugfs

Cleanco

Motor Cycle

Base on balls

216452

263564

0

0

480016

88.6

Fail

3099

58910

0

0

62009

11.4

Motor trike

Base on balls

78311

99728

818

193

179050

91.7

Fail

5807

9295

990

337

16092

8.24

Motor Car

Base on balls

77040

8752

18652

18596

104444

45.2

Fail

106039

15523

2340

2890

126792

54.8

Duel Purpose Vehicles

Base on balls

10520

1097

55833

59635

127085

78.4

Fail

15291

1848

7739

10036

34914

21.55

Motor Lorry

Base on balls

6851

686

36032

39131

82700

82

Fail

6062

866

4527

6789

18244

18

Motor Coaches

Base on balls

582

45

10757

14375

25759

85

Fail

488

99

1299

2761

4647

15

Bus

Base on balls

5

0

12114

1501

13620

84.3

Fail

44

13

981

1484

2522

15.6

ANNEX D

Trial RESULTS ( DATA FORM Q-1 )

Table No 1 ( Test Results )

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Buss

Duel intent vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Test passed on 1sttime

38

30

28

31

34

38

Test failed 1sttime

12

20

22

19

16

12

Entire

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table No 2 ( Maintenance Practices )

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Buss

Duel intent vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Maintain decently ( MP )

42

24

32

33

29

27

Not keep decently ( NMP )

8

26

18

17

21

23

Entire

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table 3 ( Knowledge )

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Buss

Duel intent vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Knowing

47

16

23

17

27

19

Not Knowing

3

34

27

33

23

31

Entire

50

50

50

50

50

50

Table 4 ( Method )

Car

T/Wheel

M/Cycle

Buss

Duel intent vehicles

Heavy vehicles

Applied correct method

47

20

28

20

32

27

Applied other method

3

30

22

30

18

23

Entire

50

50

50

50

50

50

D-2

ANNEX E

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNICIANS

No of technicians from

Cognition

Method

Attitude

Satisfactory

Not satisfactory

Satisfactory

Not satisfactory

Positive

Negative

Test Station Kohuwala

4

4

1

7

4

4

Trial Station

Wellawattha

3

5

0

8

5

3

Trial Station

Moratuwa

3

5

0

8

6

2

Trial Station

Kiribathgoda

2

6

2

6

6

2