Air Conditioning In A Car For Hot Climate Engineering Essay

An application of air conditioning in a auto for hot climate state such as Malaysia is of import due to vouch the comfortable of both driver and rider. Many factors must be concern in a auto to keep the temperature because temperature control in an car is more complex than a inactive room in the edifice. Non-linear feature of a temperature is the chief job to command the coveted temperature of auto air-conditioning.

Fuzzy logic provides an option to non-linear control because it is closer to existent universe [ 1 ] . Non-linearity is handled by regulations, rank maps and illation procedure, which consequences in improved public presentation, simpler execution and decreased design costs [ 2 ] . Most control application have multiple inputs and necessitate mold and tuning of a big figure of parametric quantities, which makes execution really boring and clip consuming. Fuzzy regulations can simplify the execution by uniting multiple inputs into individual if-then statements while still carry on non-linearity [ 3 ] .

Fuzzy logic regulations and rank map will be adapted in the auto air conditioner accountant by utilizing MATLAB Fuzzy logic Toolbox. This system will necessitate user to identify in the coveted temperature in the auto and the Fuzzy Logic accountant will command the temperature in the auto harmonizing to the temperature user key in. This system besides automatically changes temperature due to the additions of figure of riders in the auto.

Therefore, the intent of this paper is to measure the use of non-linear air conditioning in a auto utilizing fuzzed logic accountant to heighten the efficiency climate control system in an car and increase the comfort for both driver and rider. Several of computing machine simulation experiment utilizing MATLAB Simulink will be conducted with some variables manipulated. The gathered informations of Fuzzy Logic accountant for air conditioner will be analyzed and discussed at the terminal of this paper.

1.1 Problem Statement

Problem occurred in the auto when the driver feels hot ; driver will increase the temperature in the auto by set on the blower switch to the higher place, so that the blower motor rotates at higher velocity and chilling the temperature inside the auto faster. Several proceedingss subsequently, driver will experience cold and uncomfortable with the temperature inside the auto, the driver will decelerate down the blower switch to the lower place to diminish the coldness in the auto. After several proceedingss subsequently, the driver will experience hot once more due the temperature control in an car is more complex than a inactive room in the edifice. This action is blowing energy, temperature in the auto demand times to accomplish the idle temperature and it can non keep to the idle temperature that driver desire.

The figure of rider besides influences the public presentation of air-conditioning.A When the figure of rider increases the heat produced is besides increasing, this is because worlds produce heat.A When there were 4 riders in the auto, driver demands to exchange the blower on to the highest place so that the temperature inside the auto cool down and run into the rider and driver comfort.A It is different when merely 2 or fewer riders, the driver merely necessitate to exchange the blower on to the highest position.A Additional of rider in a auto will decelerate down the public presentation of auto air conditioner to chill down.A This shows the efficiency of the auto air-conditioner accountant when the figure of rider addition in the auto.

Environment temperature and the temperature inside the auto are the factor that must be taken in history to guarantee the comfort and safety of both driver and rider. On showery yearss, the encompassing temperature is lower than the hot, cheery twenty-four hours, drivers will decelerate down the temperature inside a auto air conditioner.

1.2 Undertaking Aims

There are several chief aims for this undertaking:

To place the auto air conditioner system and the current accountant.

To plan fuzzed logic accountant for non-linear auto air conditioner.

To measure the public presentation of fuzzed logic non-linear air conditioner in auto.

1.3 Project Scope

Types of auto in Malaysia.

By utilizing types of auto that being usage in Malaysia to analyse the auto air conditioner system and the current accountant in the auto.

Scope of temperature.

In scope of 16- 25 degree Celsius and taken in history the consequence of the environment temperature to the temperature inside the auto.

The efficiency of chilling clip.

To find the efficient of chilling clip for the accountant when the figure of rider increasing.

Speed

Behavior experiments at the changeless idle velocity. ( 200rpm )

1.4 Report Outline

This study consists of five chapters. Each chapter elaborates different phase development of this undertaking until to decision.

The first chapter of this study presents the background of the undertaking, job statements, aims, and Scopess of the undertaking.

The 2nd chapter of the study is the literature reappraisal to explicate the overview of car electrical system and climate control system and types of accountant that been used for air conditioner.

The 3rd chapter of the study describes the methodological analysis used to guarantee the smooth running of this undertaking which is done measure by measure.

The 4th chapter shows the consequence acquired from the experiment while developing the air conditioner accountant utilizing fuzzed logic and consequence obtain from the simulation conducted in MATLAB.

The 5th chapter of the study will analyse and discuses the consequence obtain from the MATLAB Simulink to guarantee the undertaking is accomplish its aims.

The last chapter of the study briefly explains the decision and recommendation for future plants of the undertaking

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter explains literature reappraisal that will be conduct in order to finish this Fuzzy Logic air conditioner accountant. Study and research of published stuffs like instance surveies, proficient paperss and on-line library drama an of import function in literature reappraisal. By and large, the intent of a reappraisal is to seek, roll up, analyzed and draw decision from all the stuff that have been read and studied. All these stuffs will assist in the survey and besides to obtain a good consequence based on the old undertaking that had been done by others. The consequence subsequently will go a supportive mention for the undertaking subject which consist digest of series of stuffs and beginnings. This stuff besides can be a comparing between this undertaking and besides their undertaking. If there are failings in this undertaking, the solution of it can be found in this stuff.

2.2 Overview of Automobile Electrical System and Climate Control System.

Figure 2.1 shows a theoretical account that interfaces the vehicle clime control system with a theoretical account of the electrical system to analyze the loading effects of the clime control systems on the full electrical systems of a auto [ 4 ] .

Figure 2.1: Vehicle electrical and climate control system

Figure 2.2 is an electrical system. This electrical system theoretical accounts the auto at idle velocity. The PID accountants guarantee that the auto ‘s alternator ( modeled by a simplified synchronal machine which has its field current regulated to command the end product electromotive force ) is besides runing at the needed velocity. The end product of electromotive force is so fed through a three stage 6 pulse rectifying tube span to provide the electromotive force needed to bear down the battery which supplies the electromotive force for the auto ‘s DC coach. The power supply for the fan obtained from the DC coach is besides used to power the windscreen wipers, wireless, etc. The velocity of the fan and therefore the burden on the DC coach, are relative to the difference between the set ( or mention ) temperature and the existent temperature inside the auto. The inclusion of feedback in the electrical system ensures that regardless of the burden, the electromotive force on the coach remains at a changeless 12V. The changing of the input electromotive force to the engine is modeled as a DC machine in the auto ‘s electrical theoretical account. By altering the input electromotive force, we are able to see how the velocity of the engine alterations without impacting the electromotive force on the DC coach [ 3 ] .

Harmonizing to the statement, the velocity of auto alterations will non impact the end product consequence of the temperature inside the auto because the electromotive force on the coach that supply to the blower fan will remains at a changeless 12V. Therefore, this system can supply the same satisfaction and comfort to the user in any velocity of their vehicle traveling. The satisfaction of rider is of import, if the user satisfied with the services that given by the system than the system can sell to the market. To comfort besides of import to the user, this will turn out that the system is good or non by fulfilling the demand of user.

Figure 2.2: Car electrical system

2.3 Air Conditioner Accountants

An Air Conditioner system is fundamentally an MIMO ( multiple inputs multiple end products ) system. However, sometimes it may be considered as an SISO ( individual input and individual out ) put system in the design of the accountant, but if the purpose was full control of the system, the interaction between temperature control and humidness control loops is of import and must be taken into consideration [ 5 ] . There are many accountant manners are used in Air Conditioner systems today, these are the accountant that normally found in Air conditioner control manner ;

2.3.1 Traditional On/Off Controller

On/Off control provides merely two works end products, upper limit ( on ) or zero ( off ) . The control detector normally takes the signifier of an on/off thermoregulator, humidistat and force per unit area switch

On/off control is a simple and low-priced method and it does non hold adequate truth and quality [ 5 ] .Because of this Traditional On/Off Controller are simple, there a batch of disadvantages can be found in this system. One of the disadvantages is truth. The informations that produce is non accurate do the system is non good plenty to carry through the demand of user demands. Not merely that, the quality of this Traditional On/Off Controller, besides non good. It make the air conditioner can non execute good plenty and for future there must be a batch of mistake can happen. Figure 2.3 shows the action of an on/off accountant.

Figure 2.3: The action of an off/on accountant

2.3.2 Traditional PID Controller

Proportional, Integral and Differential ( PID ) control has been normally used in many HVAC applications. There are a figure of advantages in utilizing PID control, such as its simpleness of execution. This simpleness of execution makes the accountant easier to manage than the traditional on/off accountant. The distinguishable consequence of each of the three footings in the PID maps is likely the most of import drift for its endurance in the universe of of all time sophisticated modern control algorithms. Several types of Proportional, Integral and Derivative accountants ( P, PI, and PID ) are used in the control of HVAC systems. The Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative ( PID ) control combines the advantages of ( P+I ) control with derivative to battle sudden burden alterations, while keeping a zero beginning under steady province conditions as show in Figure 2.4 [ 5 ] .

Figure 2.4: The action of PID ( Proportional, Integral, Derivative )

However, traditional accountants have the comparatively acceptable maps, but due to the low efficiency and the high care, it proves to be of high cost. Because of this accountant are low efficiency, the accountant might hold a batch of disadvantages and this demand a high cost to keep the accountant. The cost might be higher than purchase a new one. Therefore, these traditional accountants are non suited to be selected as the air conditioner accountant.

2.3.3 Auto-tuning StateflowA® Controller

This Air Conditioner accountant is implemented in StateflowA® as show in Figure 2.5. TheA Heater and Air ConditionerA province shows that when the user enters a setpoint temperature which greater than the current temperature in the auto by at least 0.5 deg C, the warmer system will be switched on. The warmer will stay active until the current temperature in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg of the setpoint temperature. Similarly, when the user enters a setpoint which is 0.5 deg C ( or more ) lower than the current auto temperature, the Air Conditioner is turned on and corsets active until the temperature of the air in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg C of the setpoint temperature. After which, the system will exchange off. The dead set of 0.5 deg has been implemented to avoid the job of uninterrupted exchanging. In theA BlowerA State, the larger the difference between the setpoint temperature and the current temperature, the harder the fan blows. This ensures that the temperature will make the needed value in a sensible sum of clip, despite the temperature difference. Once once more, when the temperature of the air in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg C of the setpoint temperature, the system will exchange off [ 4 ] .

Figure 2.5: Climate control system

Figure shows the consequence of Auto-tuning StateflowA® Controller for the AC province with different figure of riders and the Heater province for different no of riders. The consequence of the Auto-tuning StateflowA® show that the coveted temperature can non be achieved because province flow is off either in the air conditioning control or warmer control when the current temperature in the auto is 0.5A°C above or low than the set the dead set of 0.5A°C from desired temperature. Once the current temperature reaches 17.5A°C, the air conditioning province will exchange on and the current temperature will diminish instantly to 16.5A°C. This will do the warmer province switched on for a piece and so both provinces will be switched off once more when the difference value is less than 0.5A°C or more so -0.5A°C. This action will react continuously until the coveted temperature is reached [ 3 ] .This take s a batch of clip to exchange from one action to another action and do the accountant respond more slower than existent clip it should react. When the clip of respond is slower, the user wills non satisfied with the services. This makes the accountant no longer interesting to the air conditioner developer.

( a )

( B )

Figure 2.6 ( a ) Stateflow air conditioner public presentation with different figure of rider ( B ) Stateflow warmer public presentation with different figure of rider.

2.4 Fuzzy Logic

2.4.1 Introduction of Fuzzy Logic

The Fuzzy Logic system trades with approximative information by utilizing set theory for covering with imprecise, fuzzy and obscure information. Fuzzy accountants apply fuzzed sets and operations on fuzzed sets to pattern procedure nonlinearity, to set up a nexus between lingual information and mathematics of the accountant, to capture heuristic cognition and regulations of pollex, and to pattern the approximative behaviour of systems [ 6 ] .

There are specific constituents characteristic of a fuzzed accountant to back up a design process. In the block diagram in Figure 2.7 below is explains about the accountant between a preprocessing block and a post-processing block. The undermentioned explains the diagram block by block.

Figure 2.7: Fuzzy Logic diagram

The Fuzzy Logic is controlled by the regulation base. This regulation make the accountant operate with smoothly without an mistake. If the regulation is incorrect or have a error, the consequence green goods will wrong and will give a complication in the graph.A informations base included the information of the fuzzification faculty, the regulation base and the defuzzification faculty. The Fuzzification translates the fuzzy end products provided by the illation engine into a numerical ( chip ) representation. Sometimes this value must be denormalized, i.e. , the values of the control end product must be mapped onto their physical spheres. The most common deffuzification are the centre-of-gravity methods. The Fuzzy Logic system must be designed such that it can get by with these perturbations, but unluckily this job is non ever considered. In Fuzzy Logic system, it uses the If-Then regulations method where it contains the public presentation standards and the pick and scenes of the accountant run intoing the coveted specifications.

This fuzzed logic controlled besides being chosen is because it is easy to manage and will gave an accurate informations. The truth leads to the good public presentation and ever stable make the user satisfied. The merchandise can be selling and it will go a worldwide.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Project Methodology describes a set of patterns that will be carried out iteratively to bring forth the plan. It is of import to take the right methodological analysis because a successful and a choice terminal merchandise depend on the method choose. This chapter will concentrate on the surveies about the truth temperature alterations harmonizing to the informations key in by user. User will identify in the coveted temperature in the auto and the Fuzzy Logic accountant will command the temperature in the auto harmonizing to the key in informations and the consequence of the informations will execute in the graphs. In the graphs will based on the how the temperature reacts based on the information and besides how it affect the times.

This chapter besides including the block diagram of the clime control system that had been modified with fuzzed logic accountant to carry through the demand of the survey. The block diagram will be executing in MATLAB Simulink to obtain the consequence and every block of the diagram will be explain in inside informations. There besides include the stairss to make the fuzzed logic accountant which contain fuzzed regulation base and the rank map.

Identify Climate Control System of Car

The figure 3.1 below show is the current clime control system of the auto that will be modified with fuzzed logic to obtain the better consequence. In this subdivision, the map of the clime control system will be elaborated exactly.

Figure 3.1: Climate control system.

TheA Heater_ACA province shows that when the user enters a setpoint temperature which greater than the current temperature in the auto by at least 0.5 deg C, the warmer system will be switched on. The warmer will stay active until the current temperature in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg of the setpoint temperature. Lapp with this state of affairs, when the user enters a setpoint which is 0.5 deg or more lower than the current auto temperature, the Air Conditioner is turned on and corsets active until the temperature of the air in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg C of the setpoint temperature. After which, the system will exchange off. The dead set of 0.5 deg has been implemented to avoid the job of uninterrupted shift.

In theA BlowerA State, the larger the difference between the setpoint temperature and the current temperature, the harder the fan blows. This to do certain that the temperature will make the needed value in a sum of clip that are sensible to accomplish, despite the temperature difference. Once once more, when the temperature of the air in the auto reaches to within 0.5 deg C of the setpoint temperature, the system will exchange off.

The Air Distribution ( AirDist ) and Recycling Air States ( Recyc_Air ) are controlled by the two switches and the map of this switches are to trip the clime control system ( figure 3.1 ) chart. An internal passage has been implemented within these two provinces to ease effectual defrosting of the Windowss when required. When the defrost province is activated, the recycling air is turned off.

3.2.1 The Heater and Air Conditioner Model.

The warmer theoretical account shown below in figure 3.2 was built from the equation for a warmer money changer shown below ;

Tout = Ts – ( Ts-Tin ) e^ [ ( -pi*D*L*hc ) / ( m_dot*Cp ) ]

Where:

Ts = invariable ( radiator wall temperature )

D = 0.004m ( channel diameter )

L = 0.05m ( radiator thickness )

N = 30000 ( Number of channels )

K = 0.026 W/mK = invariable ( thermic conduction of air )

Cp = 1007 J/kgK = invariable ( specific heat of air )

Laminar flow ( hc = 3.66 ( k/D ) = 23.8 W/m2K )

In add-on, the consequence of the warmer flap is taken into history to bring forth a better consequence. It is similar to the operation of the blower, the greater the temperature difference between the needed setpoint temperature and the current temperature in the auto, the greater the warmer flap is opened and besides the greater the warming consequence will bring forth inside the auto.

Figure 3.2: Heater control subsystem.

The Air Conditioner system theoretical account shown in figure 3.3 is illustration of one from the two topographic points where the clime control theoretical account interfaces interact with the auto ‘s electrical system theoretical account. The compressor will go a load because it is loads the engine auto when the Air Conditioner system is active. The concluding temperature that issue from the Air Conditioner is calculated as follows:

y* ( w*Tcomp ) = m_dot* ( h4-h1 )

Where:

Y = efficiency

m_dot = mass flow rate

tungsten = velocity of the engine

Tcomp = compressor torsion

h4, h1 = heat content

Below, it is show that flow of the control of the Air Conditioner system where the temperature of the air that exits the Air Conditioner is determined by the engine velocity and compressor torsion.

Figure 3.3: Air Conditioner control subsystem

3.2.2 The Heat Transfer in Cabin

Here, the list of factors that affected the temperature of the air that felt by the driver in the auto. That factors are:

The temperature of the air go outing the blowholes

The temperature of the outside air

The figure of people in the auto

These factors are inputs into the thermodynamic theoretical account of the inside of the cabin. By take this factors into history the temperature of the air go outing the blowholes and the computation of the difference between the blowhole air temperature and the current temperature inside the auto is being calculate and it will so multiply it by the fan velocity proportion ( aggregate flow rate ) . Then 100W of energy is added per individual in the auto. Last, the difference between the temperature of the outside air and the interior air temperature is multiplied by a lesser mass flow rate to account for the air radiating into the auto from the exterior.

The end product of the interior kineticss theoretical account is insert to the show block as a step of the temperature read by a detector placed behind the driver ‘s caput.

The execution of Fuzzy Logic Controller in the System.

Figure 3.4 Climate control system with fuzzed logic accountant.

There are two fuzzed logic accountants used in this theoretical account. Figure 3.4 is the clime control system which uses fuzzed logic as accountant. To command blower velocity proportion based on the scope of difference between the set point and current temperatures and the figure of riders in the cabin, the FLCBLOWER is used. The velocity of the blower will be equal or about equal to the temperature differences. But, the blower velocity proportion values will be based on the figure of rider and the consequence of blower will be influence by this rider. Meaning that, although the scope of temperature difference is same, the end product alteration if the figure of riders in the auto is besides alteration. The blower velocity proportion will increase when the figure of riders additions.

The other one of fuzzed logic accountant is FLCSWITCH. This FLCSWITCH is used to exchange either AC State or Heater State and it depend on the temperature difference values either it is negative or positive. If the difference is negative, this will demo the set point temperature is less than the current temperature, and the air conditioning province will be switched on. If the difference is positive, this means that the set point temperature is larger than the current temperature. Therefore, the warmer province will be switched on. When the difference is zero, both of the provinces will be switched off by the fuzzed logic accountant and the coveted province will be maintained until the user changes the values. The values that set up by the user will find that the accountant will murder or on once more.

Fuzzy Logic Controller Design.

Figure 3.5: Configuration of fuzzed logic accountant.

The figure 3.4shown above is a construction of the fuzzed accountant for the auto clime control system. In this subdivision, the input and end product lingual variables will be determined base on the best experience while in the auto.

A individual fuzzy accountant can hold more than one input and end product lingual variables depend on the specification of the control system need. As shown in figure 3.4, there are two fuzzed logic accountants that control the clime control system of the auto which is FLCBLOWER and FLCSWITCH.

The FLCBLOWER control the velocity of the fan of the system. For FLCBLOWER, the inputs lingual variables are the scope of temperature difference, a, and the heat provided by the figure of riders, B, and the end product lingual variables is blower velocity proportions, d. While FLCSWITCH will make up one’s mind for the system either to on/off the air conditioner province or on/off the warmer province. For FLCSWITCH, the input lingual variable is the scope of temperature difference, a, and the end products lingual variables, degree Celsius, are switched to either Heater or AC State. T1 is the issue temperature from both provinces and T2 is the internal temperature.

Design of the Membership Function of the Controller.

In order to stand for the indistinctness of the existent operation of the clime control system operation, fuzzed sets with wholly characterized by the rank map are used. Membership map is a curve that defines how each point in the input infinite is mapped to a rank value between zero to one. The rank value is the of import process while planing the fuzzed logic accountant and it will be performed by utilizing Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in MATLAB.

3.4.1.1 FLCBLOWER ( Fuzzy Logic Controller for Blower )

FLCBLOWER consist of two inputs and one end product, for the first input which is the range temperature different in the auto contain of seven quantisation degree that are negative big ( NL ) , negative medium ( NM ) , negative little ( NS ) , zero ( ZR ) , positive little ( PS ) , positive medium ( PM ) , and positive big ( PL ) . The 2nd input, the heat provide by the figure of rider are contain of five quantisation degree which are really little ( VS ) , little ( S ) , medium ( M ) , big ( L ) , and really big ( VL ) . In the other manus the end product, blower velocity proportions are negative fast ( NF ) , negative medium ( NM ) , negative slow ( NS ) , zero ( ZR ) , positive slow ( PS ) , positive medium ( PM ) , and positive big ( PL ) . All the inputs and end products quantisation degree is written in a tabular array as shown in table 3.1 below.

The quantisation degree will be converted into the FIS Editor as shown in figure 3.5 and interpret to the rank map as shown in figure 3.6 ( a ) , ( B ) , and ( degree Celsius ) .

Table 3.1: Quantization for FLCBLOWER

Figure 3.6: FIS Editor: FLCBLOWER

( a )

( B )

( degree Celsius )

Figure 3.7: Membership map for FLCBLOWER ( a ) Input signal: Heat ( N ) ( B ) Input signal: Temperature difference ( degree Celsius ) End product: Blower velocity

Fuzzy regulation is of import to fuzzy logic system to do illation. By utilizing if-then statements, fuzzed regulations create based on the accountant demand. These are some illustrations of the fuzzy regulations based ;

If temperature differences is Negative Large and the heat is Very Small the end product is Positive Small,

If temperature differences is Negative Medium and the heat is Very Small the end product is Positive Small,

The fuzzy regulations can be simplified by declared all the regulations in the tabular arraies as shown in Table 3.2 below.

Table 3.2: Rule base for FLCBOWER

TD/N

Volt

Second

Meter

Liter

VL

NL

PS

PS

Autopsy

Autopsy

PF

Nanometer

PS

PS

PS

Autopsy

Autopsy

Nitrogen

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

Zirconium

Zirconium

Zirconium

Zirconium

Zirconium

Zirconium

PS

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

PS

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Autopsy

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

PS

Nanometer

Nanometer

PL

Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Autopsy

Nanometer

NF

3.4.1.2 FLCSWITCH ( Fuzzy Logic Controller for Switch )

FLCSWITCH consist of one input and two end product, for the input which is the range temperature different in the auto contain of seven quantisation degree that are negative big ( NL ) , negative medium ( NM ) , negative little ( NS ) , zero ( ZR ) , positive little ( PS ) , positive medium ( PM ) , and positive big ( PL ) . The first end product, the switch of air conditioner contain of two quantisation degree which are on ( 1 ) and off ( 0 ) . Same as the 2nd end product which is the warmer switch besides contain of two quantisation degrees, on ( 1 ) and off ( 0 ) . All the inputs and end products quantisation degree is written in a tabular array as shown in table 3.3 below.

The quantisation degree will be converted into the FIS Editor as shown in figure 3.7 and interpret to the rank map as shown in figure 3.8 ( a ) , ( B ) , and ( degree Celsius ) .

Table 3.3: Quantization for FLCSWTCH

Figure 3.8: FIS Editor: FLCSWITCH

( a )

( B )

( degree Celsius )

Figure 3.9: Membership map for FLCSWITCH ( a ) Input signal: Temperature difference, ( B ) End product: Air conditioner switch ( degree Celsius ) End product: Heater exchange

Fuzzy regulation is of import to fuzzy logic system to do illation. By utilizing if-then statements, fuzzed regulations create based on the accountant demand. These are some illustrations of the fuzzy regulations based ;

If a temperature difference is negative big, the end product is air conditioner is on and warmer is away.

If temperature difference is positive big the end product is air conditioner is on and warmer is away.

The fuzzy regulations can be simplified by declared all the regulations in the tabular arraies as shown in Table 3.4 below.

Table 3.4: Rule base for FLCSWITCH

TD/N

Switch Air Conditioner

Switch Heater

NL

ON

OFF

Nanometer

ON

OFF

Nitrogen

ON

OFF

Zirconium

OFF

OFF

PS

OFF

ON

Autopsy

OFF

ON

PL

OFF

ON

Chapter 4

Consequence

4.1 Introduction

This chapter will explicate how the both accountant react to the clime control system of the auto. The consequences of the accountant are secret plan based on the fuzzy regulations that had been determined in chapter 3. In this chapter besides the system will be trial for the existent status of temperature in the auto utilizing MATLAB Simulink to excite the clime control system to by altering the variables informations that identified on the old chapter. The consequence for the clime control system will be plot in the graph and show for this chapter.

4.1 FLCBLOWER Result

Figure4.1: Surface position of FLCBLOWER

There are two ways in exposing the consequence which is the COG ( centre of gravitation ) position and Surface position ( figure 4.1 ) . The figure 4.1 is the consequence for FLCBLOWER which show in surface position. The surface position show the possibility of FLCBLOWER reaction harmonizing to the fuzzy regulations set. FLCBLOWER is influenced by two inputs which are temperature difference between external temperature and the user setpoint temperature and the figure rider in the auto that is determined by heat produce 100w per individual. The end product for FLCBLOWER is the velocity of blower fan. If the temperature different is negative big ( -3 grade Celsius ) , the velocity of blower fan will whirling faster than -2 and -1 degree Celsius. From the surface position besides province that the figure of rider is manipulated the velocity of blower fan, although the temperature difference is zero the velocity of blower fan addition if the figure of rider addition.

4.2 FLCSWITCH Result

Figure 4.2 ( a ) : Surface position: air conditioner sate, ( B ) Surface position: warmer province

Figure 4.2 ( a ) and figure 4.2 ( B ) above show how the FLCSWITCH work depending on the fuzzy regulations. The air conditioner turned on if the temperature different inside the auto is negative and the air conditioner turned off if the temperature different alteration to positive values. In the other manus, the warmer will turned on if the value of temperature different in the auto is positive and turned off if the temperature is negative. The both province will turned off if the temperature different is zero.

4.3 The Climate Control System Results

Figure 4.3 ( a ) : Graph for increasing different temperature with changeless figure of rider

Figure 4.3 ( B ) : Graph for diminishing different temperature with changeless figure of rider

Figure 4.4 ( a ) : Graph for increasing temperature with different figure of rider ( 1-4 )

Figure 4.4 ( B ) : Graph for diminishing temperature with different figure of rider ( 1-4 )

Those four different figures show different consequences based on different variables. The importance of utilizing different variables and factors is we can find the relationship between variables and factors. Subsequently, the relationship that achieved based on informations in the graph can be used to find the best consequences. For the first two figures, which is Figure 4.3 ( a ) and Figure 4.3 ( B ) , the variables used for those graphs are a figure of different temperature and clip. A factor for those graphs is a changeless value of one rider. As we can see, Figure 4.3 ( a ) shows a graph for increasing different temperature with changeless figure of one rider while Figure 4.3 ( B ) shows a graph for diminishing different temperature with changeless figure of one rider. As for the 2nd two figures, which is Figure 4.4 ( a ) and Figure 4.4 ( B ) , the variables used for those graphs are a figure of different temperature and clip but the factor for those graphs is different.

Different figure of rider is used to find whether the factors can act upon the entrance consequence. For Figure 4.4 ( a ) , it shows a graph for increasing different temperature with different figure of rider while Figure 4.4 ( B ) shows a graph for diminishing different temperature with different figure of rider.

Chapter 5

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

5.1 Analysis and Discussion

Figure 5.1 ( a ) : Graph for increasing different temperature with changeless figure of rider

This graph [ figure 5.1 ( a ) ] shows the times that take to warm the environment inside the auto based on the temperature that is set up by the user. The temperature is set up at 16 grades. This is the default temperature for this system if the user does non come in the temperature. When user set the temperature at 17 grades Celsius, the clip required for the temperature reaches the set temperature is 2 2nd. If the user set up the temperature at 18 grades Celsius, the clip that take to make this temperature is 5 2nd, 3 2nd tardily compared to clip demand for 17 grades. Next, when 19 grades set by the user, the clip will be increased by three more seconds for the temperature reaches the set temperature of 8 seconds.

It is the same if the user set up the grade at 20 grade Celsius, it will increased 3 more 2nd to make the 20 grade and the clip that it takes is 21 2nd. From the default value to make the 20 grade Celsius it will take around 11second.From the consequence, the higher the temperature the longer the clip taken to warm the environment inside the auto. There a alteration at 20 one grade Celsius, the clip that need to make the set up temperature is 23 seconds. It is need 2 more second from the clip that twenty degree Celsius demand. For 20 two grades Celsius, the clip that need to make the temperature is 26 2nd, for 20 three grades is 19 seconds, for 20 four grades is 20 second and last but non least 20 five grades is 23 2nd. Between the 20 three grades and twenty four grades, the different is 1 2nd. This happen because, the different of heat between these two grades is non excessively far, so it can take less clip to make comparison to others.

Figure 5.2 ( a ) : Graph for diminishing different temperature with changeless figure of rider

This graph [ figure 5.1 ( B ) ] showed the consequence for temperature heat down. The default value for this temperature is 16 grades. User will put up the higher temperature if they are experiencing excessively cold and will utilize low temperature if they are feel hot. In his graph, the slow temperature user set, the longer clip it take to heat down the temperature. For illustration, from this graph, when user set the temperature at 24 degree Celsius, the clip that to travel to the temperature is shorter and it merely take 5 seconds. Compared to the 16 grade Celsius, when user attempt to heat down at this temperature, its take a longer clip that is 24 seconds. For the scope between 22 grades until 17 grades the clip take for the temperature heat down is decreased by one seconds every clip the user set up the lower temperature.

Figure 5.2 ( a ) : Graph for increasing temperature with different figure of rider ( 1-4 )

For this graph [ figure 5.2 ( a ) ] , this is the consequence for what go on to temperature when there is passenger about. The riders now as variables that can impact the temperature inside the auto when they are about. There are 4 riders that act as variable in this instance. This graph demo the consequence when the riders are inside the auto and besides show what go on to the clip and temperature. As the consequence shows, an increasing figure of riders, the less clip it takes to heat. It is because, the more rider inside the topographic point, the heat from the single rider will heat the topographic point and this aid the existent temperature to heat more faster than usually.

From the consequence, the graph showed that that when there are 4 rider inside the environment, the temperature will increase faster than other three property. Just like account on the first paragraph, the natural heat that comes from the rider aid to increase the temperature. While when they are 3 riders the temperature heat up more slower than when it is have 4 rider inside it. As we know, there is a large different when semen to 3 or 4 individuals The organic structure heat green goods is in large sum. For two and one individual, the organic structure heat green goods by them is less than 4 and 3 individual. So, the difference temperature between it so big. For two people, the consequence show that it heat faster in the beginning but it become slower after that and make the temperature at 23 seconds. The last one, the one rider, the heat organic structure produce non truly higher, there the warmer demand to heat up longer to make the temperature that suited for the rider.

Figure 5.2 ( B ) : Graph for diminishing temperature with different figure of rider ( 1-4 )

For this graph [ Figure 5.2 ( B ) ] , normally when the clip is excessively hot, the rider will be take downing the temperature in conformity with the imperturbability that they want. For many riders, the clip for the temperature dropped faster than when there is merely one rider. For illustration in this instances, when there are 4 riders, the temperature heat down faster and merely take 25 seconds but for the one rider, 30 seconds need for temperature to heat down. The clip that the two and three rider takes for the temperature to heat down is 27 seconds and 28 seconds.

From the graph, the consequence obtain can be conclude that the more figure of riders in the auto, the faster clip taken to make the needed temperature. This is because it has stated in the fuzzy regulations if the temperature difference is negative big and the heat provided by the rider are really lager, the velocity blower proportion will run in positive fast. Although there are some somewhat different of clip when the chilling operation occurred in the auto with variables figure of rider s which a several of seconds, the consequence of the increasing alteration temperature in the auto can besides be conclude that are non somewhat affected by the increasing figure of riders

Chapter 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1 Decision

Throughout the undertaking, many simulations have been carried out to analyze the execution of fuzzed logic control in auto clime control system. The simulations besides include the survey on the old accountant, which are on/off accountant, PID accountant, and StateflowA® accountant. The public presentation of the accountants techniques are carefully studied for assisting to measure the best accountant for auto clime control system. From the surveies show that the fuzzed logic accountant is selected to be the auto clime control system because of its characteristic that can be adapt to the existent universe job and the fuzzed logic control system besides proved that can heighten the engineerings to user-friendly.

For the theoretical account as shown in figure 3.4 in chapter 3, there are two fuzzed logic accountants used in the system. The first fuzzed logic accountant is FLCBLOWER, used to command the blower fan velocity proportion. The accountant reacts based on the temperature difference of external temperature in the auto and the setpoint temperature set by user. The larger the scope negative temperature difference is in the auto, the faster blower velocity fan spinning and if the scope temperature difference is positive the blower velocity fan reacted frailty versa. The blower velocity fan besides manipulate by the figure of riders in the auto. The more no of rider in the auto the faster blower velocity fan will whirl although the temperature different in the auto is the same. The other fuzzed logic accountant is FLCSWITCH that determined either to exchange the air conditioner sate or warmer province influenced by the positive and negative temperature difference in the auto. If the user set the setpoint temperature lower than the external temperature inside the auto, the difference is negative and the FLCSWITCH will on the air conditioner province. If the user set the setpoint temperature higher than the external temperature inside the auto, the difference is positive and the FLCSWITCH will on the warmer province. The FLCSWITCH turned of both province if the temperature difference in the auto is zero and the coveted temperature by user will stay as the setpoint temperature until the user changes the value of the setpoint temperature.

Based on this research, the coveted temperature will be achieved by accommodating the fuzzed logic control system to the auto clime control system. The consequence show in figure 5.1 ( a ) and 5.1 ( B ) O.K. that the concluding consequence of the temperature can be reach harmonizing to the user desired. The consequence besides can be conclude that the higher scope temperature different the more clip taken to make the coveted temperature. In the other manus, for figure 5.2 ( a ) that result the temperature addition altering based on the figure of riders show that the increasing figure of rider is act upon the clip taken to make the coveted temperature. This is because the heat green goods by the rider is assisting the warming procedure in the auto. While for figure 5.2 ( B ) show that the consequence of times taken to accomplish the coveted temperature based on the figure of rider has the somewhat different due to the increasing of figure rider in the auto. This is proved that the fuzzy regulations are working good with the fuzzed logic accountant to command the end product temperature for the clime control systems.

6.2 Recommendations

Based on this research, the temperature control system for air conditioning and warmer for the car clime control system can been optimized by utilizing fuzzed logic as a accountant. The clip required to accomplish the coveted temperature could be decreased by analyzing the feature of the clime control system more farther and obtain the cognition from the clime control system to put a better parametric quantities for the accountant. The better parametric quantities will better the end product of the clime control to be smoother and heighten the comfy for rider in the auto.

Therefore, fuzzed logic control shows promoting consequences in this simulation surveies. This control technique is able to modulate blower velocity proportion, air conditioning control, and heater control without the demand of a mathematical theoretical account of the system and yet capable to supply non-linear relationship maps, regulations, and defuzzification. The system leads to the good public presentation and ever stable make the user satisfied. By farther survey the system, a merchandise can be implementing in the Malaysian ‘s car like Proton and Perodua that can be selling and it will go a worldwide.

Chapter 7

REFFERENCES

[ 1 ] L. Reznik, Fuzzy Controllers. Oxford: Newnest, 1997, pp. 60-108.

[ 2 ] V.A. Constantin, Fuzzy Logic and Neurofuzzy Applications Explained. 1976, pp. 203-206.

[ 3 ] Mohd Fauzi Othman & A ; Siti Marhainis Othman, Fuzzy Logic Non Linear Car Air Conditioning, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2006.

[ 4 ] Duane and L. Bruce, Mastering MATLAB 6. Pearson Education International, 2001, pp. 450-462.

[ 5 ] Hossein Mirinejad, Seyed Hossein Sadati, Maryam Ghasemian & A ; Hamid Torab, Control Techniques in Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning ( HVAC ) Systems, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, 2008.

[ 6 ] Joao M.C Sousa, Uzay Kaymak. Fuzzy Decision Making Modeling and Control. World Scientific, 2002