Aid Policies and World Hunger

Aid Policies and World Hunger

Question 1

Issue 13Aid Policies and World HungerThe beginning of the argument on assistance policies and universes hungerstems from the demand to reexamine nutrient aid patterns and policies. International givers find themselves in an statement over the best manner to lend resources to universe hungriness Clapp, 2012 ) .

Robert Paarlberg recommends against the giving of nutrient assistance as a response to planetary hungriness. In his position nutrient assistance contributions do non turn to the implicit in job of low nutrient productiveness in developing states ; in fact he argues that these free nutrients hurt the little graduated table husbandmans buy cut downing demand for their green goods. Paarlberg advices that the better solution is to put in agricultural development that will enable these people feed themselves. Harmonizing to Paarleberg United States spends 20 times more money on nutrient assistance than agricultural development. It does non do sense to him that United States has cut its agricultural development assistance by 80 five per centum yet double nutrient assistance since 1980 ( Paarlberg, 2009 ) .

Lester Brown on the other manus believes that there is no relationship agricultural progresss and productiveness. States with advanced agricultural engineerings do non see any addition in outputs. He gives an illustration of Japan, which has non seen addition in outputs per acre in the past 14 old ages, though it had experienced a sustained rise in the yesteryear. Hunger is caused by reduced nutrient production as a consequence of population growing, decreased dirt quality, alterations in temperature and diminishing earth’s H2O tabular array ( Brown, 2012 ) .

Paarlberg does non back up the theory that international monetary values are the cause of the planetary nutrient job. Food monetary values on the international market state small about planetary hungriness. In his statement he says that those who are affected by hungriness in Africa and South Asia are shielded from monetary value fluctuations in the planetary market by their government’s trade policies and hapless substructure. The solution is to set more resources into irrigation, mechanisation of agriculture and better substructure ( Paarlberg, 2009 ) .

Lester Brown attributes the addition in nutrient monetary values to hunger in developing states. In his sentiment addition in monetary values is a catastrophe to the world’s poorest population. Food takes up 50 to seventy per centum of their income. Brown says that as the international nutrient monetary values double so does the local nutrient monetary values in the underdeveloped states. Therefore the solution to hungriness is to modulate nutrient monetary values ( Brown, 2012 ) .

I support Paarberg’s statement that though helpful nutrient assistance does non work out the job of hungriness. More should be done to avoid the job of hungriness alternatively of trusting on the short term solution of nutrient assistance when hungriness occurs. It is of import to authorise communities confronting hungriness so that they are able to feed themselves.


Brown, L ( 2012 )Full Planet, Empty Plates The new Geopolitics of Food ScarcityNew York, NY: Norton & A ; company

Clapp, J. ( 2012 )Hunger in the Balance: The New Politics of International Food Aid.Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press

Easton, T. A. ( 2011 ) .Taking sides:Colliding positions on environmental issues( 14th ed. ) . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Paarlberg, R. ( 2009 )Starved for Science: How Biotechnology is being kept out of Africa.Harvard University Press

Question 2

Issue 14Genetically Modified Foods

The universe wellness organisation describes genetically modified nutrients ; as nutrients derived from beings that have had alterations in their familial stuff in an unnatural manner. The current genetically modified harvests have been modified so that they are, drought, disease or weedkiller immune. These alterations are aimed at increasing harvest production. Genetically modified nutrients are non allowed into the market before appraisal ( Easton, 2011 ) .

Controversies environing genetically modified nutrient are as a consequence of concern about their safety. It is argued that Genetically Modified Foods miss critical foods that are found in non modified nutrient ( Easton, 2011 ) . Scientists who support familial alteration nevertheless claim that they are superior to of course happening harvests when it comes to nutrition. Scientists who propose Genetically Modified Foods say that there is no difference between Genetic alteration and the natural cross genteelness and hybridisation. Those who oppose argue that cross genteelness and hybridisation respects the boundaries of different species. There are besides concerns over the effects of Genetically Modified Foods on human wellness and the environment.

Gerald Coleman is a advocate of Genetically modified nutrients he promotes familial technology as the solution to hunger and malnutrition experienced in different parts of the universe. A survey by National Center for Food Agriculture found that husbandmans in United States harvested 5.3 billion more harvests and realized 22 billion additions in income as a consequence of utilizing biotech merchandises ( Silver, 2007 ) .

In relation to work outing nutrient deficits Father Sean McDonagh an opposition admirations if those bring forthing genetically modified nutrient will administer their green goods to the hapless for free. In his position hungriness can merely be alleviated when issues refering to economic and societal inequalities are addressed. He gives an illustration of the 1840 dearth of Ireland where by even though there was nutrient in the state the hapless could non entree or purchase nutrient.

Hybrid seeds can non be replanted thereby asking the husbandman to purchase seeds each season argues McDonagh. He quotes John Perkins who wrote that familial technology has led to the loss of three quarters of major nutrient harvests familial diverseness ( Silver, 2007 ) .

Father Sean McDonagh links the patenting of genetically modified organisms as patenting of life. He supports an Indian Scientists Dr Vandana Shiva who believes that there can be nutrient absolutism as a consequence of nutrient patenting. This will take to famishment and hungriness struggles. Life is a gift of God and should be freely shared. In response to concerns of the morality associated with patenting of Genetically Modified seeds he says that there are proposals that research universities to portion their rational belongings through unfastened licensing. The development states where the research was carried out can so hold negociating rights. This would set human involvement above that of corporate.

Sean refutes the claim that Genetically Modified harvests require less chemical usage in agribusiness. He gives an illustration of a survey where it was found that when Genetically Modified Organisms were foremost introduced they required twenty five per centum less chemicals for the first few old ages. Over the old ages nevertheless, the same harvests required five per centum more chemicals ( weedkillers ) compared to natural harvest assortments. Coleman nevertheless supports those who believe that it reduces usage of pesticides and as a consequence helps the environment. In his sentiment Genetically Modified Foods are alimentary rich, drought resistant and require less H2O usage. This leads to increase in harvest production at a lower cost ( Ruse, 2002 ) .

Genetically Modified Foods is a solution of hungriness but non the lone solution in my sentiment. More research should be done to turn to the concerns of those opposing Genetically Modified Foods.


Easton, T. A. ( 2011 ) .Taking sides:Colliding positions on environmental issues( 14th ed. ) . New York,

New york: McGraw-Hill.

Ruse, M. ( 2002 )Genetically Modified Foods: Debating Biotechnology. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books

Silver, L. M. ( 2007 )Remaking Eden: How Genetic Engineering and Cloning will Transform theAmerican FamilyHarper Perennial

Issue 15Organic FarmingOrganic agriculture is a signifier of farming that uses natural techniques merely to bring forth harvests. Organic farming utilizations organic manure, harvest rotary motion and biological plague control. Catherine Badgley advocators for organic agriculture. Harmonizing to her Organic agricultural methods can prolong the current universe population without increasing the farm land put into production. Organic agribusiness can lend to nutrient supply globally with less environmental impact compared to conventional agribusiness ( Easton, 2011 ) . John Miller is against organic agriculture in his sentiment organic agriculture is uneconomical. Organic agriculture outputs half of what conventional agriculture green goodss. Modern agricultural engineering allows nutrient production in big measures in the limited land available.

Catherine Badgley that man-made N fertilisers widely used today can be replaced by green manure from leguminous plants that biologically fix N in the dirt and compost manure. John Miller disagrees with the fact that organic manure is better than industrial N fertilisers. He says that organic manure creates a genteelness land for all sorts of bugs. In United States for illustration Organic Manure accounts for eight per centum of all Escherichia Coli instances.

John Miller opposes the statement that organic nutrients are healthier because they are grown in a chemical free scene. Miller states that organic nutrients have non more alimentary than non organic nutrients that are genetically altered, utilize pesticides and fueled by industrial fertilisers. There is no grounds that organic nutrients are safer and more alimentary than conventional nutrients harmonizing to Miller’s statement. He quotes the Secretary for Agriculture during Clinton Administration who says that Organic labels are merely marketing tool. Miller points out that because organic agriculture does non utilize pesticides and weedkillers, organic harvests are susceptible to fungi and bacterial infections every bit good as weeds and insects.


Easton, T. A. ( 2011 ) .Taking sides:Colliding positions on environmental issues( 14th ed. ) . New York,

New york: McGraw-Hill.

Question 4

Lester Brown: The Persistent Prophet

Barbara Crossette negotiations about Lester Brown in her article called “The persistent prophet” . The writer describes Lester brown as the Godhead of the first research institute in 1974, dedicated to turn toing planetary environmental issues like clime alteration, natural resources menaces and harmful energy policies. The author negotiations about the different accomplishments of Lester Brown including the United Nations Environmental award and McArthur ‘genius’ Scholarship. He has published 50 books.

She writes about how Lester Brown has been viewed as a glooming prophesier because his instructions have ne’er been taken earnestly. However, late Lester has been more optimistic that people are get downing to pattern more environmental witting and sustainable energy usage. On the issue of planetary nutrient supplies deficit and population force per unit area he was to make more work to convert people.

The author discusses Lester’s sentiment on different issues including the issue of universe hungriness. He says that democracies have been weakened by hapless administration and corruptness, doing them unable to feed their populations, asking organisations like U.N universe nutrient plan to step in. I agree with the author’s support of Lester’s work and protagonisms. There is so much that needs to be done to halt the current patterns that are non sustainable ( Easton, 2011 ) .


Crossette, B. ( 2009 ) “The relentless prophesier” . Scientific American19p44-51

Easton, T. A. ( 2011 ) .Taking sides:Colliding positions on environmental issues( 14th ed. ) . New York,

New york: McGraw-Hill.

Question 5

Large Scale Organic Farming

The article is called ‘Sustainable, organic agriculture patterns are the best manner to feed the future’ written by Greg Seamanwritten on 20 4th October two 1000 and eleven.

In his position the writer writes that today farming areas are dependent on chemical fertilisers, even though these patterns have short term benefits they leads to dirty depletion. Water keeping in non organic farms is decreasing ensuing to eroding and chemical residues being transported to H2O organic structures. He observes that people have accepted these patterns because they believe there is no option. He is of the sentiment that big organic agriculture is the best manner to feed the population in a sustainable manner and that organic agriculture is more productive harmonizing to research carried out by Rodale Institute that studied both agricultural patterns side by side over a 30 twelvemonth period of clip.

The survey found that organic farming net incomes the husbandman three times more than conventional agrarian systems. This net income is as a consequence of the higher monetary value organic nutrients fetch every bit good as the low input cost of organic agriculture ( Hansen, 2010 ) .

He writes that it is incorrect to presume that organic agriculture is non sufficient to feed big populations. Organic farms gain 70 nine per centum more productiveness compared to conventional agriculture. The other ground for recommending for organic agriculture is that it reduces the energy required for agriculture by 40 five per centum. Conventional systems besides produce 40 per centum more green house gases compared to organic agriculture. Whereas conventional agriculture maintains the overall dirt wellness, organic patterns improves the dirt quality and better dirt wet keeping. I agree with the author’s place that big graduated table organic agriculture can take to high plenty produce to feed the population.


Easton, T. A. ( 2011 ) .Taking sides:Colliding positions on environmental issues( 14th ed. ) . New York,

New york: McGraw-Hill.

Hansen, A. S. ( 2010 )Organic Farming Manual:A comprehensive usher to get downing and runninga Certified Organic FarmNorth Adams, MA: Storey publishing houses. Print.

Seaman, G. ( 2011 ) ‘Sustainable, organic agriculture patterns are the best manner to feed the future’.