To cognize every phenomenon the first measure is to cognize its root. Hygiene and Medicine have baronial beginning from the beginning of the recorded human history ; in fact, they have been the milepost of human society Medical history will assist us to cognize this background and roots and Achaemenid period as a superb age of Persian heritage is meritable to be studied.
The present survey is an effort to happen cases of hygienic and Medical facets of Iranian life manner during this period of as recorded by Grecian historiographers. The chief intent of this survey is to reply the undermentioned inquiries: Is there a Medical Tradition, which could be named as Persian Medical Tradition during Achaemenid epoch? Whether, the reply is yes, the following of import inquiry is: How much importance and influence it has on the modern-day and oncoming Medical Traditions?
Cardinal words: Medical history, Achaemenid era, Grecian literature, Xenophon
Although, there are some hints that testify the presence and influence of Iranian male monarchs in the southeasterly parts of Persian tableland since the 2nd half of the sixth century BC, but the Achaemenid emperorship was founded between 599 to 530 BC by the 2nd Cyrus or Cyrus the Great. During this twenty old ages and processing he founded an emperorship which overall contains Middle East geographical region.1
Achaemenied dynasty was one of the greatest Empires throughout the history from India to Macedonia. This great Empire was established by Cyrus II ( the Great ) who was king of the Fars and Anshan ( South western Iran ) in approximately 550 BC. Finally, This Great Empire was ended by Alexander of Macedonia in 330 BC. Achaemenides were celebrated because of their humanistic disciplines more than power. They ruled their great districts by justness and besides regard to the under ruled states believes.2
1-2-About Cyrus II:
Cyrus II who was known as Cyrus the Great, was the laminitis of the Achaemenid Empire. He was born in approximately 600 BC. Cyrus was the boy of Cambyses I, the grandson of Cyrus I, and great-grandson of Achaemenes ( the laminitis of Achaemenid land ; the name of dynasty is derived from his name ) . Cyrus the great changed the local Achaemenid land to a great Empire. He captured whole of the Iran, Mesopotamia, Lydia ( Current Turkey ) , Palestine, Syria and etc. Later his boy, Cambyses II captured Egypt.3
Xenophon was a Grecian historian belonging to an blue Athenian household. He was born in an about 430 BC. He likely participated in the war with the Sparta until 404 BC. In 401 BC he along with some the other Greeks joined to the Cyrus the younger military personnels in a disclosure against his brother, Artaxerex, the Achaemenid male monarch. After broken Cyrus the younger disclosure, he became the leader of Greeks to withdraw to the Greece.4
Anabasis is the most celebrated Xenophon ‘s manuscript. Besides, his another authorship was Cyropaedia which is the life narrative of Cyrus the great, Founder of the greatest Iranian emperorship. Xenophon wrote some other plants such as Helenica, Memorabili and besides about runing, political relations, military preparation and living.5
Although Cyropedia is known as pseudo-historical history of the Cyrus the Great life narrative, but is considered a historical novel by many bookmans. 6,7 Dillery climates that there are some watercourses in the Cyropaedia and Constitution of the Spartans contain transitions. Therefore he suggests “ Xenophon ‘s ideal about efficaciousness of good leading, the excellence of life style and ideal community life ” .8 Xenophon pointed to many medical and hygienic topics in the Iranian society and besides kingdom tribunal during his narrative. Although historical events which were discussed in the Cyropedia is controversial topics, but his description about societal events and topics such as medical specialty and hygiene can be valuable to happen ill-defined points about history of medical specialty. It is valuable because he was modern-day with Achaemenid period and created his narrative in that ambiance. Therefore, it is expectable that the mode, societal events and topics was close to Achaemenids societal facts. In this respect, we tried to see this historical work to happen medical and hygienic points in ancient Persia. It can be valuable to cast light some darkness in the history of Iranian medical specialty.
On the other manus
Specific conditions of Achaemenid epoch historical surveies such as deficiency or at least terrible deficit of native written paperss and manuscripts because of Greek, Arab and Mongol depredation and library fire combustions besides limited Archeological researches particularly on the Medical history, pointed us to Greek manuscripts. In this manner harmonizing to the descriptive cases narrated by Grecian writers particularly such elements related to hygienic and medical behaviour of people and comparing with the other Medical Traditions would assist us to gauge and speculate the likely function and influence of Persian Medical Tradition.
In this measure, we tried to happen the cardinal points through the Cyropaedia, as the chief mention. We employed the English and Iranian interlingual renditions to make this attempt. In this manner we tried to happen every purposes bespeaking Medical and hygienic elements.
The Cyropaedia as a composite is consist of eight books and forty one chapters. At the beginning, Xenophon started the Cyrus childhood narrative and so through the on-going chapters describes the fortunes toward triumphs until Achaemenid emperorship constitution. At the terminal of the Cyropaedia there is a brief descriptive show about Iranian state after Cyrus epoch.
In the way of happening groundss based on the Xenophon ‘s statements we could happen 31 records related to the assorted medical and hygienic advices even includes life manner advices and mental wellness attention of soldiers.
At first, in the beginning of the first book in 6th chapter ;
Cambyses who is the great Cyrus ‘s male parent is reding him. He noted Cyrus some points about necessity of healthy units, happening nutrient beginnings and adept attendant ground forces doctor.
On the manner, Cambyses emphasized on the function of epidemic bar among bivouacing units. He noted that epidemic bar is really of import even more than remedy patient solders.
Then he noted to the location significance as an influential point to maintain campus healthy.
Refrain from so much feeding and making exercising known as cause of good being.
Athletic competitions marked as an of import component in order to maintain solders ‘ physically and mentally in order.
Then as an illustration to demo the importance of immediate obeisance of unites, Cambyses made a memoranda. He exampled the effectual conformity of an unrealistic forbearance and his attender to follow the physician orders.
In another illustration Cambyses noted to infamy of a bogus doctor in the procedure. He made this to advise his boy the importance of expertness and the dishonour, as a effect, is depicted when a physician is shamed.9,10,11
Up to the book five, chapter four we can non happen any notes about medical specialty and hygiene. In this portion:
Battlefield Injuries smarm was remarked in so many topographic points.
The importance of presence of sawboness along with the ground forces is observed.
Using medical specialties and redresss to bring around patients was discerned. 12,13,14
At 6th book, 2nd chapter:
Xenophon pointed to a usage. He informed that there was a convention among Iranian solders to utilize vino to slake their thirst. Cyrus tried to replace this wont by imbibing H2O.
In this manner Cyrus, the great, tried to forestall depression by giving up imbibing vino after repast.
The function of eating different foods in order to illness bar and to do it a usage is noted.
The function of clime and season changing and the accomplishments help units against insolation and hoar was observed.
The function of suited apparels and bed in soldiers is notified.
The function of savoring some salt as an appetiser besides is considered.
The function of suited appetency to nutrient toward stable and healthy humoral disposition was notified.
The function of a complete and built-in pharmaceutics toward redress unwellnesss was emphasized. 15,16,17
The 8th book, chapter one:
Xenophon pointed to the presence of some adept agents in the urban venue to command and direction of people ‘s nutrient.
Cyrus the great, permitted people to indigo their eyes and smarm by some oils to seal tegument and makes their eyes beautiful, Xenophon revealed.
And Finally it is noted that throughout the kingdom of Persain imperium, ptyalizing in public topographic points was strongly forbidden.18,19,20
As a definition by Jacob Burckhardt, the Swiss historiographer of art and civilization ( 1818-1897 ) , Cultural history: “ aˆ¦consists of the most portion of stuff conveyed in an unwilled, disinterested or even nonvoluntary manner by beginnings and memorials ; they betray their secrets unconsciously and even, paradoxically, through fabricated amplification, rather apart from the stuff inside informations they may put out to record and laud, and are therefore double informative for the cultural historiographer. “ 21
The debut of the book states that “ A Grecian ground forces on the March ” 22 is disclosed and cited to demo, why the author have accepted the Anabasis and its narrated information as utile groundss to depict events and state of affairss. Since, this is the logic in order to use the Anabasis literature so it is utile to act Cyropaedia.
On the other manus, such information about health care is less manipulated because the physiology of human being has non been changed, at least by antiquity.
In the terminal, we can claim:
The term known as Cultural history is the anchor of our logic toward our appraisal. This is non merely medical and hygienic but besides includes all facets of Iranian life style.
The groundss which have been listed above are utile to present or even to depict the Persians place of Hygienic and medical behaviour.
Harmonizing to the mentioned groundss this notes are singular:
Attendant doctor along with the ground forces could demo a military health care organisation. On the other manus urban wellness attention agents who are present to modulate civil health care occasions. This statement is deducted from the first point we have found in the first book and the first from 8th book.
Contagious disease bar is unusually noted and the bar is most of import instead than bring arounding sick people. This is resulted from the 2nd note of the first book.
Some points show the importance of mental and psychological health care. For illustration the athletic competitions ( book 1, note 5 ) , alcohol imbibing giving up in order to forestall depression ( book 6, note 2 ) are noted.
Eating behaviour in some topographic points is noted. Refrain from eating so much nutrient and making exercise noted as a critical point of wellness ( book 1, note 4 ) . This likely related to overweighing bar. The following behaviour advices people to savor some salt as an appetiser before repast ( book 6, note 6 ) . The other note is counsel in order to malnutrition bar. This point is cleared in book 6- note 3 which propose to eat different foods to forestall unwellnesss. Suitable desire to nutrient is besides noted as a mark and as an component of healthy disposition ( book 6, note 7 ) .
At least four wellness attention specializers are named and classified among wellness attention professionals. First Physicians ( book 1, note 1 ) , Surgeons ( book 5, note 2 ) , Pharmacists ( book 6, note 8 ) , Healthcare agents ( book 8, note1 ) . This may be point to a ordered wellness attention system
There are some memorandas and Proverbs which have used the doctor as a term and as the chief organic structure to clear up the significance ( book 1, notes 6 and 7 ) . This could explicate the familiarity of the term doctor to connote the range of the adage to the audience, every bit good as possible.
A societal behaviour that could be a hygienic behaviour is introduced. Not to ptyalizing in public topographic points in all parts of Iranian emperorship ( book 8, note 3 ) .
We believe that there are some other consequences could be driven out from these notes and at the same clip we say:
This is non a entire tax write-off but it needs more groundss and treatments. In this measure, we would province: During Achaemenid dynasty, there were effectual methodicalness related to Hygiene and medical attention, particularly in ground forces.
1- Brosius, 2006.
2- Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006.
3- Ackermann et Al, 2008.
4- Hutchins et Al, 1990: 6- 193.
5- Xenophon, 2005.
7- Lee, 2007.
8- Dillery, 1995.
9- Xenophon, 2009.
10- Xenophon, 1914.
11- Xenophon, 1836.
12- Xenophon, 2009.
13- Xenophon, 1914.
14- Xenophon, 1836.
15- Xenophon, 2009.
16- Xenophon, 1914.
17- Xenophon, 1836.
18- Xenophon, 2009.
19- Xenophon, 1914.
20- Xenophon, 1836.
21- Cotti, 2008: 3-20.
22- Lee, 2007.