A Company Overview of the PepsiCo Enterprise

PepsiCO Inc is one the taking endeavors in the drinks and nosh nutrient industry, but before that history of the iconic trade name begun in 1898 by the innovation of Pepsi expression by the Caleb Bradham. Modern history of the PepsiCO Inc started in 1965 after amalgamation of Frito-Lay, nowadays PepsiCO Inc include five chief trade names: Pepsi-Cola, Frito-Lay, Gatorade, Tropicana, Quaker trade names and over 100 other consumer merchandises, with gross of $ 60 bln and 285,000 employees worldwide.

Hazard Exposure

The undermentioned list represents some of the most of import hazard factors that can impact the Company ‘s fiscal status and operations:

PepsiCO Inc. Affected by the authorities ordinances, international markets and economical status.

Tense competition within drinks and nosh nutrient industry which may impact operations of the PepsiCO Inc.

PepsiCO Inc. International Operations are capable to possible loss due to international jurisprudence and economic ordinances

Entities public presentation and fiscal place is extremely affected by the trade names repute and trade name credence.

PepsiCO strategic acquisitions and investings may non be beneficially ensuing

PepsiCO Inc showed strong ability to keep market fluctuation that occurred past old ages and still has possible for future growing.

PepsiCO Inc Net Debt Ratio Calculation

Each analysis emphasizes debt against equity as the most important index of the company ‘s fiscal place and public presentation. Debt construction and related belongingss can be described for the case by the footings ( long-short period debts ) and debt suppliers ( it can be either market or fiscal establishments ) . Furthermore debt construction can be important as for the developed companies and for companies that is still turning.

Cardinal characteristic for the clear presentation of the company ‘s fiscal place is the Net Debt Ratio. Analysis provided by the related ratio based on the overall debt place represented by the net value of entity ‘s liabilities along with hard currency equivalents and other liquid assets. Measure of the entity ‘s debt gave us an thought of possible hazard carried by the company in footings of the debt burden. This analysis has 4 chief facets to cover, in order to supply clear presentation of the Entities debt place:

Debt description ( long/short in order of adulthood footings )

Debt intent

Debt burden hazard of the Entity

Comparative debt analysis of the rival companies

Current analysis will gave us clear presentation of the company ‘s fiscal place in footings of debt construction and comparative reappraisal of rivals within drinks and nosh nutrient market.

Debt description

Main facet in order to acquire clear presentation of the debt place and market purchase is utilizing of two chief principals Historical Cost and Market Value of the debt. Harmonizing to PepsiCO Inc entity apply all related methods, nevertheless most important for the company is market value of the debt, as current method provide existent cost of debt which will gave us existent place of company ‘s market public presentation and place as it provides present value of the expected hard currency flow.

Harmonizing to FASB 157 rating of the debt have to trust on unfastened market informations ( just value of the instrument ) , quotes and monetary values or similar unfastened market traded bonds in order to supply more dependable information refering the company. However related method of debt rating can be determined as the one of the causes that led to the 2008 Financial Crisis due to related method more relies on the market monetary value instead than historical cost in footings of rating.

Calculation of the Net Debt Ratio performed by the PepsiCO Inc based on the following expression utilizing market value of the duties:

L = ( D + PVOL – CMS ) / ( NP + D + PVOL – Centimeter )

D – Entire debt of the Entity ( short term debt + long term debt ) $ 9,453 mln

PVOL – present value of runing lease $ 2,395 mln ( 4 times higher than rent disbursals )

CMS – hard currency and marketable securities $ 1,124 mln

NP – figure of portions times monetary value $ 43,959 mln

Market Leverage ( L ) = 0.19612 ( 20 % )

Amount of 20 % is relatively higher than 18 % of the Debt Ratio provided by the Entity despite extra 25 % Tax Rate added by the US Government due to accommodation of the Present Value of Operating Lease. After installment of the adjustment Net Debt Ratio stays within 20 % – 25 % corridor assigned by the company. However Cash Flow of the Entity covers Market Value of the Long-run Debt merely on 43 % ( entire market value of the long-run debt $ 8,747 mln, one-year hard currency flow $ 3,742 mln ) .

Short-run Debt of the PepsiCO Inc along with current liabilities totaled to amount of $ 5,230 mln against current assets with sum of $ 5,546 mln. Associating to current liabilities to current assets measurement Entity is considered as non really liquid ( current ratio is 106 % , due to represented acount are about equal ) . Working Capital of the PepsiCO Inc is near to 100 % , which can be explained by the industry specifications, nevertheless in order to accomplish appropriate fiscal place I would sugest to increase hard currency and hard currency equivalents histories. Furthermore other current history balance is exciding 5 % of entire current history sum ( 72 % of entire sum ) , which is non in conformity with IFRS criterions.

Debt Purpose

Long-run Debt part of the PepsiCO Inc. is twice higher comparing with other companies within industry. Highest sum of the Long-run Debt can be explained by the investment policy in unconsolidated affiliates, as the PepsiCO expects to bring forth hard currency in surplus of long-run cost of capital. PepsiCO Inc investment policy aimed on strategic acquisition in order to spread out company ‘s place within drink and fast nutrient market.

Debt Load

One of the chief penetration points in order to acquire apprehension of the company ‘s place is the debt sum compared to equity portion of the statement of fiscal place. Entire Liabilities of the PepsiCO Inc as of 31/12/2009 totalled to $ 18,119 mln against $ 43,959 mln in equity. Debt burden of the Entity is 41 % which can be identified as appropriate part of the capital. However Current Ratio of the Entity shows deficit of the liquidness ( current ratio is 106 % ) , coverage of the long-run debt by one-year cash-flow 43 % .

Rivals review

Debt construction of the PepsiCO Inc As of 31/12/2009 represented largely by the Long-run Debt with entire sum of $ 8,747 mln ( 93 % of Entire Debt ) , sum of Short-term adoptions totalled to $ 706 mln ( 7 % of Entire Debt ) . Comparing with anterior twelvemonth Long-run Debt sum decreased on 4 % ( $ 332 mln ) , nevertheless current sum is highest within industry companies.

All sum in $ mln.


Long-run Debt

Entire Debt





93 %

Cadbury Schweppes



58 %




67 %

Coca-Cola Enterprises



99 %




88 %

Analisys Recomendation

PepsiCO Inc one of the oldest and respectable endeavors within drinks and fast nutrient market industry, Entity invariably expand place on the market through strategic investings and acquisitions of the unconsolidated affiliates, nevertheless company ‘s place considered as non suitably liquid ( current ratio 106 % ) . This disproportion can be explained by the company ‘s outlook to bring forth hard currency from strategic investings in surplus of the long-run Cost of Capital.

I would sagest to diminish rate of the investings to the anterior twelvemonth degree and raise degree of current assets, in order to capitalize Entities extra hard currency. This use can better Entities current place which will assist to raise market value of the equity ( current market monetary value of the Entities equity is 6 times exceeds book value $ 7.3 bln/ $ 43.9 bln ) . Weighted Average Cost of Capital of the Entity is $ 8,406 bln, computation based on following expression:

WACC = E/V * Re + D/V * Rd * ( 1 – Technetium )

Re – Cost of Equity ( $ 7.3 bln )

Rd – Cost of Debt ( $ 18.1 bln )

E – Market value of the Entity ‘s Equity ( $ 44.0 bln )

D – Market value of the Entity ‘s Debt ( $ 9.4 bln )

V = E + D ( $ 43.9 bln + $ 9.4 bln = $ 53.4 bln )

E/V – Equity per centum ( 82 % )

D/V – Debt per centum ( 18 % )

Tc – Tax rate ( 25 % )

Major portion of the Entity ‘s finance provided by the equity portion of the company. Despite the liquidness deficit of the Entity comparing to competitory companies, PepsiCO Inc represented as the sustainable endeavor with prima place on the market.

PepsiCO Inc Ratio Verification

Fiscal ratios provide broad position on Entity ‘s market place and managerial determinations in order to analyse concern public assistance along with information on Company ‘s operations efficiency. Ratios frequently evaluate company ‘s fiscal informations utilizing market value of related equity and debt place. Fiscal ratios are chief cardinal points in footings of rating of portion monetary value value every bit good as confirmation of benchmarks for concern, designation of managerial schemes and fiscal prediction. Related computations supply possible investors with informations on concern recognition burden and involvement refund ability in order to depict debt holder ‘s hazards.

In current analysis we will reexamine chief basic ratios to acquire appropriate cognition of PepsiCO Inc fiscal place, recognition worthiness and supply analytical reappraisal of the company. Reviewed ratios represented in this study are:

Interest coverage ratio

Fixed charge coverage ratio

Long-run debt ratio

Entire debt to adjusted entire capitalisation ( includes short-run debt )

Ratio of cash-flow to short-run debt

Ratio of cash-flow to entire debt

Below we will depict computation of the represented fiscal ratios for the each company in the drinks and fast nutrient market industry, provided accounts for them and analysis of the measurings.


Interest Coverage

Fixed Charge Coverage

Long-run Debt Ratio

Entire Debt to Total Adjusted Capitalization

Cash-Flow to Long-run Debt

Cash-Flow to Entire Debt

PepsiCO Inc







Cadbury Schweppes














Coca-Cola Enterprises














Interest Coverage Ratio

Related Ratio verifies Entity ‘s ability to refund outstanding debt, current measuring calculated on the footing of net incomes before involvement and revenue enhancement disbursals ( EBIT ) for the reviewed period divided by the involvement disbursals for the same term:

Interest Coverage Ratio ( ICR ) = EBIT/Interest Expense

Net incomes before involvement and revenue enhancements for the period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 3,114 mln

Interest disbursals for period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 682 mln

Interest Coverage Ratio ( ICR ) – 4.57

PepsiCO Inc involvement coverage ratio shows ability to settle outstanding debt sum on approximative value of 5 times transcending the current involvement disbursals. Low sum of involvement disbursals rely on little value of the debt portion ( 18 % against 82 % of equity portion investings ) . Related measuring can supply Entity addition of recognition evaluation despite that company more interested in equity portion of capital.

Average ICR within industry is 7.04, PepsiCO Inc below mean measuring due to highest sum of involvement disbursals in the industry group ; despite that fact company have strong place due to ICR coverage of outstanding liabilities and one of the highest operating incomes.

Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio

Fixed charge coverage ratio ( FCCR ) illustrates entity ‘s ability to cover fixed costs ( involvement ) and disbursals ( rental ) . Current measuring calculates on the footing of net incomes before involvement and revenue enhancement disbursals, fixed charge for the period and involvement disbursals as followers:

FCCR = ( EBIT + Operating Lease ( before revenue enhancement ) ) / ( Operating Lease ( before revenue enhancement ) + Interest )

Net incomes before involvement and revenue enhancement disbursals for the period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 3,114 mln

Operating Lease PV for the period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 2,395 mln ( 5 times exceed rent disbursals ) .

Interest disbursal for the period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 682 mln

Fixed charge coverage ratio – 1.79

PepsiCO Inc demonstrate proper ability to cover fixed charges for the period, nevertheless mean FCCR index for the industry is 5.6, PepsiCO Inc ratio is one of the lowest in the group. Smallest sum of the FCCR rely on high sum of operating rental. Company have one of the highest fixed costs disbursals in the industry which indicates non efficient cost direction of the company, still Entity contain strong place sing liability coverage.

Long-run Debt Ratio

Current ratio reveals place of the Entity in footings of fiscal purchase through long-run debt and available capital. Long-run debt ratio show us existent place of company ‘s recognition hazard exposure, and calculates utilizing expression provided below:

LTDR = LTD / ( LTD + Preferred Stock + Common Stock )

Long-run debt ( LTD ) for the period ended as of 31/12/2009 – $ 8,747 mln

Outstanding portions issued as of 31/12/2009 – $ 44.0 bln

Long-run debt ratio ( LTDR ) – 17 %

Recognition hazard exposure of the PepsiCO Inc considered as the relatively high within industry companies. PepsiCO ‘s long-run debt decreased on 4 % comparison with anterior period, nevertheless in order to better entities hazard exposure Entity need to diminish sum of debt portion of funding.

Entire Debt to Adjusted Total Capitalisation Ratio

Calculation of the entire debt to adjusted capitalization performed on the same footing as the long-run debt ratio with accommodation on the short-run debt, current measuring will supply broader position on the debt exposure of the PepsiCO Inc.

TDATCR = Total Debt / ( Preferred Stock + Common Stock + Total Debt )

Short-run debt of the PepsiCO Inc. as of 31/12/2009 – $ 706 mln

Long-run debt of the PepsiCO Inc as of 31/12/2009 – $ 8,747 mln

Entire market value of debt as of 31/12/2009 – $ 9,453 mln

Market value of portions outstanding as of 31/12/2009 – $ 44.0 bln

Entire debt to adjusted entire capitalization ratio – 18 %

Adjustment on short-run debt did non significantly increased sum of capitalization ratio as the short-run part of entire debt is 7 % from entire duties ( long-run debt 93 % ) . Average ratio for the industry is on the degree of 20 % , place of the reviewed Entity is relatively good including appropriate degree of the EBIT degree of the company.

Cash-Flow to Long-run Debt Ratio

Cash-flow to long-run debt ratio will demo Entity ‘s ability to settle long-run duties utilizing one-year cash-flow from runing activity of the company.

CFLTDR = Annual Cash-Flow / Long-Term Debt

Annual cash-flow of the Entity as of 31/12/2009 – $ 3,742 mln

Long-run debt of the Entity as of 31/12/2009 – $ 8,747 mln

Cash-flow to long-run debt ratio – 43 %

Average cash-flow to long-run debt ratio for the industry is on the degree of 88 % , high benchmark for this measuring rely on the Coca-Cola cash-flow coverage of 2.73 ( 273 % ) . Coca-Cola ‘s one-year cash-flow is twice higher than the sum of the long-run duties held by the company. PepsiCO ‘s ability to retrieve long-run debt from cash-flow is on the degree of 43 % which is well low and verified as hazard bearing. Position of the company is to boot weekend by the low rate of the liquidness ( close to 1 ) .

In order to diminish hazard exposure of the Entity, I would propose cut downing debt portion of the capital and capitalizing investings in non affiliate endeavors.

Cash-Flow to Entire Debt Ratio

Footing of computation for the current ratio is the same as for the old measuring with accommodation on short-run duties of the Entity. Main intent of the reviewed ratio is to demo ability of the company to settle net debt through one-year cash-flow from operations.

CFTDR = Annual Cash-Flow / ( Long-run Debt + Short-Term Debt )

Annual cash-flow of the Entity as of 31/12/2009 – $ 3,742 mln

Long-run debt of the Entity as of 31/12/2009 – $ 8,747 mln

Short-run debt of the Entity as of 31/12/2009 – $ 706 mln

Entire debt of the Entity – $ 9,453 mln

Cash-flow to entire debt ratio ( CFTDR ) – 40 %

Position of the Entity did non alter aggressively comparing with anterior ratio computations due to little part of the short-run duties ( 7 % ) , still measurement mentioned above indicates recognition hazard exposure of the PepsiCO Inc, due to inability of the Entity to cover net debt by the one-year cash-flow from operations.

PepsiCO Inc Ratio Analysis

Analysis of the PepsiCO Inc ratios covered comparative overview of major rival companies in the industry represented by the Coca-Cola, Cadbury Schweppes and McDonalds. All of the listed companies showed changeless growing in footings of net incomes per portion and gross.

At the first expression PepsiCO Inc is the best in footings of liquid assets ( 1,498 USD’mln in hard currency and marketable securities ) , Coca-Cola shows 2nd consequence with sum of liquid securities equalled to 1,315 USD’mln. Comparison of entire informations provided by the ratio analysis exposed deficit of the liquidness of the Entity due to the increasing sum of the current liabilities. Interest coverage ratio revealed PepsiCO ‘s ability to settle involvement disbursals on more than 4 times, Cadbury Schweppes has about same consequence in involvement coverage. However, mean consequence for the industry is on the degree of 7.04 which can stand for PepsiCO as the least attractive investing. Coverage of debt capital by the cash-flow has the similar placement between PepsiCO Inc and Cadbury with coefficients peers to 43 % and 57 % severally. However, PepsiCO ‘s relatively high debt figures are non plenty to judge about efficiency of the entity activity, because high debts may be claimed equivocally as negative consequence, every bit good as positive informations.

To finalize, the comparing of the industry leaders PepsiCO Inc, Coca-Cola and McDonalds showed about the equal consequences except Coca-Cola which public presentation is twice higher than industry norm. However, PepsiCO Inc showed good consequences in footings of operating income and highest sum of liquid assets available.

Debt Rating Verification

Debt evaluation of the Company provides to investors informations on Entities ability to refund its debt, possibility of default and recognition worthiness of the concern. Debt evaluation of the PepsiCO Inc. at the minute is on the degree of A1/A, which is highest consequence for the industry. PepsiCO Inc show relatively low cash-flow coverage in the market, nevertheless, above the half of the Company ‘s income generated by its snack-food division. Related issues represent Entity as the diversified company, which can cover possible market fluctuations.

Overall public presentation of the Company show appropriate degree of hard currency influxs, which are offset by the highest part of the debt ( largely represented by the long-run debt 97 % from entire portfolio ) owned by the PepsiCO Inc. Furthermore, Company ‘s market rating for the anterior twelvemonth was affected by the 8 % addition of the debt value.

Net Debt Ratio of the PepsiCO Inc after rental accommodation is still within 20 % -25 % tendency which can be assessed by the Company as the signal to stay current debt evaluation. On the other manus, involvement coverage, fixed charge coverage and cash-flow ratios of the Company are on appropriate degree but lower of industry norm indexes. Direct rivals of the PepsiCO Inc show higher consequences and better cash-flow coverage despite that evaluation of the current endeavors are lower. On my sentiment debt evaluation of the PepsiCO Inc is overstated and has to be lowered to duplicate A evaluation. In order to keep individual mark evaluation, Company should diminish sum of the Net Debt on 10-15 % and capitalise investing to non-affiliate endeavors which will increase market value of the Company stock.

To finalize, PepsiCO Inc is one of the most respectable and oldest company on the drinks and nosh nutrient market, with differential merchandise line. The Company is still interested in market expand and put to non affiliate companies. However, Company supply un-efficient debt policy which can impact its current evaluation and worsen it to the individual A grade.

Bibliography List

Brealey R.A. , Myers S.C. ( 2000 ) . Principles of Corporate Finance. Sixth Edition. New-York: McGraw-Hill international edition. ( Ch. 17,18, 23,24 ) .

Fridson M.S. ( 1995 ) . Fiscal statement analysis. A practician ‘s usher. Second Edition. Canada: John Wiley & A ; Sons. ( Ch. 6 ) .

McKenzie W. ( 1998 ) . Unlocking company studies and histories. London: Fiscal times/Pitman publication. ( Ch.6 )

Arnold G. ( 1998 ) . Corporate fiscal direction. London: Financial times, Prentice Hall. ( Ch. 11 )

Bromwich M. ( 1992 ) . Financial describing information and capital markets. London: Pitman publication. ( Ch. 5,6,7 )

Pr. Penman S.H. ( 2007 ) . Fiscal statement analysis and security rating. Third Edition. New-York: McGraw-Hill international edition ( Ch. 7,9,10,11,12,19 )